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THE HARVARD ORIENTAL SERIES 

VOLUME TWE^fTY-NINE 



HARVARD ORIENTAL SERIES 

EDITED 
WITH THE COOPERATION OF VARIOUS SCHOLARS 

BY 

CHARLES ROCKWELL LANMAN 

Professor at Harvard University; Honorary Fellow of the Asiatic Society of 

Bengal, of France, of England, and of Germany; Corresponding Member of the 

Society of Sciences at Gottingen, the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the 

Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres of the Institute of France 



Volume (E^toentj>=i^me 



CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 
1921 



LSansk 

BUDDHIST LEGENDS 

©ranslateb from tift original ^ali text of tfie 

DHAMMAPADA COMMENTARY 
BY 

EUGENE WATSON BURLINGAME 

Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; sometime 

Harrison Fellow for Research, University of Pennsylvania, and 

Johnston Scholar in Sanskrit, Johns Hopkins University; 

Lecturer on Pali (1917-1918) in Yale University 



¥ 



PART 2: Translation of Books 3 to 12 



CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS \ 

1921 




Volumes 28 and 29 and 30, first issue : 1000 copies each 
Copyright, 1921, by the Harvard University Press 




Composed on the monotype, and printed from electrotype plates, by 
The University Press : John Wilson & Son, Incorporated, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 



BOOK III. THOUGHTS, CITTA VAGGA 

HI. 1. ELDER MEGHIYA ^ 

Thoughts, unsteady, fickle. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he resided on Calika mountain with reference 
to Venerable Meghiya. (For the story of this Elder, the entire Meghiya 
Suttanta should be related in detail.) ^ [287] 

Once upon a time, by reason of attachment to the Three Evil 
Thoughts, Lust, Hatred, Delusion, Elder Meghiya was unable to 
practice Exertion in this mango-grove and returned to the Teacher. 
The Teacher addressed him as follows, "Meghiya, you committed 
a grievous fault. I asked you to remain, saying to you, *I am now 
alone, Meghiya. Just wait until some other monk appears.' But 
despite my request, you went your way. A monk should never leave 
me alone and go his way when I ask him to remain. A monk should 
never be controlled thus by his thoughts. As for thoughts, they are 
flighty, and a man ought always to keep them under his own control." 
So saying, the Teacher pronounced the two following Stanzas, 

33. Thoughts, unsteady, fickle, diflScult to guard, diflBcult to control, 
A wise man makes straight, even as a fletcher his arrow. 

34. Like a fish thrown up on dry land from his watery home. 

These thoughts Writhe and quiver in their efforts to shake off the power of 
Mara. [289] 

At the conclusion of the Stanzas Elder Meghiya was established in 
the Fruit of Conversion and many others in the Fruits of the Second and 
Third Paths. 

m. 2. THE MIND-READER 3 

Thoughts are unruly and flighty. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Savatthi with 
reference to a certain monk. [290] 

1 Cf. Thera-Gaihd Commentary, Ixvi. Text: N i. 287-289. 

* Anguttara, iv. 354-358. Cf . also Uddna, iv. 1 : 34-37. 

3 Cf. Hardy's Manual of Buddhism, pp. 287-290. Text: N i. 290-297. ' 



2 Book 3, Story 2, Dhammapada 35 [N.i.2904- 

In the country of the king of the Kosalans, it appears, at the foot 
of a mountain, was a certain thickly settled village named Matika. 
Now one day sixty monks who had received from the Teacher a 
Subject of Meditation leading to Arahatship came to this village and 
entered it for alms. Now the headman of this village was a man 
named Matika. When Matika's mother saw the monks, she provided 
them with seats, served them with rice-porridge flavored with all 
manner of choice flavors, and asked them, "Reverend Sirs, where do 
you desire to go?'' "To some pleasant place, great lay disciple." 
Knowing that the monks were seeking a place of residence for the sea- 
son of the rains, she flung herself at their feet and said to them, "If 
the noble monks will reside here during these three months, I will 
take upon myseK the Three Refuges and the Five Precepts and will 
perform Fast-day duties." The monks consented, thinking to them- 
selves, "With her assistance we shall be free from anxiety on the score 
of food and shall be able to effect Escape from Existence." 

Matika's mother superintended the erection of a monastery to 
serve as their place of residence, presented it to them, and the monks 
took up their residence there. On a certain day they met together 
and admonished each other as follows, "Brethren, it behooves us not 
to live the life of Heedlessness, for before us stand the Eight Great 
Hells with gates wide open, even as our own houses. Now we have 
come hither thus, having received a Subject of Meditation from the 
living Buddha. And the favor of the Buddhas cannot be won by a 
deceitful person, even though he walk in their very footsteps. Only 
by doing the will of the Buddhas can their favor be won. Therefore 
be Heedful. Two monks may neither stand nor sit in any one place. 
In the evening we shall meet together to wait upon the Elder, and 
early in the morning we shall meet together when it is time to go the 
rounds for alms. At other times two of us must never be together. 
If, however, a monk be taken sick, [291] let him come to the monastery 
court and strike a bell. At the signal given by the stroke on the bell, 
we will come together and provide a remedy for him." Having made 
this agreement, they entered upon residence. 

One day, while the monks were in residence, that female lay disciple 
took ghee, molasses, and other kinds of food and at eventide, accom- 
panied by a retinue of slaves and servants, went to the monastery. 
Seeing no monks, she asked some men, "Where have the noble monks 
gone?" "My lady, they must be sitting in their own respective night- 
quarters and day-quarters." "What must I do in order to see them?" 



I 



N. 1.29213] The mind-reader 3 

Men who knew about the agreement made by the Congregation of 
Monks said, "If you strike the bell, my lady, they will assemble." So 
she struck the bell. When the monks heard the sound of the bell, they 
thought to themselves, "Someone must be sick." And coming forth 
from their several quarters, they assembled in the monastery court. 
No two monks came by the same path. 

When the female lay disciple saw them approach one at a time, each 
from his own quarters, she thought to herself, "My sons must have 
had a quarrel with each other." So, after paying obeisance to the 
Congregation of Monks, she asked them, "Have you had a quarrel. 
Reverend Sirs.?" "No indeed, great lay disciple." "If, Reverend 
Sirs, there is no quarrel among you, how is it that, whereas in coming 
to our house you came all together, to-day you do not approach in 
this manner, but instead approach one at a time, each from his own 
quarters.?" "Great lay disciple, we were sitting each in his own cell, 
engaged in the practice of meditation." "What do you mean. Rever- 
end Sirs, by this expression, * practice of meditation'.?" "We rehearse 
the Thirty-two Constituent Parts of the Body, and thus obtain a clear 
conception of the decay and death inherent in the body, great lay 
disciple." "But, Reverend Sirs, are you alone permitted to rehearse 
the Thirty-two Constituent Parts of the Body, and thus obtain a clear 
conception of the decay and death inherent in the body; or are we 
also permitted to do this.?" [292] "This practice is forbidden to none, 
great lay disciple." "Well then, teach me also the Thirty- two Con- 
stituent Parts of the Body and show me how to obtain a clear concep- 
tion of the decay and death inherent in the body." "Very well, lay 
disciple," said the monks, "learn them." So saying, they taught her 
all. She began at once to rehearse the Thirty-two Cpnstituent Parts 
of the Body, striving thereby to obtain for herself a clear conception 
of the decay and death inherent in the body. So successful was she 
that even in advance of those monks she attained the Three Paths 
and the Three Fruits, and by the same Paths won the Four Super- 
natural Powers and the Higher Faculties. 

Arising from the bliss of the Paths and the Fruits, she looked with 
Supernatural Vision and considered within herself, "At what time did 
my sons attain this state.?" Immediately she became aware of the 
following, "All these monks are still in the bondage of Lust, Hatred, 
Delusion. They have not yet, by the practice of Ecstatic Meditation, 
induced Spiritual Insight." Then she pondered, "Do my sons possess 
the dispositions requisite for the attainment of Arahatship or do they 



4 Book 3, Story 2, Dhammaj)ada 35 [N. 1.29213- 

not?" She perceived, "They do." Then she pondered, "Do they pos- 
sess suitable lodgings or do they not.^" Immediately she perceived 
that they did. Then she pondered, "Have they proper companions 
or have they not.^^" Immediately she perceived that they had. Finally 
she pondered the question, "Do they receive proper food or do they 
not?" She perceived, "They do not receive proper food." 

From that time on she provided them with various kinds of rice- 
porridge and with all manner of hard food and with soft food flavored 
with various choice flavors. And seating the monks in her house, she 
offered them Water of Donation and presented the food to them, say- 
ing, "Reverend Sirs, take and eat whatever you desire." As the result 
of the wholesome food they received, their minds became tranquil; 
and as the result of tranquillity of mind, they developed Spiritual 
Insight and attained Arahatship, together with the Supernatural 
Powers. Then the thought occurred to them, "The great female lay 
disciple has indeed been our support. Had we not received wholesome 
food, we should never have attained the Paths and the Fruits. As 
soon as we have completed our residence and celebrated the Terminal 
Festival, [293] let us go visit the Teacher." Accordingly they took 
leave of the great female lay disciple, saying, "Lay disciple, we desire 
to see the Teacher." "Very well, noble sirs," said she. So she accom- 
panied them on their journey a little way, and then, saying, "Look in 
on us again. Reverend Sirs," and many other pleasant words, she 
returned to her house. 

Whep those monks arrived at Savatthi, they paid obeisance to the 
Teacher and sat down respectfully on one side. The Teacher said to 
them, "Monks, you have evidently fared well, had plenty to eat, and 
not been troubled on the score of food." The monks replied, " We have 
indeed fared well. Reverend Sir, had plenty to eat, and by no means 
been troubled on the score of food. For a certain female lay disciple, 
the Mother of Matika, knew the course of our thoughts, insomuch 
that the moment we thought, *0h that she would prepare such and 
such food for us !' she prepared the very food we thought of and gave 
to us." Thus did they recite her praises. 

A certain monk, who heard his brethren praise the virtues of their 
hostess, conceived a desire to go there. So obtaining a Subject of 
Meditation from the Teacher, he took leave of the Teacher, saying, 
"Reverend Sir, I intend to go to that village." And departing from 
Jetavana, he arrived in due course at that village and entered the 
monastery. On the very day he entered the monastery he thought 



-N. 1.29421] The mind-reader 5 

to himself, "I have heard it said that this female lay disciple knows 
every thought that passes through the mind of another. Now I have 
been wearied by my journey and shall not be able to sweep the mon- 
astery. Oh that she would send a man to make ready the monastery 
for me!" The female lay disciple, sitting in her house, pondering 
within herself, became aware of this fact and sent a man thither, 
saying to him, "Go make ready the monastery and turn it over to 
him." The man went and swept the monastery and turned it over 
to him. Then the monk, desiring to have water to drink, thought to 
himself, * ' Oh that she would send me some sweetened water ! ' ' Straight- 
way the female lay disciple sent it. On the following day, early in the 
morning, he thought to himself, "Let her send me rice-porridge with 
plenty of butter, together with some dainty bits." The female lay 
disciple straightway did so. [294] After he had finished drinking the 
porridge, he thought to himself, "Oh that she would send me such 
and such hard food!" The female lay disciple straightway sent this 
also to him. 

Then he thought to himself, "This female lay disciple has sent me 
every single thing I have thought of. I should like to see her. Oh 
that she would come to me in person, bringing with her soft food 
seasoned with various choice seasonings!" The female lay disciple 
thought to herself, "My son wishes to see me, desires me to go to 
him." So procuring soft food, she went to the monastery and gave 
it to him. When he had eaten his meal, he asked her, "Lay disciple, 
your name is Mother of Matika.?" "Yes, dear son." "You know the 
thoughts of another.?" "Why do you ask me, dear son.?" "You 
have done for me every single thing I have thought of; that is why I 
ask you." "Many are the monks who know the thoughts of another, 
dear son." "I am not asking anyone else; I am asking you, lay dis- 
ciple." Even under these circumstances the female lay disciple avoided 
saying, "I know the thoughts of another," and said instead, "Those 
who know not the thoughts of another do thus, my son." 

Thereupon the monk thought to himself, "I am in a most embar- 
rassing position. They that are unconverted entertain both noble 
and ignoble thoughts. Were I to entertain a single sinful thought, 
she would doubtless seize me by the topknot, bag and baggage, as 
she would seize a thief, and do me harm. Therefore I had best run 
away from here." So he said to the female lay disciple, "Lay disciple, 
I intend to go away." "Where are you going, noble sir.?" "To the 
Teacher, lay disciple." "Reside here for a while. Reverend Sir." 



6 Booh 3, Story 2, Dhammapada 35 [N. 1.29421- 

"I can no longer reside here, lay disciple. I must positively go away." 
With these words he departed and went to the Teacher. 

The Teacher asked him, "Monk, are you no longer residing there.^^" 
"No, Reverend Sir, I cannot reside there any longer." "For what 
reason, monk.'^" "Reverend Sir, that female lay disciple knows every 
single thought that passes through my mind. It occurred to me, 
'They that are unconverted entertain both noble and ignoble thoughts. 
Were I to entertain a single sinful thought, she would doubtless seize 
me by the topknot, bag and baggage, as she would seize a thief, and do 
me harm.' That is why I have returned." "Monk, that is the very 
place where you ought to reside." [295] "I cannot. Reverend Sir, 
I will not reside there any longer." "Well then, monk, can you guard 
just one thing .f^" "What do you mean. Reverend Sir.^^" "Guard 
your thoughts alone, for thoughts are hard to guard. Restrain your 
thoughts alone. Do not concern yourself with aught else, for thoughts 
are unruly." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

35. Thoughts are unruly and flighty, and flit and flutter wherever they list. 

It is a good thing to tame the thoughts ; tamed thoughts bring happiness. [296] 

When the Teacher had admonished that monk, he dismissed him, 
saying, " Go, monk, concern yourself with nothing else. Resume resi- 
dence in that same place." And that monk, after being admonished 
by the Teacher, went to that same place and concerned himself with 
nothing other than his thoughts. The great female lay disciple looked 
with Supernatural Vision. Seeing the Elder, she determined by her 
own knowledge alone the following fact, "My son has now gained a 
Teacher who gives admonition and has returned once more." And 
forthwith she prepared wholesome food and gave it to him. Once 
having received wholesome food, in but a few days the Elder attained 
Arahatship. 

As the Elder passed his days in the enjoyment of the bliss of the 
Paths and the Fruits, he thought to himself, "The great female lay 
disciple has indeed been a support to me. By her assistance I have 
gained Release from Existence." And he considered within himself, 
"Has she been a support to me in my present state of existence only, 
or has she been a support to me in other states of existence also, as I 
have passed from one state of existence to another in the round of 
existences.^" With this thought in mind he recalled a hundred states 
of existence less one. Now in a hundred states of existence less one 
that female lay disciple had been his wife, and her affections had been 



-N.1.29718] The mind-reader 7 

set on other men, and she had caused him to be deprived of life. When, 
therefore, the Elder beheld the huge pile of demerit she had accumu- 
lated, he thought to himself, "Oh, what wicked deeds this female lay 
disciple has committed!" 

The great female lay disciple also sat in her house, considering 
within herself the following thought, "Has my son reached the goal of 
the religious life?" Perceiving that he had attained Arahatship, she 
continued her reflections as follows, "When my son attained Arahat- 
ship, he thought to himself, 'This female lay disciple has indeed been 
a powerful support to me.' Then he considered within himself, 'Has 
she been a support to me in previous states of existence also or has she 
nol?' With this thought in mind he recalled a hundred states of 
existence less one. Now in a hundred states of existence less one I 
conspired with other men and deprived him of life. [297] When, 
therefore, he beheld the huge pile of demerit I thus accumulated, he 
thought to himself, 'Oh, what wicked deeds this female lay disciple 
has committed!' Is it not possible that, as I have passed from one 
state of existence to another in the round of existences, I have rendered 
assistance to him.?" 

Considering the matter further, she called up before her mind her 
hundredth state of existence and became aware of the following, "In 
my hundredth state of existence I was his wife. On a certain occasion, 
when I might have deprived him of life, I spared his life. I have 
indeed rendered great assistance to my son." And still remaining 
seated in her house, she said, "Discern further and consider the 
matter." By the power of Supernatural Audition the monk immedi- 
ately heard what she said. Discerning further, he called up before his 
mind his hundredth state of existence and perceived that in that 
state of existence she had spared his life. Filled with joy, he thought 
to himself, "This female lay disciple has indeed rendered great assist- 
ance to me." Then and there, reciting the questions relating to the 
Four Paths and Fruits, he passed into that form of Nibbana in which 
no trace of the Elements of Being remains. 



8 Book 3, Story 3. Dhammapada 36 [N.i.297i5- 



III. 3. A DISCONTENTED MONK ^ 

Thoughts are exceedingly hard to see. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to a certain discontented monk. 

We are told that while the Teacher was in residence at Savatthi, a 
certain treasurer's son approached an Elder who resorted to his house 
for alms and said to him, "Reverend Sir, I desire to obtain Release 
from Suffering. Tell me some way by which I can obtain Release 
from Suffering." [298] The Elder replied, "Peace be unto you, 
brother. If you desire Release from Suffering, give ticket-food, give 
fortnightly food, give lodging during the season of the rains, give 
bowls and robes and the other Requisites. Divide your possessions 
into three parts: with one portion carry on your business; with 
another portion support son and wife; dispense the third portion in 
alms in the Religion of the Buddha." 

"Very well. Reverend Sir," said the treasurer's son, and did all in 
the prescribed order. Having done all, he returned to the Elder and 
asked him, "Reverend Sir, is there anything else I ought to do.^^" 
"Brother, take upon yourself the Three Refuges and the Five Pre- 
cepts." The treasurer's son did so, and then asked whether there 
was anything else he ought to do. "Yes," replied the Elder, "take 
upon yourself the Ten Precepts." "Very well, Reverend Sir," said 
the treasurer's son, and took upon himself the Ten Precepts. Because 
the treasurer's son had in this manner performed works of merit, 
one after another (anupubbena), he came to be called Anupubba. 
Again he asked the Elder, "Reverend Sir, is there anything else I 
ought to do.?" The Elder replied, "Yes, become a monk." The 
treasurer's son immediately retired from the world and became a 
monk. 

Now he had a teacher who was versed in the Abhidhamma and a 
preceptor who was versed in the Vinaya. After he had made his full 
profession, whenever he approached his teacher, the latter repeated 
questions found in the Abhidhamma, "In the Religion of the Buddha 
it is lawful to do this, it is unlawful to do that." And whenever he 
approached his preceptor, the latter repeated questions found in the 
Vinaya, "In the Religion of the Buddha it is lawful to do this, it is 

» Text: N i. 297-300. 



-N. 1.29926] A discontented monk 9 

unlawful to do that; this is proper, this is improper." After a time 
he thought to himself, "Oh, what a wearisome task this is! I became 
a monk in order to obtain Release from Suffering, but here there is 
not even room for me to stretch out my hands. [299] It is possible, 
however, to obtain Release from Suffering, even if one live the house- 
life. I had best become a householder once more." 

From that time forth, discontented and dissatisfied, he rehearsed 
the Thirty-two Constituent Parts of the Body no more and received 
instruction no more. He became emaciated, his skin shriveled up, 
veins stood out all over his body, weariness oppressed him, and his 
body was covered with scabs. The probationers and novices asked 
him, "Brother, how is it that wherever you stand, wherever you sit, 
you are sick of the jaundice, emaciated, shriveled up, your body covered 
with scabs.? What have you done.?" "Brethren, I am discontented." 
"Why.?" He told them his story, and they told his teacher and his 
preceptor, and his teacher and his preceptor took him with them to 
the Teacher. 

Said the Teacher, "Monks, why have you come?" "Reverend 
Sir, this monk is dissatisfied in your Religion." "Monk, is what they 
say true.?" "Yes, Reverend Sir." "Why are you dissatisfied.?" 
"Reverend Sir, I became a monk in order to obtain Release from 
Suffering. My teacher has recited passages from the Abhidhamma, and 
my preceptor has recited passages from the Vinaya. Reverend Sir, I 
have come to the following conclusion, * Here there is not even room for 
me to stretch out my hands. It is possible for me to obtain Release 
from Suffering as a householder. I will therefore become a house- 
holder.' " "Monk, if you can guard one thing, it will not be necessary 
for you to guard the rest." "What is that, Reverend Sir.?" "Can 
you guard your thoughts.?" "I can. Reverend Sir." "Well then, 
guard your thoughts alone." Having given this admonition, the 
Teacher pronounced the following Stanza, 

36. Thoughts are exceedingly hard to see, exceedingly subtle, and flit and flutter 
wherever they list. 
A wise man should guard his thoughts; guarded thoughts bring happiness. 



10 Book S, Story ^. Dhammapada 37 [N.i.soois- 



III. 4. NEPHEW SANGHARAKKHITA 1 

Thoughts wander afar. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Savatthi with reference to 
Sangharakkhita. [300] 

The story goes that a certain youth of respectable family living at 
Savatthi, after hearing a sermon of the Teacher, retired from the world, 
was received into the Order, made his full profession, and in but a few 
days attained Arahatship. He was known as Elder Sangharakkhita. 
[301] When his youngest sister gave birth to a son, she named him 
after the Elder, and thus he came to be known as Nephew Sangharak- 
khita. When Nephew Sangharakkhita came of age, he entered the 
Order under the Elder, and after making his full profession, entered 
upon residence for the period of the rains at a certain village monas- 
tery. Receiving two sets of robes such as are worn by monks during 
the period of the rains, one seven cubits long, the other eight cubits 
long, he decided to present the robe eight cubits long to his preceptor 
and to keep the robe seven cubits long for himself. When he had 
completed residence, he set out for the purpose of seeing his preceptor 
and journeyed from place to place, receiving alms by the way. 

He arrived at the monastery before the Elder arrived. Entering 
the monastery, he swept the Elder's day-quarters, set out water for 
bathing the feet, prepared a seat, and then sat down, watching the 
road by which the Elder would approach. When he saw the Elder 
approach, he advanced to meet him, took his bowl and robe, seated 
the Elder with the words, "Pray be seated. Reverend Sir," took a 
palm-leaf fan and fanned him, gave him water to drink, and bathed 
his feet. Finally he brought forth the robe, laid it at the Elder's feet, 
and said, "Reverend Sir, pray wear this robe." Having so done, he 
resumed fanning him. Said the Elder to the nephew, " Sangharakkhita, 
I have a complete set of robes; you wear this robe yourself." "Rev- 
erend Sir, from the moment I received this robe I set my heart on 
giving it to you alone. Pray make use of it." "Never mind, Sangha- 
rakkhita, my set of robes is complete; you wear this robe yourself." 
"Reverend Sir, pray do not refuse the robe, for if you wear it, great 
will be the fruit I shall receive thereby." 

Although the younger monk repeated his request several times, 

1 Text: N i. 300-305. 



-N. 1.3037] Nephew Sangharakkhita 11 

[302] the Elder refused to accept the present of the robe. So, as the 
younger monlc stood there fanning the Elder, he thought to himself, 
"While the Elder was a layman, I stood in the relation of nephew to 
him. Since he has been a monk, I have been his fellow-resident. But 
in spite of this he is not willing as my preceptor to share my possessions. 
If he is not willing to share my possessions with me, why should I 
longer remain a monk.'^ I will become a householder once more." 
Then the following thought occurred to him, "It is a hard thing to 
live the house-life. Suppose I become a householder once more; 
how shall I gain a living .f^" Finally the following thought occurred 
to him,^ 

"I will sell this robe eight cubits long and buy me a she-goat. 
Now she-goats are very prolific, and as fast as the she-goat brings 
forth young, I will sell them, and in this way accumulate some capital. 
As soon as I have accumulated some capital, I will fetch me a wife. 
My wife will bear me a son, and I will name him after my uncle. I 
will put my son in a go-cart, and taking son and wife with me, will 
go to pay my respects to my uncle. As I journey by the way, I will 
say to my wife, 'Just bring me my son; I wish to carry him.' She 
will reply, * Why should you carry this boy.^^ Come, push this go-cart.' 
So saying, she will take the boy in her arms, thinking to herself, *I 
will carry him myself.' But lacking the necessary strength to carry 
him, she will let him fall in the path of the wheels, and the go-cart 
will run over him. Then I will say to her, 'You would not even give 
me my own son to carry, although you were not strong enough to 
carry him yourself. You have ruined me.' So saying, I will bring 
down my stick on her back." 

Thus pondered the younger monk [303] as he stood fanning the 
Elder. As he concluded his reflections, he swung his palm-leaf fan 
and brought it down on the head of the Elder. The Elder considered 
within himself, "Why did Sangharakkhita strike me on the head.'^" 
Immediately becoming aware of every single thought that had passed 
through the mind of his nephew, he said to him, "Sangharakkhita, 
you did not succeed in hitting the woman; but what has an old 
Elder done to deserve a beating.?" The younger monk thought to 
himself, "Oh, I am ruined! My preceptor, it appears, knows every 
thought that has passed through my mind. What have I to do with 
the life of a monk any longer.?" Straightway he threw his fan away 

^ Cf. Panchatantra: Purnabhadra's recension, v. vii; Tantrakhydyika, v. i. 



12 Book 3y Story ^, Dhammapada 87 [N.l.soss- 

and started to run off. But the probationers and novices ran after 
him, caught him, and led him to the Teacher. 

When the Teacher saw those monks, he asked them, "Monks, why 
have you come here.^ Have you captured a monk.^" "Yes, Reverend 
Sir. This probationer became discontented and ran away, but we 
captured him and have brought him to you." "Monk, is what they 
say true.?" "Yes, Reverend Sir." "Monk, why did you commit so 
grievous a fault.? Are you not the son of a Buddha the powers of 
whose will are ever active.? And once having retired from the world 
in the Religion of a Buddha like me, though you failed through self- 
conquest to win for yourself the title of one who has attained the 
Fruit of Conversion or the Fruit of the Second Path or the Fruit of 
the Third Path or Arahatship, yet for all that, why did you commit 
so grievous a fault as this.?" 

" I am discontented. Reverend Sir." " Why are you discontented?" 
In reply the younger monk related the whole story of his experiences, 
from the day he received the robes worn by monks in residence to the 
moment when he struck the Elder on the head with his palm-leaf fan. 
"Reverend Sir," said he, "that is why I ran away." [304] Said the 
Teacher, "Come, monk; be not disturbed. The mind has a way of 
dwelling on subjects that are far off. One should strive to free it 
from the bonds of Lust, Hatred, and Delusion." So saying, he pro- 
nounced the following Stanza, 

37. Thoughts wander afar, wander alone, are bodiless, seek a hiding place; 
Whoso restrain their thoughts will obtain release from the bond of Mara. 



III. 5. ELDER THOUGHT-CONTROLLED 1 

He whose heart abides not steadfast. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Savatthi with 
reference to Elder Thought-controlled, Cittahattha. [305] 

The story goes that a certain youth of respectable family, living 
at Savatthi, went into the forest to look for an ox that was lost. When 
it was midday, he saw the ox and released the herds, and being op- 
pressed by hunger and thirst, thought to himself, "I can surely get 
something to eat from the noble monks." So he entered the monastery, 

^ This is a free version of Jdtaka 70: i. 311-315. The Jdtaka, however, quotes 
not Dhammapada 38, but Dhammapada 35. Text: N i. 305-313. 




-N. 1.30625] Elder Thought-controlled 13 



went to the monks, bowed to them, and stood respectfully on one 
side. Now at that time the food which remained over and above to 
the monks who had eaten lay in the vessel used for refuse. When 
the monks saw that youth, exhausted by hunger as he was, they said 
to him, "Here is food; take and eat it." (When a Buddha is living 
in the world, there is always a plentiful supply of rice-porridge, to- 
gether with various sauces and curries.) [306] So the youth took 
and ate as much food as he needed drank water, washed his hands, 
and then bowed to the monks and asked them, "Reverend Sirs, did 
you go to some house by invitation to-day?" "No, lay disciple; 
monks always receive food in this way." 

The youth thought to himself, "No matter how busy and active 
we may be, though we work continually both by night and by day, 
we never get rice-porridge so deliciously seasoned. But these monks, 
according to their own statement, eat it continually. Why should I 
remain a layman any longer.^* I will become a monk." Accordingly 
he approached the monks and asked to be received into the Order. 
The monks said to him, "Very well, lay disciple," and received him 
into the Order. After making his full profession, he performed all the 
various major and minor duties; and in but a few days, sharing in 
the rich offerings which accrue to the Buddhas, he became fat and 
well-liking. 

Then he thought to himself, "Why should I live on food obtained 
by making alms-pilgrimages.'^ I will become a layman once more." 
So back he went and entered his house. After working in his house 
for only a few days, his body languished. Thereupon he said to him- 
self, "Why should I endure this suffering any longer.? I will become a 
monk." So back he went and became a monk again. But after 
spending a few days as a monk, becoming discontented once more, 
off he went again. Now when he was a monk, he was a helper of the 
other monks. After a few days he became discontented again and said 
to himself, "Why should I live the life of a layman any longer.? I 
will become a monk." So saying, he went to the monks, bowed, and 
asked to be received into the Order. Because he had helped them, 
the monks received him into the Order once more. In this manner 
he entered the Order and left it again six times in succession. The 
monks said to themselves, "This man lives under the sway of his 
thoughts." So they gave him the name Thought-controlled, Elder 
Cittahattha. 

As he was thus going back and forth, his wife became pregnant. 



14 



Book 3, Story 5. Dhammapada 38-39 [N.i.307i- 



The seventh time [307] he returned from the forest with his farming 
implements he went to the house, put his implements away, and 
entered his own room, saying to himself, "I will put on my yellow robej 
again." Now his wife happened to be abed and asleep at the time. 
Her undergarment had fallen off, saliva was flowing from her mouth, 
she was snoring, her mouth was wide open; she appeared to him like 
a swollen corpse. Grasping the thought, "All that is in this world is 
transitory, is involved in suffering," he said to himself, "To think 
that because of her, all the time I have been a monk, I have been 
unable to continue steadfast in the monastic life !" Straightway taking 
his yellow robe by the hem, he ran out of the house, binding the robe 
about his belly as he ran. 

Now his mother-in-law lived in the same house with him. When 
she saw him departing in this wise, she said to herself, "This renegade, 
who but this moment returned from the forest, is running from the 
house, binding his yellow robe about him as he runs, and is making 
for the monastery. What does this mean.''" Entering the house and 
seeing her daughter asleep, she knew at once, "It was because he 
saw her asleep that he became disgusted and went away." So she 
shook her daughter and said to her, "Rise, hag. Your husband saw 
you asleep, became disgusted, and went away. You will have him 
no more for your husband henceforth." "Begone, mother. What 
matters it whether he has gone or not.'' He will be back again in but 
a few days." [308] 

As Cittahattha proceeded on his way, repeating the words, "All 
that is in this world is transitory, is involved in suffering," he obtained 
the Fruit of Conversion. Continuing his journey, he went to the 
monks, bowed to them, and asked to be received into the Order. 
"No," said the monks, "we cannot receive you into the Order. Why 
should you become a monk.'' Your head is like a grindstone." "Rev- 
erend Sirs, receive me into the Order just this once." Because he 
had helped them, they received him into the Order. After a few 
days he attained Arahatship, together with the Supernatural Faculties. 

Thereupon they said to him, "Brother Cittahattha, doubtless you 
alone will decide when it is time for you to go away again; you have 
tarried here a long while this time." "Reverend Sirs, when I was 
attached to the world, I went away; but now I have put away attach- 
ment to the world; I have no longer any desire to go away." The 
monks went to the Teacher and said, "Reverend Sir, we said such 
and such to this monk, and he said such and such to us in reply. He 



-N.1.3119] Elder Thought-controlled 15 

utters falsehood, says what is not true." The Teacher replied, "Yes, 
monks, when my son's mind was unsteady, when he knew not the 
Good Law, then he went and came. But now he has renounced both 
good and evil." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanzas, 

38. He whose heart abides not steadfast. 
He who knows not the Good Law, 
He whose faith flounders about, 
Such a man lacks perfect wisdom. 

39. He whose heart is unwetted by the rain of lust. 
He whose heart is unsinged by the fire of ill-will. 
He who has renounced both good and evil. 

He who is vigilant, — such a man has nothing to fear. [310] 

Now one day the monks began a discussion: "Brethren, grievous 
indeed are these evil passions of ours. So noble a youth as this, 
predestined to attain Arahatship, swayed by evil passions, became a 
monk seven times, and seven times returned to the world." The 
Teacher heard them discussing this matter, went at an opportune 
moment, entered the Hall of Truth, sat down in the Seat of the Buddha, 
and asked them, "Monks, what is it you are sitting here now talking 
about.f^" When they told him, he said, "It is precisely so, monks. 
The evil passions are indeed grievous. If they could take on material 
forms, so that they could be put away somewhere, a World would 
be too restricted for them and the Heaven of Brahma too low for 
them. There would not be room for them anywhere. They bewilder 
even one like me, possessed of wisdom, a being of noble birth. Who 
can describe their effect on others.'^ For in a previous state of exist- 
ence even I, all because of half a pint-pot of seed-beans [311] and a 
blunt spade, became a monk six times and returned to the world six 
times." "When did that happen, Reverend Sir .5^" "Do you wish 
to hear about it, monks.^" "Yes, Reverend Sir." "Well then, listen." 
So saying, the Teacher related the following 

5 a. Story of the Past: Kuddala and his spade 

Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta reigned at Benares, there 
dwelt at Benares a certain wise man named Spade Sage, Kuddala. 
He became a monk of an heretical Order and dwelt for eight months 
in the Himalaya country. One night during the season of the rains, 
when the ground was wet, he thought to himself, "I have in my house 
half a pint-pot of seed-beans and a blunt spade; my seed-beans 



16 Book S, Story 5. Dhammapada 38-39 [N.i.siio- 

must not be lost." So he returned to the world, tilled a certain plot 
of ground with his spade, planted that seed, and put a fence around 
it. When the beans were ripe, he pulled them up, and setting aside a 
pint-pot of beans for seed, he used the rest for food. Then he thought 
to himself, "Why should I live the life of a layman any longer.? I 
will reside in the Himalaya country for eight months more as a monk." 
So he departed from his house and became a monk once more. In this 
manner, all because of half a pint-pot of seed-beans and a blunt spade, 
he became a monk seven times, and seven times returned to the 
world. 

The seventh time he thought to himself, "Seven times I have re- 
turned to the world after becoming a monk, all because of this blunt 
spade. I will throw it away somewhere." So he went to the bank of 
the Ganges, carrying the pint-pot of seed-beans and the blunt spade 
with him. As he stood on the bank of the river, he thought to him- 
self, "If I see the spot where these things fall, I may be tempted to 
descend into the river and fish them out. Therefore I will take care 
to throw them in such a way that I shall not see where they fall." 
Accordingly he wrapped the pint-pot of seeds in a cloth, tied the 
cloth to the handle of the spade, and grasped the spade by the tip of 
the handle. And standing there on the bank of the Ganges, he closed 
his eyes, whirled the spade three times round over his head, [312] 
and flung it into the Ganges. Then he faced about so that he might 
not see where the spade fell and cried three times with a loud voice, 
"I have conquered! I have conquered!" 

Just at that moment the king of Benares, who had returned from 
suppressing disorder on his frontier and pitched camp on the bank 
of the river and descended into the stream to bathe, heard that cry. 
Now the cry, "I have conquered!" is a cry kings do not like to hear. 
The king of Benares therefore went to Cittahattha and said, "I 
have but just put my enemy under my feet and have returned with 
the thought in my mind, *I have conquered!' But you have just 
cried out, *I have conquered! I have conquered!' What do you mean 
by this.?" Said Spade Sage, "You have conquered bandits that are 
without. The victory you have won will have to be won again. But 
I have conquered an enemy that is within, the bandit of desire. He 
will never conquer me again. Victory over him is the only true vie-' 
tory," So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

That victory is no true victory which must be won again; 
That victory is true victory which need not be won again. 




-N.1.31316] Elder Thought-controlled 17 

At that moment, gazing upon the Ganges and meditating upon 
the element of water. Spade Sage acquired Specific Attainment, 
whereupon he rose from the ground and sat cross-legged in the air. 
The king after hearing the religious instruction of the Great Being, 
paid obeisance to him, requested him to receive him as a monk, and 
became a monk, together with his entire force; his retinue extended 
for a distance of a league. Another king who was his neighbor, hear- 
ing that he had become a monk, thought to himself, "I will seize 
his kingdom," and went thither, intending to do so. But when he 
saw that prosperous city empty, he thought to himself, "A king who 
would give up so beautiful a city to become a monk would certainly 
not become a monk to his own hindrance. I also ought to become a 
monk." Therefore he went to where the Great Being was, paid 
obeisance to him, requested him to receive him as a monk, and became 
a monk, together with his retinue. In like manner seven kings in all 
became monks; their hermitage was seven leagues long; [313] seven 
kings renounced their worldly possessions and became monks. Having 
won over all this numerous company, the Great Being lived the holy 
life and went to the Heaven of Brahma. End of Story of the Past. 

When the Teacher had finished this lesson, he said, "Monks, at that 
time I was Spade Sage. Learn from this story how grievous the evil 
passions are." 

III. 6. MONKS AND TREE-SPIRITS ^ 

Realizing that this body is fragile as a jar. This religious instruc- 
tion was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Savatthi 
with reference to some monks who attained Insight. 

At Savatthi, we are told, five hundred monks obtained from the 
Teacher a Subject of Meditation leading to Arahatship, and with the 
intention of devoting themselves to the practice of meditation, went 
a hundred leagues to a large village. When the inhabitants of the 
village saw them, they provided them with seats, served them with 
choice rice-porridge and other kinds of food, and asked them, "Rever- 
end Sirs, where are you going?" The monks replied, "To some pleasant 
place." Then said the inhabitants of the village, "Reverend Sirs, 

1 For a similar story, see Khuddaka Pdtha Cmnrnentary, ^^-^5^^ 25125-25220. 
Kh. cm. is much longer and more detailed. The author of Kh. cm., after giving his 
own version of the Buddha's final instructions to the monks, says Apare pan' ahu, 
and then proceeds to give an entirely different account. Text: N i. 313-318. 



18 Book 3, Story 6. Dhammapada J^O [N.i.siSie- 

reside right here during these three months. Under your direction 
we will abide steadfast in the Refuges and will keep the Precepts." 
The villagers, having obtained the consent of the monks, said, "Rever- 
end Sirs, there is a large forest-grove not far from this place. Take up 
your residence there." So saying, the villagers dismissed the monks, 
and the monks entered the forest. 

Thereupon virtuous spirits dwelling in that forest-grove thought, 
"A company of monks [314] have come to this forest-grove. If, 
however, these monks dwell in this forest-grove, it will be improper for 
us longer to take son and wife, climb the trees, and live here." Accord- 
ingly they came down from the trees, seated themselves on the ground, 
and reflected, "If the monks remain in this place to-night, they will 
surely leave to-morrow morning." But on the following day also 
the monks, after making their rounds for alms in the village, returned 
again to that same forest-grove. Thereupon the spirits thought to 
themselves, "Someone must have invited the company of monks for 
to-morrow, and for this reason they have returned. To-day they will 
not depart, but to-morrow they will surely depart." Reasoning in 
this way, they sat for a fortnight on the ground. 

Then they thought to themselves, "It is doubtless the intention 
of the monks to remain right here during these three months. But 
if they do remain here, it will be improper for us to take son and wife, 
climb the trees, and live here for three months. Moreover, it will 
greatly weary us to sit here on the ground. By what means can we 
best drive these monks away.^" Accordingly in the night-quarters, 
in the day-quarters, and at the ends of the cloisters the spirits caused 
the monks to see bodiless heads and headless trunks and to hear the 
voices of demons. At the same time the monks were afflicted with 
sneezing and coughing and suffered from many other ailments besides. 
They said to each other, "Brother, what ails you.^" "I am afflicted 
with sneezing. I am afflicted with coughing." "Brethren, to-day, at 
the end of the cloister, I saw a bodiless head. Brethren, in the night- 
quarters I saw a headless trunk. [315] Brethren, in the day-quarters 
I heard a demon's voice. We ought by all means to leave this place; 
this is an unpleasant place for us. Let us go to the Teacher." 

Accordingly they departed from the forest-grove, went in due 
course to the Teacher, paid obeisance to him, and sat down respect- 
fully on one side. Said the Teacher to them, " Monks, were you unable 
to dwell in that place .^" "Even so, Reverend Sir. While we dwelt 
there, such fearful objects as these presented themselves to our sight. 



w 

H -N. 1.31618] Monks and tree-spirits 19 

H The place was so unpleasant for us that we decided we must leave it. 

^m Therefore we have abandoned it and have returned to you." "Monks, 
to that very place you ought to return." "We cannot do so, Reverend 
Sir." "Monks, when you went there the first time, you went without 

I a weapon. Now you must take a weapon with you when you go." 
"What kind of weapon. Reverend Sir?" 
Said the Teacher, "I will give you a weapon, and the weapon which 
I give you you are to take with you when you go." Then he recited 
the entire Metta Sutta, beginning as follows, "This must he do who 
is skilled to seek his own spiritual good, once he has attained the 
Region of Tranquillity: he must be honest and upright and meek and 
mild and free from vaingloriousness." Having recited this Sutta, he 
said, "Monks, recite this Sutta from the forest-grove, without the 
hermitage, and then you may enter within the hermitage." With 
these instructions he dismissed them. 

They paid obeisance to the Teacher, started out, and in due course 
arrived at that forest-grove. Reciting the Sutta in unison without 
the hermitage, they entered the forest-grove. Thereupon the spirits 
residing throughout the forest-grove conceived friendly feelings in 
their hearts for the monks, came forth to meet them, asked the monks 
to let them take their bowls and robes, [316] offered to rub their hands 
and feet, posted strong guards on all sides, and sat down together with 
them. Not a demon's voice was heard. The hearts of those monks 
became tranquil. Sitting in their night-quarters and day-quarters 
they strove to attain Insight. Fixing in their minds the thought of 
the decay and death inherent in their bodies and reflecting upon the 
thought, "By reason of its fragile and unstable nature this body is 
like a potter's vessel," they developed Spiritual Insight. 

The Supremely Enlightened, even as he sat in the Perfumed 
Chamber, knowing that those monks had begun to develop Spiritual 
Insight, addressed them, "It is even so, monks. This body, by reason 
of its fragile and unstable nature, is precisely like a potter's vessel." 
So saying, he sent forth a luminous image of himself, and although a 
hundred leagues away, appearing to be seated face to face with them, 
present in visible form, diffusing six-colored rays of light, pronounced 
the following Stanza, 

40. Realizing that this body is fragile as a jar, establishing these thoughts as firm as 
a city, 
One should attack Mara with the weapon of wisdom; one should stand guard over 
Mara when he is defeated; one should never rest. 



20 Book 3, Story 7. Dhammapada J^l [N.i.3i9i- 



III. 7. CRUELTY A CAUSE OF BOILS ^ 

In no long time this body. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Savatthi with reference to 
Elder Putigatta Tissa. [319] 

A certain youth of station who lived at Savatthi heard the Teacher 
preach the Law, yielded the breast to religion, retired from the world, 
and after admission as a full member of the Order became known as 
Elder Tissa. As time went on, an eruption broke out on his body. At 
first appeared pustules no bigger than mustard-seeds, but as the 
disease progressed, they assumed successively the size of kidney-beans, 
chick-peas, jujube seeds, emblic myrobalans, and vilva fruits. Finally 
they burst open, and his whole body became covered with open sores. 
In this way he came to be called Elder Putigatta Tissa. After a time 
his bones began to disintegrate, and no one was willing to take care 
of him. His under and upper garments, which were stained with 
dried blood, looked like net-cakes. His fellow-residents, unable to 
care for him, cast him out, and he lay down on the ground without a 
protector. 

Now the Buddhas never fail to survey the world twice a day. At 
dawn they survey the world, looking from the rim of the world towards 
the Perfumed Chamber, taking cognizance of all they see. In the 
evening they survey the world, looking from the Perfumed Chamber 
and taking cognizance of all that is without. Now at this time the 
Elder Putigatta Tissa appeared within the net of the Exalted One's 
knowledge. The Teacher, knowing that the monk Tissa was ripe 
for Arahatship, thought to himself, "This monk has been abandoned 
by his associates; at the present time he has no other refuge than me." 
Accordingly the Teacher departed from the Perfumed Chamber, and 
pretending to be making the rounds of the monastery, went to the 
hall where the fire was kept. He washed the boiler, placed it on the 
brazier, waited in the fire-room for the water to boil, and when he 
knew it was hot, went [320] and took hold of the end of the bed where 
that monk was lying. 

At that time the monks said to the Teacher, "Pray depart. Rever- 
end Sir; we will carry him in for you." So saying, they took up the 
bed and carried Tissa into the fire-room. The Teacher caused a 

1 Text: N i. 319-322. 



-N. 1.3225] Cruelty a cause of boils 21 

measure to be brought and sprinkled hot water. He then caused 
the monks to take Tissa's upper garment, wash it thoroughly in hot 
water, and lay it in the sunshine to dry. Then he went, and taking 
his stand near Tissa, moistened his body with hot water and rubbed 
and bathed him. At the end of his bath his upper garment was dry. 
The Teacher caused him to be clothed in his upper garment and caused 
his under garment to be washed thoroughly in hot water and laid in 
the sun to dry. As soon as the water had evaporated from his body, 
his under garment was dry. Thereupon Tissa put on one of the 
yellow robes as an under garment and the other as an upper garment, 
and with body refreshed and mind tranquil lay down on the bed. The 
Teacher took his stand at Tissa's pillow and said to him, "Monk, 
consciousness will depart from you, your body will become useless 
and, like a log, will lie on the ground." So saying, he pronounced 
the following Stanza, 

41. In no long time this body will lie on the ground. 

Despised, with consciousness departed, like a useless log. [321] 

At the conclusion of the lesson Elder Putigatta Tissa attained 
Arahatship and passed into Nibbana. The Teacher performed the 
funeral rites over his body, and taking the relics, caused a shrine to be 
erected. 

The monks asked the Teacher, "Reverend Sir, where was Elder 
Putigatta Tissa reborn.^" "He has passed into Nibbana, monks." 
"Reverend Sir, how did it happen that such a monk, predestined to 
attain Arahatship, came to have a diseased body.^ Why did his bones 
disintegrate.'^ Through what deed in a former birth did he obtain 
the dispositions requisite for the attainment of Arahatship .f^" " Monks, 
all these things happened solely because of deeds he committed in a 
previous existence." "But, Reverend Sir, what did he do.^" "Well 
then, monks, listen." [322] 



7 a. Story of the Past: The cruel fowler 

In the dispensation of the Buddha Kassapa, Tissa was a fowler. 
He used to catch birds in large numbers, and most of these he served 
to royalty. Most of those he did not give to royalty he used to sell. 
Fearing that if he killed and kept the birds he did not sell, they would 
rot, and desiring to prevent his captive birds from taking flight, he 
used to break their leg-bones and wing-bones and lay them aside. 



22 Book 3, Story 8, Dhammapada J^2 [N.i.3226- 

piling them in a heap. On the following day he would sell them. When 
he had too many, he would have some cooked also for himself. 

One day, when well-flavored food had been cooked for him, a 
monk who was an Arahat stopped at the door of his house on his 
round for alms. When Tissa saw the Elder, he made his mind serene, 
and thought, "I have killed and eaten many living creatures. A 
noble Elder stands at my door, and an abundance of well-flavored 
food is in my house. I will therefore give him alms." So he took 
the monk's bowl and filled it, and having given him well-flavored 
food, saluted the monk with the Five Rests and said, "Reverend Sir, 
may I obtain the highest fruit of the Law you have seen." Said the 
Elder, returning thanks, "So be it." Monks, it was through the 
meritorious deed Tissa then did that this fruit accrued to him. It was 
because he broke the bones of birds that his members became diseased 
and his bones disintegrated. It was because he gave well-flavored 
food to the Arahat that he attained Arahatship. 



III. 8. NANDA THE HERDSMAN ^ 

Whatever a hater may do to a hater. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence in the Kosala country 
with reference to Nanda the herdsman. 

At Savatthi, we are told, the householder Anathapindika had a 
herdsman named Nanda [323] who tended his herd of cattle. Nanda 
was rich, possessed of abundant wealth, possessed of ample means of 
enjoyment. We are told that, as did Keniya the ascetic of the matted 
locks 2 by retiring from the world, so did Nanda by tending herds and 
by managing the king's revenue preserve his own wealth. Again 
and again Nanda, taking the five products of the cow, went to the 
house of Anathapindika, beheld the Teacher, listened to the Law, and 
invited the Teacher to come to his own residence. For some time the 
Teacher waited for Nanda's wisdom to ripen, and therefore refrained 
from going. But one day, making his round for alms, accompanied 
by a large company of monks, perceiving that his wisdom had ripened, 
he withdrew from the road and sat down under a certain tree near 
Nanda's place of abode. 

Nanda went to the Teacher, paid obeisance to him, greeted him in 

* Uddrm, iv. 3: 38-39. Text: N i. 322-325. 
2 See Digha Commentary, i. 270. 



-N. 1.32517] Nanda the herdsman 23 

a friendly manner, invited the Teacher to accept his hospitality, and 
for seven days gave the Congregation of Monks the choicest of the 
five products of the cow. On the seventh day the Teacher, returning 
thanks, delivered in orderly sequence the discourse on almsgiving and 
other discourses. At the conclusion of the discourse Nanda the 
herdsman was established in the Fruit of Conversion. Thereupon he 
took the bowl of the Teacher and accompanied him on his way for a 
considerable distance. Then said the Teacher, "Halt, disciple." 
Straightway Nanda obeyed the Teacher's command, paid obeisance to 
him, and turned back. 

At that moment a hunter shot an arrow and killed Nanda. The 
monks saw this as they were returning, and went and said to the 
Teacher, "Reverend Sir, because of your coming here, Nanda the 
herdsman gave abundant gifts, accompanied you on your journey, 
and was killed as he returned. Had you not come, his death would 
not have occurred." [324] The Teacher replied, "Monks, whether 
I had gone or not, whether Nanda had gone to the four cardinal points 
or to the four intermediate points, he could not possibly have escaped 
from death. For what neither thieves nor enemies do, this a corrupt 
mind attached to falsehood does to living creatures here in the world." 
So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

42. Whatever a hater may do to a hater, or an enemy to an enemy, 

Thoughts attached to falsehood will do a man yet more harm. [325] 

The monks, however, did not ask the Teacher what the disciple 
had done in a former birth, and therefore the Teacher said nothing 
about it. 



m. 9. MOTHER OF TWO AND FATHER OF TWO ^ 

Neither mother nor father could do this. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at the Jetavana 
in Savatthi with reference to the treasurer. Elder Soreyya. The story 
begins in the city of Soreyya and ends in the city of Savatthi. 

While the Supremely Enlightened was in residence at Savatthi, 
the following incident took place in the city of Soreyya: A treasurer's 
son named Soreyya, together with a certain intimate friend of his, 
sitting in a carriage, accompanied by a large retinue, drove out of 

1 Text: N i. 325-332. 



24 



Book 3, Story 9, Dhammapada J^S [N.i.325i7- 



the city to bathe. At that moment Elder Maha Kaccayana, intending 
to enter the city of Soreyya for alms, was putting on his mantle out- 
side of the city gate. When the treasurer's son Soreyya saw the 
golden-hued body of the Elder, he thought to himself, "Oh, that this 
Elder might become my wife! Else may the hue of my wife's body 
become like the hue of his body!" [326] 

The instant this thought passed through his mind Soreyya was 
transformed from a man into a woman. He descended from the 
carriage in embarrassment and took to flight. His attendants, not 
understanding what had taken place, said, "What does this mean.^ 
What does this mean.^^" Soreyya, thus transformed into a woman 
set out on the road to Takkasila. His carriage-companion searched 
everywhere for him, but failed to find him. When all the members 
of the party had bathed, they returned home. They were asked, 
"Where is the treasurer's son.?" They replied, "We supposed that, 
after bathing, he must have returned home." His mother and father 
searched everywhere for him, but failing to find him, wept and la- 
mented. And concluding that he must be dead, they gave the funeral 
feast. 

Soreyya, now a woman, seeing a caravan leader bound for Takka- 
sila, followed close behind his wagon. Members of the caravan 
noticed her and said, "She keeps following close behind our wagon, 
but we do not know whose daughter she is." Said she, "Masters, 
drive your own wagon. I will follow on foot." Having continued 
her journey on foot for a considerable distance, she bribed her masters 
with the present of a seal-ring to make room for her in a certain wagon. 
The men of the caravan thought to themselves, "Our treasurer's son, 
who lives in the city of Savatthi, has no wife. We will tell him about 
this woman, and he will give us a handsome present." So when they 
reached Takkasila, they went and said to him, "Master, we [327] 
have brought you a jewel of a woman." When the treasurer's 
son heard this, he sent for her. Observing that she suited his age 
and was exceedingly beautiful, he fell in love with her and married 
her. 

(For there are no men who have not, at some time or other, been 
women; and no women who have not, at some time or other, been 
men.^ For example, men who have sinned with the wives of other 
men are after death tormented in Hell for hundreds of thousands of 



544 



^ Cf. the amusing story of the maiden Ruja's seven previous existences in Jdtaka 
: vi. 236-240. 



-N. 1.32810] Mother of two and father of two 25 



p 

■ -N.l.S 

I years, and upon resuming human estate are reborn as women during 

™ a hundred successive states of existence. For even the Elder Ananda, 

who fulfilled the Perfections for a hundred thousand cycles of time and 

I was a Noble Disciple, reborn as a blacksmith in a certain state of 
existence, as he passed from one state of existence to another in the 
round of existences, sinned with the wife of another man. As a result 
he suffered torment in Hell, and thereafter, because the fruit of his 
evil deed was not yet exhausted, he was obliged to spend fourteen 
existences as the wife of another man, and seven existences in addition, 
before the effect of his evil deed was completely exhausted. On the 
^m other hand women, by bestowing alms and performing other works of 
merit, by putting away desire to continue in existence longer as women, 
by forming the resolution, "May this work of merit of ours avail to 
procure for us rebirth as men," obtain rebirth as men after death. 
Likewise wives who conduct themselves properly towards their hus- 
bands obtain rebirth as men. But this treasurer's son, having 
unwisely set his thought on the Elder, was in that very existence 
transformed into a woman.) 

So the son of the treasurer of Soreyya, transformed into a woman, 
was married to the son of the treasurer of Takkasila, and as a result 
of their living together, she conceived a child in her womb. When 
ten lunar months had elapsed, she gave birth to a son. When the latter 
was old enough to walk, she gave birth to a second son. Thus Soreyya, 
who was the father of two sons born in the city of Soreyya, became 
the mother of two more sons born in the city of Takkasila, making 
four sons in all. 

Just at this time the treasurer's son who was Soreyya's carriage- 
companion set out from the city of Soreyya with five hundred carts, 
and arriving at Takkasila, [328] entered town seated in his carriage. 
At that moment the woman Soreyya stood at an open window on the 
topmost floor of her palace, looking down into the street. As soon as 
she saw him, she recognized him, and sending a slave-woman to him, 
she summoned him within, provided a seat for him in the great hall 
of the palace, and bestowed upon him the usual attentions and honors. 
Said the guest to the host, "My lady, I never saw you before, but 
you have been exceedingly kind to me. Do you know who I am?" 
"Yes, my lord, I know perfectly who you are. Do you not reside in 
the city of Soreyya.?" "Yes, my lady." Thereupon his host inquired 
after the health of her mother and father and former wife and sons. 
**They are very well indeed," replied the visitor, and then queried, 



26 Booh S, Story 9. Dhammapada J^S [N. 1.32811- 

"Do you know them?" "Yes, my lord, I know them very well. And, 
my lord, they have a son. Where is he.^" 

"My lady, I beg you not to speak of him. One day, seated in a 
carriage together, we drove out of the city to bathe, and all of a sudden 
he disappeared. None of us know where he went or whatever became 
of him. We searched everywhere for him, but failed to find him. 
Finally we told his mother and father, whereupon they wept and 
lamented and performed the rites for the dead." "My lord, I am 
he." "Go away, my lady. What are you saying? He was an inti- 
mate friend of mine, he was like a celestial youth, he was a man." 
"Nevermind, my lord; I am he, all the same." " What is the explana- 
tion of this?" inquired her visitor. "Do you remember seeing the 
noble Elder Maha Kaccayana that day?" inquired his host. "Yes, 
I remember seeing him." "Well, [329] when I looked upon the 
noble Elder Maha Kaccayana, I thought to myseK, *0h, that this 
Elder might become my wife! Else may the hue of my wife's body 
become like the hue of his body!' The instant this thought parsed 
through my mind I was transformed from a man into a woman. Well, 
my lord, I was so embarrassed that I was unable to speak to anyone. 
Therefore I took to flight and came here." "Oh, it was very wrong for 
you to do what you did. Why did you not tell me? And did you beg 
the Elder's pardon?" "No, my lord, I did not beg his pardon. But 
do you know where the Elder is?" "He resides near this very city." 
"Were he to come here, my lord, I should like to give food in alms to 
my noble Elder." "Very well, make provision for him immediately. 
I will prevail upon our noble Elder to pardon you." 

So Soreyya's former carriage-companion went to the place where 
the Elder resided, paid obeisance to him, sat down respectfully on one 
side, and said to him, "Reverend Sir, pray receive alms from me 
to-morrow." The Elder replied, "Treasurer's son, are you not a 
visitor here?" "Reverend Sir, pray do not ask me whether I am a 
visitor or not. Receive alms from me to-morrow." The Elder accepted 
the invitation, and bounteous provisions were made ready for the 
Elder in the house. On the following day the Elder came and stood 
at the door of that house. The treasurer's son provided him with a 
seat and served him with choice food. Then, taking that woman, 
he caused her to prostrate herself before the Elder's feet and said, 
"Reverend Sir, pardon my friend." Said the Elder, "What does this 
mean?" Said the treasurer's son, "Reverend Sir, this woman used 
to be my dearest male friend. One day he looked upon you and 



-N. 1.38112] Mother of two and father of two 27 

thought this and that and was immediately transformed from a man 
into a woman. Pardon her, Reverend Sir." Said the Elder, "Very 
well, rise. I pardon you." [330] 

As soon as the Elder uttered the words "I pardon you," Soreyya 
was transformed from a woman into a man. As soon as she was 
transformed again into a man, the son of the treasurer of Takkasila 
said to her, "Good friend, since you are the mother of these two boys 
and I am their father, they are truly the sons of us both. Therefore 
we may continue to live here. Be not unhappy." Soreyya replied, 
"Friend, I have undergone two transformations in one state of exist- 
ence. First I was a man, then I was a woman, and now I have again 
become a man. First I became the father of two sons, and but recently 
I became the mother of two sons. Think not that, after having under- 
gone two transformations in one state of existence, I shall ever live 
the house-life again. I shall become a monk under my noble Elder. 
It is your duty to care for these two boys. Do not neglect them." 
So saying, Soreyya kissed the two boys and embraced them, and 
handing them over to their father, departed from the house and 
became a monk under the Elder. The Elder admitted Soreyya to the 
Order, received his full profession, and then, taking him with him, set 
out for Savatthi, and in due time arrived at that city. Thereafter 
he was known as Elder Soreyya. 

When the inhabitants of the country learned what had happened, 
they were much agitated and excited. And approaching the Elder 
Soreyya, [331] they asked him, "Reverend Sir, is this report true.?^" 
"Yes, brethren." "Reverend Sir, matters stand thus: you are said 
to be the mother of two sons and the father of two sons as well. For 
which pair of sons have you the stronger affection.?" "For the pair 
of which I am the mother." All those who came invariably asked the 
Elder the same question, and again and again the Elder returned the 
answer, "I have the stronger affection for the pair of sons of which I 
am the mother." 

Thereupon the Elder withdrew himself from the multitude: when 
he sat, he sat alone, and when he stood, he stood alone. Having 
thus sought solitude, he grasped firmly the thought of decay and 
death and attained Arahatship, together with the Supernatural 
Faculties. All those who came to see him asked the question, "Was 
that report true, Reverend S\t? Was that report true.?" "Yes, 
brethren." "For which pair of sons have you the stronger affection.?" 
"JMy affections are set on no one." 



28 



Book 3, Story 9. Dhammapada ^3 [N.1.33112- 



Said the monks to the Teacher, "This monk says what is not true. 
On former days he used to say, *I have the stronger affection for the 
pair of sons of which I am the mother.' Now, however, he says, 
*My affections are set on no one.' He utters falsehood, Reverend Sir." 
Said the Teacher, "Monks, my son does not utter falsehood. My 
son's mind has been rightly directed ever since the day when he beheld 
the Path. Neither a mother nor a father can confer the benefit which 
a well-directed mind alone confers on these living beings." So saying, 
he pronounced the following Stanza, [332] 

43. Neither mother nor father could do this, nor other relatives besides; 
Thoughts well-directed could do this far better. 



BOOK IV. FLOWERS, PUPPHA VAGGA 

IV. 1. THE SOIL OF THE HEART * 

Who shall overcome this earth? This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Savatthi with reference to 
five hundred monks who spent their time talking about the soil. [333] 

One evening, it appears, these monks returned to Jetavana after 
a journey through the country with the Teacher, and assembling in 
the Hall of State, began to talk about the various kinds of soil they 
had seen in going from one village to another, such as even and uneven, 
abounding in mud, abounding in gravel, black clay, red clay. The 
Teacher approached and asked them, "Monks, what is it that you are 
sitting here now talking about .^" "Reverend Sir," they replied, 
"we were talking about the different kinds of soil we saw in the places 
we visited." ** Monks," said the Teacher, "this is the outer soil. It 
behooves you rather to cleanse the inner soil of the heart." So saying, 
he pronounced the two following Stanzas, 

44. Who shall overcome this earth, and this World of Yama, and the World of the 

Gods? 
Who shall pluck the well-taught Words of Truth, even as a good man plucks a 
flower? [334] 

45. The disciple shall overcome this earth, and this World of Yama, and the World of 

the Gods. 
The disciple shall pluck the well-taught Words of Truth, even as a good man 
plucks a flower. 



IV. 2. A MONK ATTAINS ARAHATSHIP ^ 

He who knows that this body is like foam. This religious instruc- 
tion was given by the Teacher while in residence at Savatthi with 
reference to a certain monk who meditated on a mirage. [336] 

This monk, we are told, obtained a Subject of Meditation from the 
Teacher and entered the forest for the purpose of practicing meditation. 

1 Text: N i. 333-535. ^ Cf. story xiii. 3. Text: N i. 335-337. 



so Book 4, Story 2. Dhammapada ^6 [N. 1.3362- 

But when, after striving and struggling with might and main, he was 
unable to attain Arahatship, he said to himself, "I will ask the Teacher 
to give me a Subject of Meditation better suited to my needs." With 
this thought in mind he set out to return to the Teacher. 

On the way he saw a mirage. Said he to himself, "Even as this 
mirage seen in the season of the heat appears substantial to those 
that are far off, but vanishes on nearer approach, so also is this exist- 
ence unsubstantial by reason of birth and decay." And fixing his 
mind on the mirage, he exercised himself in meditation on the mirage. 
On his return, wearied with the journey, he bathed in the river Acira- 
vati and seated himself in the shade of a tree on the bank of the river 
near a waterfall. As he sat there watching great bubbles of foam 
rising and bursting, from the force of the water striking against 
the rocks, he said to himself, "Just so is this existence also pro- 
duced and just so does it burst." And this he took for his Subject 
of Meditation. 

The Teacher, seated in his Perfumed Chamber, saw the Elder 
and said, "Monk, it is even so. Like a bubble of foam or a mirage is 
this existence. Precisely thus is it produced and precisely thus does 
it pass away." And when he had thus spoken, he pronounced the 
following Stanza, 

46. He who knows that this body is like foam, he who clearly comprehends that it is 
of the nature of a mirage. 
Such a man will break the flower-tipped arrows of Mara and will go where the 
King of Death will not see him. [337] 

At the conclusion of the Stanza the Elder attained Arahatship, 
together with the Supernatural Faculties, and returned praising and 
glorifying the golden body of the Teacher. 



IV. 3. VIDtJDABHA WREAKS VENGEANCE ON 
THE SAKIYAS^ 

Even while a man is gathering flowers. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Savatthi with 
reference to Vidudabha and his retinue, who were overwhelmed by a 

^ The story of Vidudabha is the same story as that related in the Introduction 
to Jdtaka 465: iv. 144-153. Dh. cm., i. M&-S5T^, is almost word for word the same 
as Jdtakay iv. 1461^-15229. Cf. Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, pp. 290-294; also Rhys 
Davids, Buddhist India, p. 11. The embedded Story of the Past {Dh. cm., i. 34218-345^) 
is a free version of Jdtaka 346: iii. U2'^-U5^K Text: Ni. 337-361. 



~N. 1.33911 ] Vidudabha wreaks vengeance on the Sdkiyas 31 

mighty flood and swept away to death. From beginning to end the 
story is as follows : 

At Savatthi lived Prince Pasenadi, son of the king of the Kosalans; 
at Vesali, [338] Prince Mahali of the Licchavi line; at Kusinara, 
Prince Bandhula, son of the king of the Mallas. These three princes 
resorted to a world-renowned teacher at Takkasila for instruction. 
Happening to meet in a rest-house outside of the city, they asked 
each other's reasons for coming, families, and names, and became 
friends. All of them studied under the same teacher at the same 
time, and in no long time acquiring proficiency in the various arts, 
took leave of their teacher, departed together, and went to their re- 
spective homes. 

Prince Pasenadi so delighted his father with the exhibition he gave 
of proficiency in the various arts that his father sprinkled him king. 

Prince Mahali devoted himself to the task of educating the Licchavi 
princes, but over-exerting himself, lost the sight of his eyes. Said 
the Licchavi princes, "Alas! our teacher has lost the sight of his eyes. 
However, we will not cast him out, but will support him loyally." 
Accordingly they gave him a gate worth a hundred thousand pieces of 
money. Near this gate he lived, instructing the five hundred Licchavi 
princes in the various arts. 

As for Prince Bandhula, the princely families of the Mallas bound 
sticks of bamboo together in bundles of sixty each, rnserting a strip of 
iron in each bundle, suspended sixty bundles in the air, and challenged 
the prince to cut them down. The prince leaped eighty cubits into 
the air and smote them with his sword. [339] Hearing the click of 
iron in the last bundle, he asked, "What is that.^^" When he learned 
that a strip of iron had been placed in each of the bundles, he threw 
away his sword and burst into tears, saying, "Of all these kinsmen 
and friends of mine, not a single one thought enough of me to tell me 
this fact. For had I only known it, I should have cut the bundles 
without causing the iron to give forth a sound." And he said to his 
mother and father, "I will kill everyone of these princes and rule in 
their stead." They replied, "Son, the kingdom is handed down from 
father to son, and it will therefore be impossible for you to do this." 
By various devices they dissuaded him from carrying out his plan, 
whereupon he said, " Well then, I will go and live with a friend of mine," 
and forthwith went to Savatthi. 

King Pasenadi, hearing that he was coming, went forth to meet 



S2 Book ^, Story S. Dhammapada J^l [N. 1.33911- 

him, escorted him into the city with distinguished honors, and ap- 
pointed him commander-in-chief of his army. Bandhula sent for his 
mother and father and established his residence right there in the 
city of Savatthi. 

Now one day, as the king was standing on the terrace looking down 
into the street, he saw several thousand monks pass through the street 
on their way to breakfast in the houses of Anathapindika, Culla Ana- 
thapindika, Visakha, and Suppavasa. "Where are these reverend 
monks going?" Jie inquired. "Your majesty, every day two thousand 
monks go to the house of Anathapindika for food, medicine, and so 
forth; five hundred to the house of Culla Anathapindika; and a like 
number to the houses of Visakha and Suppadasa." The king also 
conceived a desire to minister to the Congregation of Monks, and 
going to the monastery, [340] invited the Teacher and his thousand 
monks to take their meals in his house. For seven days he presented 
alms to the Teacher, and on the seventh day paid obeisance to him 
and said, "Henceforth take your meals in my house regularly with 
five hundred monks." "Great king, the Buddhas never take their 
meals regularly in any one place; many desire the Buddhas to visit 
them." " Well then, send one monk regularly." The Teacher imposed 
the duty on the Elder Ananda. 

When the Congregation of Monks arrived, the king took their 
bowls and for seven days waited upon them in person, allowing no 
one else to perform that oflBce. On the eighth day he suffered from 
distraction of mind and neglected to perform his duty. The monks 
said to themselves, "In the house of a king no one may provide seats 
for the monks and wait upon them unless he is expressly ordered to do 
so. It will therefore be impossible for us to remain here any longer." 
Accordingly many departed. On the second day also the king neg- 
lected his duty, and accordingly on the second day many departed. 
Likewise on the third day the king neglected his duty, with the result 
that on that day all the remaining monks departed with the single 
exception of the Elder Ananda. 

They that are truly righteous rise above circumstances and guard 
the faith of families. The Tathagata had two principal male dis- 
ciples, the Elder Sariputta and the Elder Maha Moggallana, and 
two principal female disciples, Khema and Uppalavanna. Among 
the lay disciples there were two principal male lay disciples, the 
householder Citta and Hatthaka Alavaka, and two principal female 
lay disciples, Velukanthaki, mother of Nanda, and Khujjutara. To 



-N . 1 .3422 ] Vidudabha wreaks vengeance on the Sdkiyas 38 

put it briefly, all the disciples, beginning with these eight persons, 
had made their Earnest Wish, had fulfilled the Ten Perfections, and 
had thus acquired great merit. Likewise the Elder Ananda [341] 
had made his Earnest Wish, had fulfilled the Ten Perfections during 
a hundred thousand cycles of time, and had thus acquired great merit. 
Therefore did the Elder Ananda rise superior to circumstances, and 
therefore did he remain, guarding the faith of the king's house. And 
they provided a seat for the Elder Ananda alone and ministered to 
him. 

When it was time for the monks to depart, the king came, and 
observing that the food, both hard and soft, had not been touched, 
he inquired, "Did not the noble monks come.^" "The Elder Ananda 
was the only one who came, your majesty." "Just see the loss they 
have caused me," said the king. Angry at the monks, he went to the 
Teacher and said, "Reverend Sir, I prepared food for five hundred 
monks, and Ananda, it appears, was the only one who came. The food 
which was prepared remains there still untouched, and the monks 
have not put in the sign of an appearance in my house. Pray what is 
the reason for this.^^" The Teacher, imputing no fault to the monks, 
replied, "Great king, my disciples lack confidence in you; it must be 
for that reason that they failed to come." And addressing the monks 
and setting forth first the conditions under which monks are not 
bound to visit families, and then the conditions under which it is 
proper for them so to do, he recited the following Sutta,^ - 

"Monks, there are nine traits the possession of which by a family 
disqualifies that family from receiving visits from the monks. There- 
fore if monks have not visited that family, they are under no obliga- 
tions to visit it; and if they do visit it, they are under no obligations 
to sit down. What are the nine.^ They do not rise to meet them in 
a pleasing manner; they do not greet them in a pleasing manner; 
they do not seat them in a. pleasing manner; they conceal what they 
possess; possessing much, they give little; possessing food of superior 
quality, they give food of inferior quality; instead of presenting their 
offerings respectfully, they present them disrespectfully; they do 
not sit down to hear the Law; they do not speak in a pleasing tone of 
voice. [342] These, monks, are the nine traits the possession of 
which by a family disqualifies that family from receiving visits from 
the monks. Therefore if monks have not visited that family, , they 

1 Anguttara, iv. 387i3-388«. 



34 Book 4, Story 3, Dhammapada ]fl [N.i.342«- 

are under no obligations to visit it; and if they do visit it, they are 
under no obligations to sit down. 

"Conversely, monks, there are nine traits the possession of which 
by a family entitles that family to receive visits from the monks. 
Therefore if monks have not visited that family, it is proper for them 
to visit it; and if they do visit it, it is proper for them to sit down. 
What are the nine? They rise to meet them in a pleasing manner; they 
greet them in a pleasing manner; they seat them in a pleasing manner; 
they do not conceal what they possess; possessing much, they give 
much; possessing food of superior quality, they give food of superior 
quality; instead of presenting their offerings disrespectfully, they 
present them respectfully; they sit down to hear the Law; they 
speak in a pleasing tone of voice. These, monks, are the nine traits 
the possession of which by a family entitles that family to receive 
visits from the monks. Therefore if monks have not visited that 
family, it is proper for them to visit it; and if they do visit it, it is 
proper for them to sit down. 

"For this reason, great king, my disciples lacked confidence in 
you; it must be for this reason that they failed to come. Even so 
did wise men of old reside in a place unworthy of their confidence, 
and though served with respect, suffer the agonies of death, and 
therefore go to a place worthy of their confidence." "When was 
that?" asked the king. So the Teacher related the following 



3 a. Story of the Past: Kesava, Kappa, Narada, and the King o1 

Benares 

In times past, when Brahmadatta reigned in Benares, a king 
named Kesava renounced his throne, retired from the world, and 
adopted the life of an ascetic; and five hundred of his retainers fol- 
lowed his example and retired from the world. Thereafter the king 
was known as the ascetic Kesava. Kappa, the keeper of his jewels, 
likewise retired from the world and became his pupil. The ascetic 
Kesava with his retinue resided for eight months in the Himalaya 
country and when the rainy season began, came to Benares seeking 
salt and vinegar [343] and entered the city for alms. The king was 
glad to see him, obtained his promise to live with him during the four 
months of the rains, gave him lodging in his garden, and went to wait 
upon him every evening and every morning. 

The rest of the ascetics, after living there for a few days, were so 



A 



I 



-N.i. 34413] Vidudabha wreaks vengeance on the Sakiyas 35 

annoyed by the sounds of the elephants and other animals that they 
became discontented and went to Kesava and said, "Teacher, we 
are unhappy and are going away." "Where are you going, brethren?" 
"To the Himalaya country. Teacher." "The very day we arrived 
the king obtained our promise to reside here during the four months 
of the rains. How then can we go, brethren.?" "You did not so 
much as tell us when you gave him your promise; we cannot 
reside here any longer. We shall take up our residence not far 
from here, where we shall have news of you." So they paid 
obeisance to him and departed, and the Teacher was left alone with 
his pupil Kappa. 

When the king came to wait upon him, he asked, "Where have 
the noble monks gone.?" "They said they were discontented and 
unhappy and have gone to the Himalaya country, great king." It 
was not long before Kappa also became discontented. Although 
the Teacher tried repeatedly to dissuade him from leaving, he insisted 
that he could endure it no longer. So he departed, going and joining 
the others and taking up his residence not far off, where he could 
receive news of the Teacher. 

The Teacher thought continually of his pupils and after a time 
began to suffer from an internal complaint. The king had him treated 
by physicians, but there was no improvement in his condition. Finally 
the ascetic said to him, "Great king, do you wish to have me get 
well.?" "Reverend Sir, if only I could, I would make you well again 
this moment." "Great king, if you desire to have me get well, send 
me to my pupils." [344] "Very well. Reverend Sir," said the king. 
So the king had the ascetic laid on a bed and ordered four ministers 
led by Narada to carry him to his pupils, saying to the ministers, 
"Find out how my noble Elder is getting on and send me word." 

The pupil Kappa, hearing that the Teacher was coming, went to 
meet him. "Where are the others.?" asked Kesava. "They live in 
such and such a place," replied Kappa. When the others heard that 
the Teacher had arrived, they assembled together, provided the 
Teacher with hot water, and presented him with various kinds of 
fruits. At that very moment he recovered from his sickness, and in 
a few days his body again took on a golden hue. Narada asked him, 

"After leaving a king able to fulfill all desires, how, pray, does the Exalted Kesi like 

the hermitage of Kappa?" 
*' Pleasant and agreeable are the trees, dehghting the heart; the well-spoken words 

of Kappa delight me, Narada.'* 



36 Book i, Story S, Dhammapada 4,7 [N.i.344i4- 

" After eating the purest of hill-paddy, boiled with meat-gravy, how do you like millet 

and wild rice without salt?" 
"Whether the food be displeasing or pleasing, scanty or abundant, if only one can eat 

with confidence, confidence is the best flavor.'* 

When the Teacher had ended his lesson, he identified the characters 
in the Jataka as follows, "At that time the king was Moggallana, 
Narada was Sariputta, [345] the pupil Kappa was Ananda, and the 
ascetic Kesava was I myself. Thus, great king, in former times also 
wise men endured the agonies of death and went to a place worthy of 
their confidence. My own disciples lack confidence in you, I doubt 
not." Story of the Past concluded. 

The king thought to himself, "I must win the confidence of the 
Congregation of Monks. How best can I do it.^ The best way is for 
me to introduce into my house the daughter of some kinsman of the 
Supremely Enlightened One. In such case the probationers and 
novices will come to my house with confidence regularly, thinkings 
*The king is a kinsman of the Supremely Enlightened One.' " Accord- 
ingly he sent a message to the Sakiyas, saying, " Give me one of your 
daughters." And he ordered the messengers to learn the name of the 
Sakiya whose daughter it was and to return to him. The messengers 
went and asked the Sakiyas for a maiden. 

The Sakiyas assembled and said to each other, "The king is an 
enemy of ours. Therefore if we refuse to give him what he demands, 
he will destroy us. Moreover, he is not of equal birth with ourselves. 
What is to be done.^" Mahanama said, "I have a daughter named 
Vasabhakhattiya, born of a slave-woman of mine, and she is a maiden 
of surpassing beauty; we will give her to him." So he said to the 
messengers, "Very well, we will give the king one of our maidens." 
"Whose daughter is it.^^" "She is the daughter of Mahanama the 
Sakiya, and Mahanama is the son of the uncle of the Supremely 
Enlightened One. The maiden's name is Vasabhakhattiya." The 
messengers went and told the king. 

Said the king, "If this be so, well and good. Bring her to me im- 
mediately. But those princes of the Warrior caste are full of deceit; 
they may even send me the daughter of a slave- woman. Therefore 
do not bring her unless she eats out of the same dish as her father." 
[346] So saying, he sent the messengers back. They went to Maha- 
nama and said, "Your majesty, the king desires that she eat with 
you." "Very well, friends," said Mahanama. So he had his daughter 
adorn herself and come to him at meal-time. And he went through 




-N.i .34713 ] Vidudahha wreaks vengeance on the Sdkiyas 37 

the form of eating with her, and then delivered her over to the mes- 
sengers. The messengers escorted her to Savatthi and told the king 
what had happened. The king's heart rejoiced, and he straightway 
placed her at the head of five hundred women and sprinkled her 
as his chief consort. 

In no long time she gave birth to a son, the hue of whose body was 
as the hue of gold. The king rejoiced thereat and sent word to his 
own grandmother, " Vasabhakhattiya, daughter of the king of the 
Sakiyas, has given birth to a son. Give him a name." Now the 
minister who took the message and conveyed it to the king's grand- 
mother was a little deaf. The result was that when the grandmother, 
upon receiving the message, exclaimed, "Even before she gave birth 
to a child, Vasabhakhattiya won the hearts of all the people; but 
now she must be dear to the king beyond measure," the deaf minister 
mistook the word vallahhd, "dear," for Vidudahha, and went and 
said to the king, "Give the prince the name Vidudahha.''^ The king 
thought to himself, "That must be one of our old family names," 
and gave the child the name Vidudabha. When he was but a mere 
boy, the king appointed him commander-in-chief of the army, thinking 
that it would please the Teacher. 

Vidudabha was brought up in princely state. When he was seven 
years old, observing that the other princes received presents of toy 
elephants, horses, and the like from their maternal grandfathers, he 
asked his mother, "Mother, the other princes [347] receive presents 
from their maternal grandfathers, but no one ever sends me any. 
Have you no mother and father.'^" She replied, "Dear son, your 
grandparents are Sakiya kings, and they live a long way off; that 
is why they never send you anything." Thus did she deceive him. 
Again when he was sixteen years old, he said to her, "Dear mother, 
I should like to go and see your family, that of my maternal grand- 
father." But she put him off, saying, "Nay, my dear son, what would 
you do there .^" However, in spite of her refusals, he repeated his 
request several times. 

Finally his mother gave her consent, saying, "Very well, you may 
go." He informed his father and set out with a large retinue. Vasabha- 
khattiya sent a letter ahead of him, saying, "I am living here happily. 
Let not my lords make any difference in their treatment of him." 
When the Sakiyas learned that Vidudabha was [coming, they said to 
themselves, "It is impossible for us to pay obeisance to him." Accord- 
ingly they sent the younger princes to the country, and when he arrived 



88 Book i, Story 3, Dhammapada 47 [N.i.347i8- 

at the city of Kapila, they assembled in the royal rest-house. Vidii- 
dabha arrived at the rest-house and stopped there. They said to 
him, "Friend, this is your maternal grandfather and this is your uncle." 
As he went about, paying obeisance to all, he noticed that not a single 
one paid obeisance to him. So he asked, "How is it there are none 
that pay obeisance to me.?" The Sakiyas replied, "Friend, the 
younger princes have gone to the country." [348] However, they 
showed him every hospitality. After remaining there a few days, he 
departed with his large retinue. 

Now a certain slave- woman washed with milk and water the seat 
in the royal rest-house on which Vidudabha had sat; and as she did 
so, she remarked contemptuously, "This is the seat on which sat the 
son of the slave- woman Vasabhakhattiya!" A certain man who had 
forgotten his sword went back for it, and as he took it, overheard 
the slave-woman's contemptuous remark about the prince Vidudabha. 
Inquiring into the matter, he learned that Vasabhakhattiya was the 
daughter of a slave-woman of Mahanama the Sakiya. And he went 
and informed the army, "Vasabhakhattiya, I am told, is the daughter 
of a slave-woman." Immediately there was a great uproar. When 
Vidudabha learned of the incident, he made the following vow, "These 
Sakiyas now wash the seat whereon I sat with milk and water; when 
I am established in my kingdom, I will wash my seat with the blood 
of their throats." 

When the prince returned to Savatthi, the ministers told the king 
everything that had happened. The king was angry at the Sakiyas 
for giving him the daughter of a slave-woman, cut off the royal 
honors which had been bestowed on Vasabhakhattiya and her son, 
and degraded them to the condition of slaves. 

A few days afterwards the Teacher went to the royal residence 
and sat down. The king came, paid obeisance to him, and said, 
"Reverend Sir, I am informed that it was the daughter of a slave- 
woman [349] that your kinsmen gave me. I have therefore cut off 
the royal honors which have hitherto been bestowed on her and her 
son and have degraded them to the condition of slaves." The Teacher 
replied, "It was not right, great king, for the Sakiyas so to do. When 
they gave you one of their daughters, they should have given you a 
maiden of equal birth with yourself. But, great king, I have this also 
to say to you: Vasabhakhattiya is the daughter of a king and received 
the ceremonial sprinkling in the house of a king of the Warrior caste. 
Vidudabha also is the son of a king. What matters the family of 



-N. 1.35017] Vidudabha wreaks vengeance on the Sdkiyas 39 

the mother? It is the family of the father that affords the only true 
measure of social position. Wise men of old bestowed the honor of 
chief consort on a poor woman who picked up sticks; and the prince 
she bore became king of Benares, a city twelve leagues in extent, 
and bore the name Katthavahana." So saying, he related the Kattha- 
harika Jataka.^ The king listened to his discourse on the Law, and 
pleased at the thought, "It is the family of the father that affords 
the only true measure of social position," restored to mother and son 
their former honors. 

At Kusinara, Mallika, daughter of Mallika and wife of Bandhula, 
commander-in-chief of the army, remained for a long time childless. 
Accordingly Bandhula put her away, saying, "Go back again to the 
house of your own family." She thought to herself, "I will see the 
Teacher before I go." Therefore she entered Jetavana, paid obeisance 
to the Tathagata, and waited. "Where are you going .P" asked the 
Teacher. "My husband [350] has sent me back to the house of my 
family. Reverend Sir." "Why.^" "On the ground that I am barren, 
having borne him no children." "If this be true, it is no reason why 
you should go back to your family. Return to your husband." 
Joyful at heart, she paid obeisance to the Teacher and returned to her 
husband's house. "Why have you returned.^" he asked. "I was 
directed to return by Him that is Possessed of the Ten Forces," 
she replied. "The Far-seeing One must have seen some reason," 
thought Bandhula and acquiesced. 

After a short time Mallika conceived a child in her womb, and the 
longing of pregnancy arose within her. She said to her husband, "The 
longing of pregnancy has arisen within me." "What is the nature 
of your longing.^" he asked. She replied, "Husband, in the city of 
Vesali is a lotus-tank used by troops of princes at coronation festivals. 
I long to descend therein, to swim therein, and to drink the water 
thereof." "Very well," said Bandhula. And taking his bow, which 
required the strength of a thousand men to string, he assisted his wife 
to mount the chariot and drove in his chariot from Savatthi to Vesali, 
entering Vesali by the gate which had been given to the Licchavi 
prince Mahali. Now the Licchavi prince Mahali dwelt in a house 
hard by the gate; and when he heard the rumble of the chariot on 
the threshold, he said to hunself, "That is the sound of Bandhula's 
chariot. There is trouble in store for the Licchavi princes to-day." 

1 Jdtaka 7: i. 133-136. 



40 Book i, Story S, Dhammapada ^7 [N.1.35017- 

Both within and without the lotus-tank were posted strong guards, 
and the tank was covered overhead by an iron grating with meshes 
so small that not even birds could get through. [351] But Bandhula, 
commander-in-chief of the army, descended from his chariot, smote 
the guards with his staff, and drove them away. Then he tore down 
the grating, entered the lotus-tank, and permitted his wife to bathe 
therein. And having himself bathed therein, he departed from the^^ 
city and returned by the same road by which he came. ^^^1 

The men of the guard reported the matter to the Licchavi princes. ^^ 
Thereupon the Licchavi princes were filled with rage, and mounting 
five hundred chariots, they departed from the city, saying, "We will 
capture Bandhula and Mallika." Mahali said to them, "Do not go, 
for he will kill every man of you." But they replied, "We will go all 
the same." "Well then, turn back when you see his chariot sink into 
the ground up to the nave. If you do not turn back then, you will 
hear before you, as it were, the crash of a thunderbolt. Then you 
must not fail to turn back. If you do not turn back then, you will see 
a hole in the yokes of your chariots. Turn back then; go no farther." 
But in spite of Mahali's warnings, they did not turn back, but pursued 
him. [352] 

Mallika saw them and said, "There are chariots in sight, husband." 
"Very well! When they appear as a single chariot, tell me." So when 
all of them appeared as a single chariot, she said, "It looks like the 
front of a single chariot." "Well then," said Bandhula, "take these 
reins." And giving her the reins, he stood up in the chariot and raised 
his bow. Thereupon the wheels of his chariot sank into the ground 
up to the nave. Although the Licchavi princes saw his chariot sink 
into the ground, they did not turn back. After going a little way, 
Bandhula twanged his bow-string, the sound whereof was as the crash 
of a thunderbolt. Not even then did his enemies turn back, but con- 
tinued their pursuit just the same. Then Bandhula, standing in his 
chariot, let fly a single arrow. The arrow made a hole in the front 
of each of ^ve hundred chariots, passed through the body of each of 
five hundred princes at the spot where he wore his girdle, and then 
entered the earth. 

But the Licchavi princes, unaware that they were pierced through 
and through, cried out, "Halt where you are! Halt where you are!" 
So saying, they continued their pursuit. Bandhula stopped his 
chariot and said, "You are all dead men! I will not fight with the 
dead." "Do we look like dead men.?" they asked. "Well then," 



-N.l.3549i Vidudabha wreaks vengeance on the Sdkiyas 41 

replied Bandhula, "loosen the girdle of the foremost of your band." 
They loosened his girdle. The instant it was loosened he fell down 
dead. Then said Bandhula, "You are all in the same plight as your 
leader. Go to your own homes, settle such of your concerns as need 
to be settled, give final instructions to your sons and your wives, and 
then take off your armor." [353] They did so, whereupon all of them 
fell down dead. Then Bandhula conducted Mallika to Savatthi. 

Sixteen times Mallika bore twin sons to Bandhula, and all of them 
were valiant men, endowed with great strength. All of them attained 
perfection in the several arts. Each of them had a retinue of a thousand 
men; and when they accompanied their father to the royal residence, 
the palace court was filled with their numerous company. One day 
some men who had been defeated in a false suit in court saw Bandhula 
approaching, and with loud cries of protest told him of the unjust 
actions of the judges. Bandhula thereupon went to the court and 
decided the case in such wise as to make the rightful owner the actual 
owner. The populace applauded him with loud shouts of approval. 
The king asked, "What is this commotion about.^" When he heard 
the explanation, he was pleased, and removing all those judges, he 
turned over the administration of justice to Bandhula alone, who 
thereafter rendered just judgments. 

The former judges, who suffered severe loss from the cutting off of 
their bribes, created dissensions among the members of the royal 
family, saying, "Bandhula aspires to the throne." The king believed 
their talk and was unable to control his feelings. "But," thought he, 
"if this man is killed right here, I shall be severely blamed." On 
second thought he suborned men to make an attack on his own fron- 
tier. Then he summoned Bandhula and sent him forth, saying, "I 
am informed that the frontier is in a state of insurrection. Take your 
sons with you and go [354] and capture the brigands." And he sent 
with him a sufficient number of powerful warriors besides, saying to 
them, "Cut off the heads of Bandhula and his two and thirty sons 
and bring them to me." When Bandhula reached the frontier and 
the hired brigands heard that the commander-in-chief had come, they 
fled. Bandhula rendered the country habitable once more, restored 
peace, and then set out on his return. When he reached a place not 
far from the city, those warriors attacked him and cut off his head 
and the heads of his sons. 

That day Mallika had invited the two Chief Disciples to her house, 
together with five hundred monks. And that very morning they 



42 Book i, Story 3, Dhammapada ^7 [N.i.354io- 

brought and gave her a letter reading as follows, "Your husband's 
head has been cut off and likewise the heads of your sons." When 
she learned the news, she said not a word to anyone, but put the letter 
in a fold of her dress and ministered to the Congregation of Monks 
as if nothing had happened. Now it happened that while her servants 
were serving food to the monks, they brought in a jar of ghee and 
let the jar fall and break before the very eyes of the Elders. The 
Captain of the Faith said, "No notice should ever be taken of the 
breaking of anything that is capable of being broken." Thereupon 
Mallika, drawing the letter from the fold of her dress, said, "They 
have just brought me this letter: *The head of your husband has been 
cut off and the heads of your two and thirty sons likewise.' Yet even 
when I heard this, I took no thought. Much less, therefore, am I likely 
to take thought of the breaking of a mere jar. Reverend Sir." 

The Captain of the Faith [355] recited the Stanzas beginning, 
"Unmarked, unknown, is the life of mortals here," ^ and having 
taught the Law, rose from his seat and went to the monastery. Mallika 
summoned her two and thirty daughters-in-law and admonished them 
as follows, "Your husbands were free from guilt and have merely 
reaped the fruit of misdeeds in previous states of existence. Grieve 
not, nor lament. Cherish no resentment against the king." The 
king's spies listened to her words and went and told the king that they 
cherished no hatred of him. The king was overcome with emotion, 
went to Mallika's residence, asked Mallika and her daughters-in-law 
to forgive him, and granted Mallika a boon. "I accept," said she. 

So when the king had departed and she had given the feast in 
honor of the dead, she bathed, and approaching the king, said, "Your 
majesty, you granted me a boon. I desire nothing other than this, 
that you permit me and my two and thirty daughters-in-law to return 
to the homes of our families." The king consented, and she thereupon 
sent her two and thirty daughters-in-law to their respective homes 
and herself went to the city of Kusinara to the house of her own 
family. The king appointed to the post of commander-in-chief of the 
army Dighakarayana, a nephew of the former commander-in-chief 
Bandhula. And Dighakarayana went about reviling the king and 
saying, "It was the king that killed my uncle." [356] 

From the day the king killed the guiltless Bandhula he suffered 
from remorse, had no peace of mind, and experienced no pleasure in 

1 Sutta Nipata, iii. 8 (Stanzas 574-593). 



-N. 1.35715] Vidudabha wreaks vengeance on the Sdkiyas 43 

ruling. Now at that time the Teacher was in residence near a small 
village of the Sakiyas named Ulumpa. The king went thither, pitched 
camp not far from the Grove where the Teacher resided, and thinking, 
"I will pay my respects to the Teacher," went to the monastery, 
accompanied by a small retinue. Giving the five symbols of royalty 
to Dighakarayana, he entered the Perfumed Chamber alone. (Every- 
thing is to be understood as narrated in the Dhammacetiya Suttanta.) ^ 

When Pasenadi entered the Perfumed Chamber, Karayana took 
the five symbols of royalty and made Vidudabha king. Then, leaving 
behind a single horse and a single female servant for Pasenadi, he went 
to Savatthi. The king held sweet converse with the Teacher, and then 
came out. Not seeing the army, he questioned the woman, and from 
her learned what had happened. "I will take my nephew with me 
and capture Vidudabha," said the king, and went to the city of 
Rajagaha. It was late in the day when he reached the city, and the 
gates were closed. Exhausted by exposure to the wind and the sun, 
Pasendi lay down in a certain rest-house and died there in the night. 
As the night grew bright, they heard the voice of that woman lament- 
ing, "King of Kosala, you have lost your protector!" And they went 
and told the new king. Thereupon Vidudabha performed the funeral 
rites over the body of his uncle Pasenadi with great pomp. [357] 

When Vidudabha became king, he remembered his grudge. And 
saying to himself, "I will slay all the Sakiyas," he set out with a large 
army. On that day, as the Teacher surveyed the world at dawn, he 
saw the impending destruction of his kinsfolk. And thinking, "I 
must protect my kinsfolk," he went on his round for alms in the morn- 
ing; and returning from his alms-pilgrimage, lay down lion-like on 
his right side in the Perfumed Chamber; and in the evening went 
through the air and sat down at the foot of a tree with scanty shade 
in the vicinity of Kapilavatthu. Not far from there, on the boundary 
of Vidudabha's kingdom, stood a great banyan-tree giving dense 
shade. 

Vidudabha, seeing the Teacher, approached him, paid obeisance 
to him, and said, "Reverend Sir, why do you sit at the foot of this 
tree with scanty shade when it is so hot.^ Sit at the foot of this banyan- 
tree which gives dense shade. Reverend Sir." "Be not concerned, 
great king. The shade of my kinsmen keeps me cool." "The Teacher 
must have come for the purpose of protecting his kinsfolk," thought 

1 Majjhima, 89: ii. 118-125. 



44 Book 4, Story S, Dhammapada 1^7 [N. 1.35715- 

Vidudabha, and having paid obeisance to the Teacher, he turned and 
went back to Savatthi. The Teacher rose into the air and returned 
to Jetavana. 

The king remembered his hatred of the Sakiyas and went forth 
the second time, but seeing the Teacher in the same place, turned 
back. Again the third time he went forth, but seeing the Teacher in 
the same place, turned back. But when he went forth the fourth time, 
the Teacher, surveying the former deeds of the Sakiyas and realizing 
the impossibility of averting the consequences of the evil deed they 
committed by throwing poison into the river, refrained from going 
the fourth time. 

Vidtidabha therefore went forth with a large force, saying, "I 
will slay the Sakiyas." [358] Now the kinsmen of the Supremely 
Enlightened One do not slay their enemies, but are willing to die rather 
than take the lives of others. Therefore they said to themselves, 
"We are trained and skillful; we are expert archers and adepts with 
the long bow. Since it is unlawful for us to take the lives of others, 
we will put them to flight by a display of our skill." So they put on 
their armor and went forth and began battle. The arrows they shot 
sped through the ranks of Vidudabha's men, passing between their 
shields and through the holes for the ears, without hitting a man. 
When Vidudabha saw the arrows fly, he said, "I have understood it to 
be a boast of the Sakiyas that they do not kill their enemies; but they 
are now killing my men." One of his men asked him, "Master, why 
do you turn and look about you.?" "The Sakiyas are killing my 
men." "Not one of your men is dead; pray have them counted." 
He had them counted and perceived that he had not lost one. 

As Vidudabha turned back, he said to his men, "I direct you to 
kill all those who say, 'We are Sakiyas,' but to spare the lives of those 
who follow Mahanama the Sakiya." The Sakiyas stood their ground, 
and having no other resources, some took blades of grass in their teeth, 
while others held reeds. Now the Sakiyas would rather die than utter 
an untruth. So when they were asked, "Are you Sakiyas or not.?" 
those who held blades of grass in their teeth said, "Not soka, * potherb,' 
[359] but 'grass';" while those who held reeds said, "Not saka, 
'potherb,' but 'reed.'" The lives of those who followed Mahanama 
were spared. Those of the Sakiyas who held blades of grass in their 
teeth came to be known as Grass Sakiyas, and those who held reeds 
as Reed Sakiyas. Vidudabha slew all the rest, sparing not even infants 
at the breast. And when he had set flowing a river of blood, he 



-N.i. 36012] Vidudabha wreaks vengeance on the Sdkiyas 45 

washed his seat with the blood of their throats. Thus was the stock 
of the Sakiyas uprooted by Vidudabha. 

Vidudabha captured Mahanama the Sakiya and set out to return. 
When it was time for breakfast, he stopped at a certain place and 
thought to himself, "I will now have breakfast." When the food was 
brought to him, he said to himself, "I will eat with my grandfather," 
and sent for him. Now members of the Warrior caste would rather 
give up their lives than eat with the sons of slave- women. Therefore 
Mahanama, seeing a certain lake, said, "Dear grandson, my limbs 
are dirty. I wish to go and bathe." "Very well, grandfather, go and 
bathe." Mahanama thought to himseK, "If I refuse to eat with him, 
he will kill me. That being the case, it is better for me to die by my 
own hand." So taking down his hair, he knotted it at the end, thrust 
his great toes into his hair, and plunged into the water. 

By the power of his merit the abode of the Nagas manifested signs 
of heat. The king of the Nagas, considering within himseK, "What 
does this mean.^^" went to him, caused him to sit within his hood, and 
carried him to the abode of the Nagas. There he dwelt for twelve 
years. Vidudabha sat down and thought, "Now my grandfather 
will come; now my grandfather will come." Finally, after his grand- 
father had, as he thought, tarried an excessively long time, he caused 
the lake to be searched by lamplight, even examining the insides of 
his followers' clothing. Seeing him nowhere, he made up his mind, 
"He must have gone," and departed. 

During the night [360] Vidudabha reached the river Aciravati 
and pitched camp. Some of his followers lay down in the bed of the 
river on a bed of sand, others lay down on the banks on solid earth. 
Now those who lay in the bed of the river had not been guilty of sin 
in previous states of existence, but those who lay on the banks had 
been guilty of sin in previous states of existence. It so happened that 
ants came out of the ground where they lay. So they arose, saying, 
"There are ants where we are lying! There are ants where we are 
lying!" And those who had not been guilty of sin went up out of 
the bed of the river and lay down on soHd earth, while those who had 
been guilty of sin descended and lay down on the bed of sand. At 
that moment a storm came up and there was an incessant downpour 
of rain. The flood filled the bed of the river and carried Vidudabha 
and his retinue out to sea, and all of them became food for fishes and 
tortoises. 

The multitude began to discuss the incident. "The slaying of the 



46 Book i, Story S, Dhammapada Jt,7 [N.1.36O12- 

Sakiyas was unjust. It was not right to say, 'The Sakiyas must be 
killed,' and to smite them and kill them." The Teacher heard the 
discussion and said, "Monks, if you regard only this present existence, 
it was indeed unjust that the Sakiyas should die in such wise. What 
they received, however, was entirely just, considering the sin they 
committed in a previous state of existence." "What was the sin they 
committed in a previous state of existence. Reverend Sir.^^" "In a 
previous state of existence they conspired together and threw poison 
into the river." 

Again one day in the Hall of Truth the monks began a discussion: 
"Vidudabha slew all those Sakiyas, and then, before the desire of 
his own heart had been fulfilled, he and his numerous company were 
swept out to sea and became food for fishes and tortoises." [361] 
The Teacher came in and asked, "Monks, what is it you are gathered 
here now talking about.^" When they told him, he said, "Monks, or 
ever the desire of these living beings be fulfilled, even as a mighty flood 
overwhelms a sleeping village, so the Prince of Death cuts short their 
lives and plunges them into the four oceans of suffering." So saying, 
he pronounced the following Stanza, 

47. Even while a man is gathering flowers and is absorbed in pleasure. 

Death comes and carries him off, even as a mighty flood overwhelms a sleeping 
village. 

IV. 4. HUSBAND-HONORER 1 

Even while a man is gathering flowers. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Savatthi with 
reference to a woman named Husband-honorer, Patipujika. [363] 
The story begins in the World of the Thirty-three. 

The story goes that a god named Garland-wearer, Malabhari, 
entered the pleasure-garden in the World of the Thirty-three, accom- 
panied by a thousand celestial nymphs. Five hundred of these 
nymphs climbed trees and threw down flowers; five hundred others 
gathered up the flowers that fell and decked the god therewith. 
One of these nymphs, even as she sat on the branch of a tree, 
passed from that state of existence, her body vanishing like the 
flame of a lamp, and received a new conception in Savatthi in 
a certain family of station. Born with a recollection of her former 

1 Text: N i. 362-366. 



-N. 1.36419] Husband-honor er ^^^^^^ 47 

states of existence, and remembering that she had been the wife of the 
god Garland-wearer, she made offerings of perfumes and garlands 
when she grew up, making the Earnest Wish to be reborn with her 
former husband. 

When she was sixteen years of age, she married into another 
family. And even then, whenever she gave the monks Ticket-food or 
Fortnightly-food or food for the season of the rains, she would say, 
"May this offering assist me to obtain rebirth with my former hus- 
band." Said the monks, "This woman, ever busy and active, yearns 
only for her husband." Therefore they called her Husband-honorer, 
Patipujika. She cared regularly for the Hall of Assembly, supplied 
water for drinking, and provided seats for the monks. Whenever 
others desired to give Ticket-food or Fortnightly-food, they would 
bring it and give it to her, saying, "Dear lady, pray present these to 
the Congregation of Monks." Going to and fro in this manner, she 
obtained at one and the same time the Fifty-six Qualities of Goodness. 
She became pregnant and at the end of ten lunar months gave birth 
to a son; when her son was old enough to walk, she gave birth to 
another son, and then to another, until she had four sons. 

One day she gave alms, rendered honor to the monks, [364] lis- 
tened to the Law, and kept the precepts, and at the end of that day 
died of some sudden sickness and was reborn with her former husband. 
During all that time the other celestial nymphs were decking the god 
with flowers. When the god Garland-wearer saw her, he said, "We 
have not seen you since morning. Where have you been. f^" "I passed 
from this existence, husband." "What say you.^" "Precisely so, 
husband." "Where were you reborn.?" "In a family of station at 
Savatthi." "How long a time did you remain there .'^" 

"At the end of the tenth lunar month I issued from the womb of 
my mother. When I was sixteen years old, I married into another 
family. I bore four sons, gave alms, and rendered honor to the monks, 
making an Earnest Wish to return and be reborn with you, husband." 
"How long is the life of men.f^" "Only a hundred years." "So short 
as that. f^" "Yes, husband." "If men are reborn with so short a time 
as that to live, do they spend their time asleep and heedless, or do 
they give alms and render honor .'^" "What say you, husband.? Men 
are ever heedless, as if reborn with an incalculable number of years 
to live, as if in no wise subject to old age and death." 

The god Garland- wearer was greatly agitated. Said he, "If, as 
you say, men are reborn with only a hundred years to live, and if 



48 Book 4, Story 4, Dhammapada ^8 [N.i.364i9- 

they lie heedless and asleep, when will they ever obtain Release from 
Suffering?" (Now a hundred of our years are equivalent to a night 
and a day in the World of the Thirty-three Gods, thirty such nights 
and days make up a month, twelve such months make up a year, and 
the length of their lives is a thousand such celestial years; [365] or, 
in human reckoning, thirty-six million years. Thus it was that for 
that god not a single day had passed; nay, not more than a moment 
of time. Therefore thought he to himself, "If the life of men is so 
short, it is highly improper for them to give themselves up to a life of 
heedlessness.") 

On the following day the monks, on entering the village, found 
the Hall of Assembly uncared for, no seats provided, no water supplied 
for drinking. "Where is Husband-honorer?" said they. "Reverend 
Sirs, how could you expect to see her.^^ Yesterday at eventide, after 
your reverences had eaten and departed, she died." Thereupon 
monks who had not yet attained the Fruit of Conversion, remembering 
her kindly services to them, were unable to restrain their tears; while 
monks who had attained Arahatship were overcome with religious 
emotion. 

After eating their breakfast, they went to the monastery and 
asked the Teacher, "Reverend Sir, Husband-honorer, busy and active, 
performed all manner of works of merit and yearned only for her 
husband. Now she is dead. Where was she reborn.?" "Monks, she 
was reborn with her own husband." "But, Reverend Sir, she is not 
with her husband." "Monks, she yearned not for that husband. Her 
husband was the god Garland-wearer in the World of the TJiirty- 
three. She passed from that state of existence while decking him with 
flowers. Now she has returned to where she was before and has been 
reborn with him." "Reverend Sir, is what you say true.?" "Yes, 
monks, what I say is true." " Oh, how short. Reverend Sir, is the life of 
creatures in this world! Early in the morning she served us with 
food, and in the evening she sickened and died." The Teacher replied, 
"Yes, monks, the life of creatures in this world is indeed short. There- 
fore, while creatures in this world yet yearn for the things of earth 
and have not yet satisfied their desires for sensual pleasures, death 
overpowers them [366] and carries them off wailing and weeping." 
So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

48. Even while a man is gathering flowers, while his heart is absorbed in pleasure. 
Even before he has satisfied his desires, death overpowers him. 



Niggardly Kosiya ^^^^^^^^^^ ^ 



IV. 5. NIGiGARDLY KOSIYA ^ 

Even as a bee, without injuring a flower. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Savatthi with 
reference to Niggardly Kosiya the treasurer. The story begins at 
Rajagaha. [367] 

The story goes that in a town named Jaggery, not far from the 
city of Rajagaha, lived a certain treasurer named Niggardly Kosiya, 
possessed of eighty crores of treasure. Never a drop of oil small 
enough to stand on the tip of a blade of grass did he give to others 
or use for himself. The result was that his wealth, great as it was, 
yielded no enjoyment to his sons and daughters or to monks and 
Brahmans, but remained unused, like a pool haunted by evil spirits. 

One day, early in the morning, the Teacher arose from a Trance 
of Great Compassion and with the eye of a Buddha looked out upon 
his kinsmen in the faith all over the universe. As he did so, he beheld, 
living at a distance of forty-five leagues, the treasurer and his wife and 
perceived that they possessed the faculties requisite for Conversion. 

Now on the preceding day the treasurer went to the royal palace 
to wait upon the king. On his way home, after waiting upon the king, 
he saw a half -starved countryman eating a round cake filled with 
sour gruel. The sight made him hungry. When he reached his own 
home, he thought to himself, "If I say openly, 'I should like to have a 
round cake to eat,' there will be many others who will wish to eat with 
me. In that case a great quantity of sesame, rice, ghee, jaggery, 
and other provisions will be consumed. I will therefore say nothing 
to anyone." So he walked about, enduring hunger as best he could. 
But as the hours went by, he grew yellow and yet more yellow, and 
the veins stood out all over his body. Finally, unable to endure hunger 
any longer, he went into his chamber and lay down hugging his bed. 
[368] But in spite of his distress, so great was his fear of wasting his 
wealth that he said nothing to anybody. 

As he lay upon his bed, his wife approached him, rubbed his back, 
and asked him, "Husband, what is the matter with you.^" "There 
is nothing the matter with me." "Is the king put out with you.?" 
"No, the king is not put out with me." "Then perhaps your sons 

^ This story is almost word for word the same as the Introduction to Jataka 78: 
i. 345-349. Text: N i. 366-376. 



50 Booh Jf, Story 5. Dhammapada 4^9 [N.i.sess- 

and daughters, or your slaves and servants, have done something to 
displease you?" "Nothing of the sort." "But perhaps you have a 
craving for something?" When his wife said that, so great was his 
fear of wasting his wealth that he answered her never a word, but lay 
speechless on his bed. Then his wife said to him, "Tell me, husband. 
What is it you have a craving for?" Then said her husband, swallowing 
his words as he spoke them, "Yes, I have a craving for something." 
"What is it you have a craving for, husband?" "I should like a 
round cake to eat." 

"Why didn't you tell me? Are you a poor man? I will straightway 
have enough round cakes baked to feed all the inhabitants of the 
town of Jaggery." "Why concern yourself about them? They might 
better work and earn money for themselves to buy food." "Very 
well, I will bake enough cakes to feed the inhabitants of one street." 
"I have always thought you extravagant." "Then I will bake enough 
cakes to feed all who live in this house." "I have always thought 
you extravagant." "Very well, I will bake only enough cakes for you 
and your children and your wife." "Why concern yourself about 
them?" "Very well, I will bake just enough for you and me." "Why 
should you care to have any?" [369] "Very well, I will bake just 
enough for you alone." 

Then said her husband, "There are a great many people on the 
outlook for cooking in this house. Therefore save out the whole 
grains of rice, use only the broken grains, and take the brazier and 
the potsherds and just a little milk and ghee and honey and jagghery, 
and go up to the top floor of our. seven-storied mansion, and there I 
will sit down all by myself and eat." "Very well," replied his wife, 
promising to carry out his wishes. So she caused the necessary things 
to be procured, and having climbed to the top of the house, dismissed 
the servants and caused her husband to be summoned. Her husband 
climbed from one floor to another, closing and bolting each door after 
him, until finally he reached the seventh floor. Then, after closing 
and bolting the door, he sat down. His wife started a fire in the 
brazier, placed a potsherd on the brazier, and began to cook the cake. 

Now early in the morning the Teacher addressed Elder Moggallana 
the Great, "Moggallana, in yonder town of Jaggery, close to the 
city of Rajagaha, a niggardly treasurer, desiring to eat fried cakes, 
but afraid that somebody else may see him, is having cakes fried in 
his seven-storied mansion. Go there, overmaster that treasurer, 
inculcate in him the virtue of self-denial, take the treasurer and his 



-N. 1.3716] Niggardly Kosiya ^^^^^^^P 51 

wife and the cakes and the milk and ghee and honey and jaggery, 
and by your own power convey them to Jetavana. To-day I will sit 
with my five hundred monks in the monastery and will make my meal 
of those very cakes." "Very well. Reverend Sir," replied the Elder, 
promising to carry out the Teacher's command. [370] 

In but an instant, by virtue of his magical power, the Elder pro- 
ceeded to that town. And before the window of that mansion, properly 
garbed in under and outer garments, he stood poised in the air like a 
jeweled image. When the great treasurer saw the Elder, his heart's 
flesh quivered and quaked. "It was for fear of just such persons," 
said he, "that I came to this place; yet here this fellow comes and 
stands in front of my window." Not realizing that the Elder would 
inevitably get what he must needs get, sputtering with anger, even 
as when salt and sugar are thrown into a fire, the treasurer spoke 
thus, "Monk, what do you expect to get by standing poised in the 
air.?^ You may walk up and down till you cause a path to appear in 
the pathless air, but for all that you will get nothing by it." The 
Elder continued to walk back and forth right there, as before. 

Said the treasurer, "What do you expect to get by walking back and 
forth.? You may sit down cross-legged in the air, but for all that 
you will get nothing by it." The Elder folded his legs and sat down 
cross-legged. Then said the treasurer to him, "What do you expect 
to get by sitting down cross-legged .^^ You may come and stand on 
the window-sill, but for all that you will get nothing by it." Then 
the Elder came and stood on the window-sill. Then said the treasurer 
to him, "What do you expect to get by coming and standing on the 
window-sill.? You may belch forth smoke, but for all that you will get 
nothing by it." 

Then the Elder belched forth smoke until the whole mansion was 
one mass of smoke. The treasurer felt as though his eyes had been 
pierced with needles. He was so afraid the house might catch fire 
that he refrained from saying, "You may burst into flames, but for 
all that you will get nothing by it." He thought to himself, "This 
monk sticks fast and will not depart until he gets something. [371] 
I will have him given one cake." So he said to his wife, "Dear wife, 
cook one little cake, give it to the monk, and get rid of him." 

His wife took just a little dough and put it in the pot. But it 
grew to be a big cake and filled the vessel to overflowing. When the 
treasurer saw it, he thought to himself, "She must have taken a big 
piece of dough." So he himself took ever so little dough on the tip of 



5£ Book i, Story 5, Dhammapada 49 [N.1.3716- 

a spoon and put it in the pot. But it became a bigger cake than the 
previous one. In like manner each cake they cooked was larger than 
the preceding ones. Finally ,*in despair, the treasurer said to his wife, 
"Dear wife, give him a single cake." 

But when his wife tried to take one cake from the basket, all the 
cakes stuck together. The treasurer's wife said to her husband, 
"Husband, the cakes all stick together. I cannot separate them." 
"I will separate them," replied the treasurer. But try as he might, 
he was unable to do so. Finally the treasurer took hold of one end, 
and his wife took hold of the other end, and the two pulled with might 
and main. But for all that they were unable to separate the cakes. 

As the treasurer struggled with the cakes, sweat poured forth 
from his body and his craving disappeared. Thereupon he said to his 
wife, "Wife, I have no need of the cakes. Take the cakes and the 
basket and give them to the monk." So his wife took the basket and 
approached the monk. The Elder preached the Law to the treasurer 
and his wife, proclaiming the virtues of the Three Jewels. [372] 
Beginning with the words, "Almsgiving is true sacrifice," he made 
the fruit of almsgiving and of the other works of merit as plain as 
the moon in the sky. 

As the treasurer listened to him, his heart believed, and he said, 
"Reverend Sir, draw near, sit down on this couch, and eat." The 
Elder replied, "Great treasurer, the Supremely Enlightened is sitting 
in the monastery, expecting to eat these cakes. Therefore, treasurer, 
if it so please you, bid your wife take the cakes and the milk and 
the other provisions, and let us go to the Teacher." "But, Reverend 
Sir, where is the Teacher at this moment. f^" "Treasurer, he is at the 
Jetavana monastery, some forty -five leagues from here." "Reverend 
Sir, how can we travel such a long distance without spending a great 
deal of time on the way.^^" 

"Great treasurer, if it so please you, I will convey you thither by 
my own magical power. The head of the staircase in your mansion 
shall remain in its proper place, but the foot of the staircase shall 
stand at the battlemented gate of Jetavana. I will convey you to 
Jetavana in less time than it would take you to go from the upper 
floor of your house to the lower floor." "Very well. Reverend Sir," 
said the treasurer, agreeing to the proposal. So the Elder, allowing 
the head of the staircase to remain where it was, commanded, "Let 
the foot of the staircase stand at the battlemented gate of Jetavana." 
And it was so. The Elder convened the treasurer and his wife to 




-N. 1.3744] Niggardly Kosiya 53 

Jetavana in less time than it would have taken them to go from the 
upper floor of their house to the lower floor. 

The treasurer and his wife both approached the Teacher and 
informed him that it was meal-time. Thereupon the Teacher entered 
the refectory and seated himself in the Seat of the Buddha, already 
prepared, with the Congregation of Monks about him. The great 
treasurer gave Water of Donation to the Congregation of Monks 
presided over by the Buddha. [373] The treasurer's wife placed a 
cake in the Tathagata's bowl. The Teacher took as much as he 
needed to support life, and the Congregation of Monks likewise took 
as much as they needed to support life. The treasurer went about 
distributing milk and ghee and honey and jaggery. 

The Teacher and his five hundred monks completed their meal, 
and the great treasurer and his wife ate as much as they desired to eat. 
Yet there was no end to the cakes that remained. Even after dis- 
tribution had been made to the monks of the entire monastery and 
to the eaters of scraps, there was still no end to the cakes that re- 
mained. "Reverend Sir," they reported to the Exalted One, "the 
cakes suffer no diminution." "Very well," he replied, "throw them 
away at the battlemented gate of Jetavana." So they threw them 
away in a cave near the battlemented gate of Jetavana. To this day 
that place goes by the name of "Cake-cave." 

Then the great treasurer with his wife approached the Exalted 
One and stood respectfully on one side. The Exalted One pronounced 
the words of thanksgiving. At the conclusion of the words of thanks- 
giving both the treasurer and his wife were established in the Fruit 
of Conversion. Then they saluted the Teacher, and mounting the 
staircase at the battlemented gate, fouE^d themselves in their own 
house. From that time forwards the treasurer spent eighty crores of 
treasure solely in the Religion of the Buddha. 

On the evening of the following day, when the monks assembled 
in the Hall of Truth, they exclaimed, "Behold, brethren, the super- 
natural power of Elder Moggallana the Great! Without impairing 
faith, without impairing riches, [374] he subdued in a moment the 
niggardly treasurer, made him self-denying, conveyed him to Jeta- 
vana, causing him to take his cakes with him, set him face to face 
with the Teacher, and established him in the Fruit of Conversion. 
Oh, how great is the supernatural power of the Elder!" Thus, as they 
sat together in the Hall of Truth, did they praise the virtues of the 
Elder. By Supernatural Audition the Teacher overheard them, and 



X 



54 Book ^, Story 5, Dhammapada 49 [N. 1.3745- 

entering the Hall of Truth, asked them, "Monks, what is the subject 
you are discussing now, as you sit here all gathered together?" When 
they told him, he said, "Monks, a monk who would convert a house- 
hold without impairing faith, without impairing riches, without 
wearying or oppressing that household, must approach that household 
to make known the virtues of the Buddha as a bee approaches a flower 
to gather honey therefrom. Such a monk is my son Moggallana." 
And in praise of the Elder he pronounced the following Stanza, 

49. Even as a bee, without injuring a flower, or the color, or the scent thereof, 

Gathers the honey, and then flies away, even so should a sage go about 
village. [376] 

When the Teacher had given this religious instruction, he con- 
tinued his discourse for the purpose of proclaiming the virtues of the 
Elder, saying, "Monks, this is not the first time that Treasurer Nig- 
gardly has been converted by the Elder Moggallana. In a previous 
state of existence also he converted him by teaching him the connection 
between a deed and the fruit thereof." And to make the matter clearer 
he related the Illisa Jataka.^ 

Both are lame, both are bow-legged, both squint, 

Both have a wart. I cannot tell which of them is Illisa. 



IV. 6. PATHIKA THE NAKED ASCETIC ^ 

Not the faults of others. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Savatthi with reference to 
Pathika the Naked Ascetic. 

At Savatthi, we are told, the wife of a certain householder minis- 
tered to the needs of a Naked Ascetic named Pathika, treating him 
as she would her own son. Of her nearest neighbors, those who went 
to hear the Teacher preach the Law returned praising the virtues of 
the Buddhas in manifold ways, saying, "Oh, how wonderful is the 
preaching of the Buddhas!" When the woman heard her neighbors 
thus praise the Buddhas, [377] she desired to go to the monastery 
and hear the Law. So she put the matter to the Naked Ascetic, say- 
ing, "Noble sir, I desire to go and hear the Buddha." But as often as 
she made her request, the Naked Ascetic dissuaded her from going, 
saying, "Do not go." The woman thought to herself, "Since this 

1 Jdtaka 78: i. 345-355. « Text: N i. 376-380. 



-N. 1.37810] Pathika the Naked Ascetic 55 

Naked Ascetic will not permit me to go to the monastery and hear 
the Law, I will invite the Teacher to my own house and hear the 
Law right here." 

Accordingly, when it was evening, she summoned her own son 
and sent him to the Teacher, saying to him, "Go invite the Teacher 
to accept my hospitality for to-morrow." The boy started out, but 
went first to the place of residence of the Naked Ascetic, saluted him, 
and sat down. "Where are you going .^" asked the Naked Ascetic. 
"By my mother's direction I am going to invite the Teacher." "Do 
not go to him." "All very well, but I am afraid of my mother. I am 
going." "Let the two of us eat the fine things prepared for him. Do 
not go." "No; my mother will give me a scolding." "Well then, 
go. But when you go and invite the Teacher, do not say to him, *Our 
house is situated in such and such a place, in such and such a street, 
and you may reach it by taking such and such a road.' Instead, act 
as if you lived near by, and when you leave, run off as if you intended 
to take a different road, and come back here." 

The boy listened to the instructions of the Naked Ascetic and 
then went to the Teacher and delivered the invitation. When he had 
done everything according to the instructions of the Naked Ascetic, 
he returned to the latter. Said the Naked Ascetic, "What did you do.?" 
Said the boy, "Everything you told me to do, noble sir." "You 
have done very well. Now we shall both of us eat the good things 
prepared for him." On the following day, very early in the morning, 
the Naked Ascetic went to that house, taking the boy with him, and 
the two sat down together in the back room. 

The neighbors smeared that house with cow-dung, [378] decked 
it with the five kinds of flowers, including the Laja flower, and pre- 
pared a seat of great price, that the Teacher might sit therein. (Men 
who are not familiar with the Buddhas know nothing about the 
preparation of a seat for them. Nor do the Buddhas ever need a 
guide to direct them on their way. For on the Day of Enlightenment, 
when they sit under the Bo-tree, causing ten thousand worlds to 
quake, all paths become plain to them: "This path leads to Hefl, 
this path leads to the World of Beasts, this path leads to the World 
of Ghosts, this path leads to the World of Men, this path leads to the 
World of the Gods, this path leads to the Deathless, to Great Nib- 
bana." There is never any need of telling them the way to villages, 
market-towns, or other places.) 

Therefore the Teacher, very early in the morning, took bowl and 



56 



Book Jf,, Story 6. Dhammapada 50 [N.i.378io- 



robe and went straight to the house of the great female lay disciple. 
She came forth from the house, saluted the Teacher with the Five 
Rests, escorted him into the house, poured Water of Donation into 
his right hand, and gave him the choicest of food, both hard and soft. 
When the Teacher had finished his meal, the female lay disciple, 
desiring to have him pronounce the words of thanksgiving, took his 
bowl, and the Teacher with his own sweet voice began the address 
of thanksgiving. The lay disciple listened to the preaching of the 
Law and applauded the Teacher, saying, "Well said! well said!" 

The Naked Ascetic, sitting there in the back room, heard the 
words of applause uttered by the lay disciple as she heard the Teacher 
preach the Law. Unable to control himself, he remarked, "She is 
my disciple no longer," and came out. And he said to the lay dis- 
ciple, "Hag, you are lost for applauding this man thus." And he 
reviled both the female lay disciple and the Teacher in all manner of 
ways, and then ran off. The lay disciple was so embarrassed by the 
Naked Ascetic's insulting words that her mind became completely 
distraught, and she was unable to concentrate her attention on the 
Teacher's discourse. The Teacher asked her, "Lay disciple, are you 
unable to fix your mind on my discourse?" "Good and Reverend 
Sir," she replied, "my mind is completely distraught by the insulting 
words of this Naked Ascetic." [379] Said the Teacher, "One should 
not consider the talk of such a heretic; one should pay no attention 
to such as he; one should regard only one's own sins of commission and 
omission." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

50. Not the faults of others, not things done and left undone by others, 
Only one's own sins of commission and omission should one regard. 



IV. 7. THE KING AND THE KING OF KINGS ^ 

Like a beautiful flower. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Savatthi with reference to 
the lay disciple Chattapani. [380] 

For at Savatthi lived a lay disciple named Chattapani, versed in 
the Tipitaka, enjoying the Fruit of the Second Path. Early one morn- 
ing, in observance of Fast-day, he went to pay his respects to the 
Teacher. (For those who enjoy the Fruition of the Second Path and 

1 Cf. Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, pp. 296-297. Text: N i. 380-384. 



-N. 1.38 In] The king and the King of Kings 57 

those who are Noble Disciples, by reason of their previous under- 
taking, do not take upon themselves the obligations of Fast-day. 
Such persons, solely by virtue of the Path, lead the holy life and eat 
but one meal a day. Therefore said the Exalted One,^ "Great king, 
Ghatikara the potter eats but one meal a day, leads the holy life, is 
virtuous and upright." Thus, as a matter of course, those who enjoy 
the Fruition of the Second Path eat but one meal a day and lead the 
holy life.) 

Chattapani also, thus observing Fast-day, approached the Teacher, 
paid obeisance to him, and sat down and listened to the Law. Now 
at this time King Pasenadi Kosala also came to pay his respects to 
the Teacher. When Chattapani saw him coming, he reflected, "Shall 
I rise to meet him or not.'^" He came to the following conclusion, 
"Since I am seated in the presence of the King of Kings, I am not 
called upon to rise on seeing the king of one of his provinces. Even if 
he becomes angry, I will not rise. [381] For if I rise on seeing the 
king, the king will be honored, and not the Teacher. Therefore I 
will not rise." Therefore Chattapani did not rise. (Wise men never 
become angry when they see a man remain seated, instead of rising, 
in the presence of those of higher rank.) 

But when King Pasenadi saw that Chattapani did not rise, his 
heart was filled with anger. However, he paid obeisance to the Teacher 
and sat down respectfully on one side. The Teacher, observing that 
he was angry, said to him, "Great king, this lay disciple Chattapani 
is a wise man, knows the Law, is versed in the Tipitaka, is contented 
both in prosperity and adversity." Thus did the Teacher extol the 
lay disciple's good qualities. Even as the king listened to the Teacher's 
praise of the lay disciple, his heart softened. 

Now one day after breakfast, as the king stood on the upper floor 
of his palace, he saw the lay disciple Chattapani pass through the 
courtyard of the royal palace with a parasol in his hand and sandals 
on his feet. Straightway he caused him to be summoned before him. 
Chattapani laid aside his parasol and sandals, approached the king, 
paid obeisance to him, and took his stand respectfully on one side. 
Said the king to Chattapani, "Lay disciple, why did you lay aside 
your parasol and sandals.?" "When I heard the words, *The king 
summons you,' I laid aside my parasol and sandals before coming 
into his presence." "Evidently, then, you have to-day learned that 

^ Majjhima, ii. 51^^"^. 



58 Book 4, Story 7. Dhammapada 51-52 [N.i .38 ii^ 

I am king." "I always knew that you were king." "If that be true J 
then why was it that the other day, when you were seated in thd 
presence of the Teacher and saw me, you did not rise.'^" 

"Great king, had I, seated in the presence of the King of Kings, 
risen on seeing a king of one of his provinces, I should have shown 
disrespect for the Teacher. Therefore did I not rise." "Very well, 
let bygones be bygones. I am told that you are well versed in matters 
pertaining to the present world and the world to come; [382] that 
you are versed in the Tipitaka. Recite the Law in our women's 
quarters." "I cannot, your majesty." "Why not.?" "A king's 
house is subject to severe censure. Improper and proper alike are 
grave matters in this case, your majesty." "Say not so. The other 
day, when you saw me, you saw fit not to rise. Do not add insult to 
injury." "Your majesty, it is a censurable act for householders to go 
about performing the functions of monks. Send for someone who is] 
a monk and ask him to recite the Law." 

The king dismissed him, saying, "Very well, sir, you may go." 
Having so done, he sent a messenger to the Teacher with the following 
request, "Reverend Sir, my consorts Mallika and Vasabhakhattiya 
say, * We desire to master the Law.' Therefore pray come to my house 
regularly with five hundred monks and preach the Law to them." 
The Teacher sent the following reply, "Great king, it is impossible 
for the Buddhas to go regularly to any one place." "In that case. 
Reverend Sir, send some monk." The Teacher assigned the duty to 
the Elder Ananda. And the Elder came regularly and recited the 
Ordinances to those queens. Of the two queens, Mallika learned 
thoroughly, rehearsed faithfully, and heeded her teacher's instruction. 
But Vasabhakhattiya did not learn thoroughly, nor did she rehearse 
faithfully, nor was she able to master the instruction she received. | 

One day the Teacher asked the Elder Ananda, "Ananda, are your 
female lay disciples mastering the Law.^^" "Yes, Reverend Sir." 
"Which one learns thoroughly .?" "Reverend Sir, Mallika learns 
thoroughly, rehearses faithfully, and can understand thoroughly the 
instruction she receives. But your kinswoman does not learn thor- 
oughly, nor does she rehearse faithfully, nor can she understand 
thoroughly the instruction she receives." When the Teacher heard 
the Elder's reply, he said, "Ananda, as for the Law I have preached, 
to one who is not faithful in hearing, learning, [383] rehearsing, and 
preaching it, it is profitless, like a flower that possesses color but lacks 
perfume. But to one who is faithful in hearing, learning, rehearsing. 



-N. 1.38511] The king and the King of Kings 



59 



and preaching the Law, it returns abundant fruit and manifold bless- 
ings." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanzas, 



51. Like a beautiful flower that possesses color but lacks perfume, 
So well-spoken words are fruitless to him that doeth them not. 

52. Like a beautiful flower that possesses both color and perfume, 
So well-spoken words are fruitful to him that doeth them. [384] 



L 

^H At the conclusion of the lesson many attained the Fruit of Con- 
^B version and the Fruits of the Second and Third Paths. The lesson was 
^B of benefit to the multitude. 

I 



IV. 8. MARRIAGE OF VISAKHA ^ 



Even as from a heap of flowers. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Pubbarama near 
Savatthi with reference to the female lay disciple Visakha. 



Visakha, we are told, was born in the city of Bhaddiya in the 
kingdom of Anga. Her father was Treasurer Dhananjaya, son of 
Treasurer Ram, and her mother was Sumana Devi, his chief consort. 
When Visakha was but seven years old, the Teacher, perceiving that 
the Brahman Sela and other of his kinsmen in the faith possessed the 
faculties requisite for Conversion, set out with a great company of 
monks and came to that city. Now at this time householder Ram 
held the post of treasurer in that city, being the chief of five persons 
of great merit. [385] 

(The five persons of great merit were Treasurer Ram, Canda- 
paduma his chief consort, his eldest son Dhananjaya, his wife Sumana 
Devi, and Treasurer Ram's slave Punna. Now Treasurer Ram 
possessed limitless wealth, but he was not the only possessor of limit- 
less wealth. In the country over which King Bimbisara ruled were 
five such persons: Jotiya, Jatila, Ram, Punnaka, and Kakavaliya.) 

When Treasurer Ram learned that the Possessor of the Ten Forces 
had come to his city, he sent for the maiden Visakha, daughter of 
Treasurer Dhananjaya, and said to her, "Dear girl, this is a happy 
day for you and a happy day for me. Summon the five hundred maid- 

^ Warren's version of this beautiful story {Harvard Oriental Series, vol. 3, pp. 
451-481: cf. vol. 28, p. 67) was the first Occidental translation of a considerable part 
of this text. The story occurs also in Ahguttara Commentary (cf. vol. 28 p. 50). 
Cf. story xxi. 8; also Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, 2d ed., pp. 226-234. Text: N i. 
384-419. 



60 Boole i, Story 8. Dhammapada 53 [N.i.sssn- 

ens who are your attendants, mount five hundred chariots, and 
accompanied by your five hundred slave-maidens, go forth to meet the 
Possessor of the Ten Forces." " Very well," replied Visakha, promising 
to do as he said. 

And this she did. Now because she well knew both what was 
reasonable and what was unreasonable, she proceeded in her carriage 
as far as there was room for a carriage to go; and then, descending from 
her carriage, approached the Teacher on foot, paid obeisance to him, 
and took her stand on one side. Pleased with her deportment, the 
Teacher preached the Law to her, and at the end of his discourse both 
she and her five hundred maidens were established in the Fruit of 
Conversion. 

Treasurer Ram also approached the Teacher, hearkened to the 
Law, and was established in the Fruit of Conversion. Thereupon 
Treasurer Ram invited the Teacher to be his guest on the morrow. 
Accordingly on the following day he entertained in his own house the 
Congregation of Monks presided over by the Buddha, serving them 
with the choicest food, both hard and soft, and in like manner during 
the following fortnight provided them with abundant food. When 
the Teacher had remained in the city of Bhaddiya during his good 
pleasure, he departed. 

Now at this time Bimbisara and Pasenadi Kosala were connected 
by marriage, each having married a sister of the other. And one 
day [386] the king of Kosala thought to himself, "In Bimbisara's 
country live five persons of limitless wealth, but in my country lives 
not a 'Single one. Suppose I were to go to Bimbisara and ask him to 
let me have one of his persons of great merit." Accordingly he went 
to Bimbisara, who greeted him in a friendly manner and asked him, 
"For what purpose have you come.^^" "I have come with this thought 
in mind, 'In your country live five persons of limitless wealth and 
^ve persons of great merit. I should like to take one of them back 
with me.'" "These are notable families, and it is impossible for me 
to move them." "I will not go back without one." 

The king took counsel with his ministers and replied, "To move 
notable families like that of Jotiya would be like moving the earth 
itself. But there is a treasurer named Dhananjaya, son of Treasurer 
Ram. I will take counsel with him and give you my answer later." 
So King Bimbisara caused Treasurer Dhananjaya to be summoned 
and said to him, "Dear friend, the king of Kosala has said to me, *I 
wish to take back with me a single treasurer possessed of great wealth.' 



■N.1.3885] Marriage of Visakha 61 



r 

H You go back with him." "Your majesty, if you send me, I will go." 
^m "Very well, dear friend, make your preparations and go." 
^B So Treasurer Dhananjaya made the necessary preparations, and 

^K the king bestowed high honor upon him and dismissed King Pasenadi, 
^ saying, "Take him back with you." So King Pasenadi took him with 
him and set out for Savatthi, spending a single night on the journey. 

I As they journeyed along, reaching a pleasant place, they pitched 
camp there for the night. Treasurer Dhananjaya asked the king, 
"Whose country is this.'^" "This is my country, treasurer." "How 
far is it from here to Savatthi.?^" [387] "Seven leagues." "The 
interior of the city is crowded, and my retinue is a large one. If, 
your majesty, you approve, we will take up our residence right here." 
"Very well," replied the king, granting his request. So the king 
created a city for him right there and gave it to him, and having so 

(done, departed. Because this region was first inhabited in the evening 
(say am), it received the name Saketa. 
Now there lived at Savatthi a treasurer named Migara, and he 
had a son named Punnavaddhana, who had just reached manhood. 
His mother and father said to him, "Dear son, choose for yourself a 
wife in whatever quarter you please." "I have no use for anything 
of the sort." "Son, do not act in this way. A family without children 
cannot endure." After they had spoken to him several times, he said, 
"Very well. If I can find a maiden endowed with the Five Beauties, 
I will do as you say." "But what are these Five Beauties, dear son?" 
"Beauty of hair, beauty of flesh, beauty of bone, beauty of skin, and 
beauty of youth." 

(For in the case of a woman of great merit the hair is like a pea- 
cock's tail, and when it is released and allowed to fall, it touches the 
hem of her skirt, and then the ends of the hair curl and turn upwards. 
This is Beauty of Hair. Her lips have a color like that of a bright red 
gourd and are even and soft to the touch. This is Beauty of Flesh. 
Her teeth are white and even and without interstices and shine like a 
row of diamonds set upright or like an evenly cut conch-shell. This 
is Beauty of Bone. Her skin, without the use of sandal-wood or rouge 
or any other cosmetic, [388] is as smooth as a garland of water-lilies 
and as white as a garland of kanikara flowers. This is Beauty of 
Skin. Though she has brought forth ten times, her youth is just 
as fresh as though she had brought forth but once. This is Beauty 
of Youth.) 

So Punnavaddhana's mother and father invited a hundred and 



62 Book ^, Story 8. Dhammapada 53 [N. 1.3885- 

eight Brahmans to their house, entertained them at dinner, and then 
asked them, "Are there any women who are endowed with the Five 
Beauties?" "Indeed there are." "Well then, let eight of you go in 
search of such a maiden," said they, giving the Brahmans much money. 
"And when you return, we will do for you what is right. Go seek out 
such a maiden, and when you find her, deck her with this garland." 
So saying, they gave the Brahmans a golden garland worth a hundred 
thousand pieces of money and dismissed them. The Brahmans went to 
all the great cities and searched diligently, but finding no maiden 
endowed with the Five Beauties, turned back. Returning to Saketa, 
they reached the city on Public Day and thought to themselves, 
"To-day our labors will reach a successful termination." 

Now in this city there is a festival celebrated every year called^ 
Public Day, and on this day families which do not ordinarily go out 
come forth from their houses with their attendants and, with their 
persons unclothed, go on foot to the bank of the river. Moreover, on 
this day sons of men of wealth and position of the Warrior caste stand 
along the road, and when they see a beautiful maiden of equal birth 
with themselves, throw a wreath of flowers over her head. 

The Brahmans also went to the bank of the river, entered a certain 
hall, and waited. At that moment Visakha, who was now about 
fifteen or sixteen years of age, adorned with all her adornments, 
accompanied by five hundred young women, came to the bank of 
the river, intending to bathe therein. [389] Suddenly a storm came 
up and it began to rain. Thereupon the five hundred maidens ran 
as fast as they could and entered the hall. But in spite of the rain 
Visakha proceeded at her usual gait. When she entered the hall, her 
garments and jewels were wet. 

The Brahmans perceived that she possessed four of the Beauties. 
Desiring to see her teeth, they began saying to each other, "Our 
daughter has a slothful nature. Her husband will not get so much 
as sour rice-gruel to eat, or we are sorely mistaken!" Then said 
Visakha to the Brahmans, "What are you saying.?" "We were speak- 
ing of you, dear girl." (They say that her voice was soft and resonant 
like the tones of a bell.) Then, with her soft, resonant voice, she 
asked them again, "What was the subject of your conversation .f^" 

"We were saying that while the young women who are your 
attendants ran as fast as they could and entered the hall without 
wetting their garments and their jewels, you did not quicken youpj 
pace at all, although it was but a short distance you had to go, and 



-N. 1.39018] 



Marriage of Visdkhd 



63 



entered the hall with your garments and jewels wet." "Dear friends, 
do not speak thus. I am stronger than they are. Moreover, I had 
good reason for not quickening my pace." "What was the reason, 
dear girl.?" 

"Dear friends, there are four persons who do not appear to ad- 
vantage while running; and there is another reason besides." "Dear 
girl, which are the four persons that do not appear to advantage 
while running.?" "Dear friends, an anointed king does not appear to 
advantage if, adorned with all his jewels, he girds up his loins and 
runs in the palace-court. By so doing he will certainly incur unfavor- 
able criticism, and people will say of him, 'Why is this great king 
running about like a common householder.?' 

"Likewise the king's state elephant, when fully caparisoned, 
does not appear to advantage while running; but when he moves with 
the natural grace of an elephant, he does appear to advantage. A 
monk does not appear to advantage while running. By so doing he 
will incur only unfavorable criticism, and people will say of him, 'Why 
does this monk run about like a common householder.?' [390] But 
if he walks at a tranquil gait, he does appear to advantage. A woman 
does not appear to advantage while running. She will incur only 
unfavorable criticism, and justly so. People will say of her, *Why is 
this woman running about like a man.?' These are the four persons 
that do not appear to advantage while running." 

"But what was the other reason, dear girl?" "Dear friends, 
mothers and fathers bring up a daughter seeking to preserve intact 
the greater and lesser members of her body. For we are goods for 
sale, and they bring us up with the intention of marrying us off into 
some other family. The result is that were we, while running, to 
trip over the hem of our skirt or on the ground, and fall and break 
either a hand or a foot, we should be a burden on our family. But 
if the clothes we wear get wet, they will dry. Bearing this considera- 
tion in mind, dear friends, I did not run." 

While Visakha was talking, the Brahmans observed the beauty 
of her teeth. "Such beautiful teeth as hers we have never seen," 
said they. And applauding her, they said, "Dear girl, only you are 
worthy to receive this." So saying, they threw the golden garland 
over her head. Then she asked them, "Dear friends, from what city 
do you come.?" "From Savatthi, dear girl." "What is the name 
of the treasurer whose household you represent.?" "The treasurer's 
name is Migara, dear girl." "What is the name of his noble son.?" 



64 



Book J^, Story 8. Dhammapada 53 [N.i.soois^ 



*'Punnavaddhana Kumara, dear girl." "The family is of equal birth 
with our own," thought Visakha. 

So she accepted the proposal and immediately sent the following 
message to her father, "Let him send us a chariot." [391] For 
although when she came thither she came on foot, yet from the moment 
when the garland was thrown over her head, it was no longer proper 
for her to go on foot. Daughters of noblemen travel in chariots and 
the like, while others enter an ordinary carriage or raise a parasol or 
a palmyra-leaf over their heads; and if this is not to be had, take the 
skirt of their undergarment and throw it over their shoulder. 

Now her father sent her five hundred chariots, and entering her 
chariot, she departed with her retinue, the Brahmans accompanying 
her. The treasurer asked the Brahmans, "Whence have you come.'^" 
"From Savatthi, great treasurer." "What is the name of the treas- 
urer.^" "The treasurer's name is Migara." "What is the name of his 
son.?^" "Punnavaddhana Kumara." "How great is his wealth.?" 
"Forty crores, great treasurer." "As for his wealth, it is but a far- 
thing compared with ours; but from the time when one obtains a pro- 
tector for his daughter, why should anything else be considered.?" 
So saying, the treasurer gave his consent. And when he had en- 
tertained them in his house for two days, bestowing all manner of 
attentions upon them, he dismissed them. 

The Brahmans returned to Savatthi and reported to Treasurer 
Migara, "We have found a maiden." "Whose daughter is she?" 
"The daughter of Treasurer Dhananjaya." Treasurer Migara thought 
to himself, "I have obtained the daughter of a notable family, and it 
behooves me to bring her hither with all speed." So he informed the 
king of his intention to go thither. The king thought to himself, 
"That is the distinguished family I took from King Bimbisara and 
settled at Saketa. [392] I ought to show him every attention." So 
he said, "I will go too." "Very well, your majesty," replied Treasurer 
Migara. So Treasurer Migara sent the following message to Treasurer 
Dhananjaya, "When I come, the king will accompany me, and the 
king's force is a large one. Shall you be able or shall you not be able 
to care for so large a company.?" Treasurer Dhananjaya sent back 
the following reply, "If ten kings are coming, let them come!" 

Accordingly Treasurer Migara took with him from that great city 
all of the inhabitants except so many as were required to guard the 
houses, and halting half a league from Saketa, sent the following mes- 
sage to Treasurer Dhananjaya, "We have arrived." Thereupon 



-N. 1.39316] Marriage of Visdkhd 65 

Treasurer Dhananjaya sent a handsome present to Treasurer Migara 
and took counsel with his daughter, saying, "Dear daughter, I am 
informed that your father-in-law has arrived, and with him the king 
of Kosala. Which house shall be made ready for him, and which for 
the king, and which houses for the viceroys?" (The treasurer's 
daughter possessed wisdom, and her intelligence was as keen as the 
edge of a diamond, as the result of the Resolution she had formed and 
the Earnest Wish she had cherished during a hundred thousand cycles 
of time.) 

So she made the necessary arrangements, saying, "Make ready 
such and such a house for my father-in-law, such and such for the 
king, and such and such for the viceroys." And causing the slaves and 
the servants to be summoned, she apportioned to them their several 
duties, saying, "So many of you are to wait upon the king and so 
many upon the viceroys; and so many of you as are hostlers and the 
like are to care for the elephants and horses and other animals, so 
that when our guests arrive, they may enjoy this festive occasion to 
the full." (Why did she take it upon herself to do this.^ So that none 
might say, "We came to take part in the festivities of Visakha's 
marriage, but obtained no enjoyment; instead, we spent our time 
looking after our horses and the like.") 

On that very day also Visakha's father caused five hundred gold- 
smiths to be summoned and said to them, "Make for my daughter 
a great-creeper-parure." [393] So saying, he gave them a thousand 
nikkhas of ruddy gold and a sufficient supply of silver, rubies, pearls, 
coral, and diamonds to go with it. 

After the king had remained a few days, he sent the following 
message to Treasurer Dhananjaya, "The treasurer must not think of 
providing maintenance and support for us for long. Let him inform 
us when the maiden is to depart." The treasurer sent back the follow- 
ing message to the king, "The season of the rains has now arrived; 
therefore it will be impossible for you to move for four months. What- 
ever your army requires, all this it shall be my duty to provide. The 
king will depart when I send him." From that time on it was like one 
long holiday in the city of Saketa. From the king to the humblest 
person, all were adorned with garlands and perfumes and rich apparel, 
and each thought to himself, "The king is bestowing his attentions 
on me alone." In this manner three months passed, but the parure 
was not yet finished. 

The superintendents of the work came and reported to the treasurer, 



m 



Book ^, Story 8, Dhammapada 58 [N.i.393i6-j 



"Nothing is lacking except that there is not sufficient wood to cook 
food for the army." "Friends, go tear down all the ruined elephant- 
stables and all the dilapidated houses in this city and use them for] 
firewood." They cooked food with firewood thus obtained for a 
fortnight, and then came back and reported, "There is no more' 
wood." "At this time of year it is impossible to procure firewood; 
therefore open the storehouses where the cloths are kept, take coarse j 
cloths, make wicks of them, [394] soak them in vessels of oil, and] 
thus cook the food." And this they did for another fortnight. 

Thus four months passed, and the parure was completed. In the^ 
making of this parure, four pint-pots of diamonds were used, eleven 
pint-pots of pearls, twenty-two pint-pots of coral, thirty-three pint- 
pots of rubies; with these and other of the seven kinds of jewels the 
parure was completed. Ordinary threads were not used in the making 
of this parure; the thread work was entirely of silver. It was fastened 
to the head and extended to the feet. In various places seals of gold 
and dies of silver were attached to hold it in position. There was one 
seal on the crown of the head, one on the top of each ear, one at the 
throat, one on each knee, one at each elbow, one at the waist, and one 
at the small of the back. 

In the fabric of this parure the goldsmiths wrought a peacock; 
in its right wing were five hundred feathers of ruddy gold, and in its 
left wing five hundred. Its beak was of coral, its eyes were of gems, 
and likewise its neck and its tail-feathers; the midribs of the feathers 
were of precious stones and likewise its legs. When it was placed on 
the crown of Visakha's head, it appeared like a peacock standing on 
the peak of a mountain and dancing; and the sound of the midribs of the 
thousand feathers was like the music of the celestial choir or of the 
five kinds of instruments. Only by going very close could people tell 
that it was not a real peacock. [395] The materials used in the 
making of this parure cost nine crores, and a hundred thousand pieces 
of money were paid for the workmanship. 

(Through what deed in a previous state of existence did Visakha 
receive this parure? We are told that in the dispensation of the 
Buddha Kassapa she presented twenty thousand monks with bowls 
and robes, and that she likewise gave them thread and needles and 
dyeing materials, all of which were her property. It was through this 
gift of robes that she received this parure. The gift of robes by women 
culminates in the great-creeper-parure, the gift of robes by men 
culminates in the reception of bowls and robes supernaturally created.) 



-N. 1.39616] Marriage of Visdkhd 67 

When in the course of four months the great treasurer had thus 
prepared a trousseau for his daughter, he began giving her her dowry. 
He gave her five hundred carts filled with money, five hundred carts 
filled with vessels of gold, five hundred filled with vessels of silver, 
five hundred filled with copper vessels, five hundred carts filled with 
garments made of various kinds of silk, five hundred carts filled with 
ghee, five hundred filled with rice husked and winnowed, and five 
hundred carts filled with plows, plowshares, and other farm 
implements. 

This, we are told, was the thought that occurred to him, "In the 
place to which my daughter is going, she must never be obliged to send 
to her neighbor and say, 'I have need of this or that.'" For this 
reason, therefore, he provided her with all these implements. Then 
he provided her with slave-maidens richly dressed and adorned to 
wait upon her person, bringing up five hundred carts and placing 
three slave-maidens in each cart and saying to them, "You are to 
bathe her and feed her and dress her." Thus he gave her fifteen 
hundred slave-maidens to wait upon her person. 

Then the following thought occurred to him, "I will give my 
daughter cattle." So he gave the following order to his men, [396] 
"My men, go to the small cattle-pen and open the gate. When you 
have so done, post yourselves on both sides of a lane three-quarters 
of a league in length and eight rods across, with a drum at every quarter- 
league, and do not allow the cattle to pass beyond these limits. When 
you have taken up your positions, sound your drums." 

His men did as they were commanded. Leaving the cattle-pen, 
they proceeded a quarter of a league and sounded the drum; then 
proceeding to the half -league point, they sounded the drum; then 
proceeding to the three-quarter-league point, they sounded the drum; 
and they guarded the means of exit along the sides. When they had 
so done, cattle filled an inclosure three-quarters of a league in length 
and eight rods across and stood rubbing shoulder with shoulder. 

Then the great treasurer ordered the gate of the cattle-pen to 
be closed, saying, "These cattle are enough for my daughter. Close 
the gate." But even after the gate had been closed, by the fruit 
of Visakha's merit, the powerful bulls and milch-cows leaped over 
the gate and got out. Indeed, in spite of all that the men could do 
to prevent them, sixty thousand powerful bulls and sixty thousand 
milch-cows escaped, powerful bull-calves following the milch-cows 
out of the inclosure. 



68 



Book ^, Story 8. Dhammapada 53 [N. 1.39617- 



(Through what deed in a previous state of existence did the cattle 
thus come forth? We are told that, in the dispensation of the Buddha 
Kassapa, Visakha was reborn as Sanghadasi, the youngest of seven 
daughters of King Kiki. One day, as she was giving the five products 
of the cow to a company of twenty thousand monks, [397] the young 
monks and novices covered their bowls with their hands and said, 
"Enough! enough!" But in spite of their efforts to prevent her, 
she continued to givQ, saying, "This is pleasant to the taste, this 
will rejoice the heart." As the result of this deed, we are told, the 
cattle escaped in spite of all that the men could do to prevent 
them.) 

After the treasurer had given all this wealth to his daughter, his 
wife said to him, "You have provided all else for your daughter, but 
you have not provided men-servants and women-servants to do her 
bidding. Why is this.?" "Because I wish to find out which of them 
have a sincere affection for my daughter and which of them have 
not. It is not my intention to seize by the neck and send with her 
those who do not wish to go with her. But when she has entered her 
carriage and is ready to start, then I will say, *Let those who wish 
to go with her go; let those who do not wish to go with her remain 
behind.'" 

"On the morrow my daughter will depart," thought the treasurer 
as he sat in his inner room. So he summoned his daughter, seated 
her beside him, and said to her, "Dear daughter, there are certain 
modes of conduct which you must observe so long as you live with 
your husband's family." And so saying, he gave her certain admoni- 
tions. Now Treasurer Migara happened to be sitting in the next room 
and heard all the admonitions which Treasurer Dhananjaya gave 
to his daughter. And these were the admonitions which Treasurer 
Dhananjaya gave to his daughter: 

"Dear daughter, so long as you live in the house of your father-in- 
law, the indoor fire is not to be carried outside; the outdoor fire is 
not to be carried inside; give only to him that gives; give not to 
him that gives not; [398] give both to him that gives and to him 
that gives not; sit happily; eat happily; sleep happily; tend the 
fire; honor the household divinities." 

These Ten Admonitions did Treasurer Dhananjaya give to his 
daughter. On the following day he assembled all the guilds of artisans 
and standing in the midst of the king's army, appointed eight house- 
holders to be sponsors for his daughter, saying to them, "If in the 



-N. 1.39912] Marriage of Visakha 69 

place to which my daughter is going, any fault is charged against my 
daughter, you are to clear her of the charge." 

Then he caused his daughter to put on her great-creeper-parure 
which cost nine crores of treasure, and giving her fifty-four crores 
of treasure to buy aromatic powders for the bath, he assisted her to 
enter her carriage. And escorting her through the fourteen villages 
round about Saketa which paid tribute to him as far as Anuradhapura, 
he caused the following proclamation to be made, "Let those who 
wish to go with my daughter go." 

So soon as the inhabitants of the fourteen villages heard this 
proclamation, they exclaimed, "Why should we remain here when 
our noble mistress is departing.^" And they , departed from those 
villages, leaving nothing behind them. Treasurer Dhananjaya paid 
his respects to the king and Treasurer Migara, accompanied them a 
little way on their journey, and then bidding farewell to his daughter, 
placed her in their charge. 

When Treasurer Migara, seated in the last carriage in the pro- 
cession, saw the army of people following, he asked, "Who are these 
people.'*" "Men-servants and women-servants to do your daughter- 
in-law's bidding." "Who can feed so many as these.? Beat them with 
sticks and drive them back. Take along only those who will not be 
driven back." But Visakha protested, saying, "Hold! do not drive 
them away. One army will feed the other." Said the treasurer in 
reply to her protests, "Dear girl, we have no need of these people. 
[399] Who will feed them.?" And he had them beaten with clods of 
earth, sticks, and the like and driven back. And taking with him 
those who would not be driven back, he said, "These are enough for 
our purposes," and continued his journey. 

Now when Visakha reached the gate of the city of Savatthi, she 
thought to herself, "Shall I enter the city sitting in a closed carriage 
or standing up in a chariot.?" Thereupon the following thought 
occurred to her, "If I enter the city sitting in a closed carriage, the 
splendor and magnificence of my great-creeper-parure will be visible 
to none." Accordingly she entered the city standing up in a chariot, 
showing herself to all the city. When the residents of Savatthi beheld 
Visakha's state, they said, "This, they say, is Visakha, and her state 
well becomes her." Such was the splendid state in which Visakha 
entered the treasurer's house. 

On the day when Visakha entered the city of Savatthi, all the resi- 
dents of the city said to themselves, "Treasurer Dhananjaya was 



70 Book J^, Story 8, Dhammapada 53 [N.i.399i3- 

most hospitable to us when we visited his city." Therefore they sent 
presents to Visakha according to their power and ability. And alii 
the presents which were sent to her Visakha distributed among the 
various families throughout the city. "Give this to my mother,"} 
she would say; "this to my father, this to my brother, this to m^ 
sister." Thus she accompanied every gift she sent with a kindly] 
message to the recipient, choosing her words with reference to th< 
age and station of each and adopting, as it were, all the residents of] 
the city as her kinsfolk. 

Now in the middle of the night Visakha's well-bred mare gave 
birth to a foal. Accordingly Visakha went to the stable, accom- 
panied by her female slaves bearing torches in their hands, saw that 
the mare was bathed with hot water [400] and anointed with oil, and 
having so done, returned to her own quarters. 

Now Treasurer Migara, in planning the festivities of his son's 
marriage, completely ignored the Tathagata, in spite of the fact that 
the Teacher was at that time in residence at a monastery close at 
hand. On the other hand, impelled by the friendly feeling which he 
had long cherished for the Naked Ascetics, he said to himself, "I will 
render honor to my noble ascetics." So one day he ordered the finest 
of rice-porridge to be boiled in hundreds of new vessels, invited five 
hundred Naked Ascetics, escorted them into his house, and having 
so done, sent the following message to Visakha, "Let my daughter- 
in-law come and render homage to the Arahats." 

Now Visakha had attained the Fruit of Conversion and was one 
of the Noble Disciples, and therefore she was pleased and delighted 
when she heard the word "Arahats." But when she entered the hall 
where the Naked Ascetics were eating and looked at them, she said, 
"Men like these are totally bereft of sense of modesty and fear of 
mortal sin and have no right to the title * Arahats.' Why did my 
father-in-law send for me to come?" And reproaching the treasurer, 
she returned to her own quarters. 

When the Naked Ascetics saw Visakha, they all reproached the 
treasurer with one accord, saying, "Householder, why did you not 
seek some other maiden to be the wife of your son.? In admitting a 
female lay disciple of the monk Gotama to your house, you have 
admitted a Jonah of Jonahs. Expel her from this house immediately." 
But Treasurer Migara thought to himself, "It is impossible for me to 
expel her from my house on the mere say-so of these ascetics; she 
is the daughter of a great house." Accordingly he said to the Naked 



-N. 1.4022] Marriage of Visakha 71 

Ascetics, "Noble ascetics, young women are likely to do all sorts 
of things, whether knowingly or unknowingly. Hold your peace." 
So saying, he dismissed them. Having so done, he seated himself on 
a costly seat and began to eat rich rice-porridge flavored with honey 
out of a golden dish. 

At this time a monk who was a pellet-faller, [401] going his round 
[for alms, entered the treasurer's residence. Visakha stood fanning 
her father-in-law. When she saw the monk, thinking to herself, "It 
would not be proper for me to announce this monk to my father-in- 
law," she stepped aside, that her father-in-law might see the Elder. 
But the simpleton, although he saw the Elder, pretended not to see 
him and with bowed head continued to eat his meal. Visakha per- 
ceived within herself, "Although my father-in-law sees the Elder, 
^et he makes no sign." Accordingly she said to the Elder, "Pass on, 
fReverend Sir. My father-in-law is eating stale fare." 

Now although Treasurer Migara had resisted the importunities of 
the Naked Ascetics, yet when, as he sat there, he heard her say, "He 
is eating stale fare," he removed his hand from the dish and said, 
"Take away this rice-porridge and expel the woman from this house. 
To think that at a time of festivity she should accuse such a man as 
I am of eating unclean food!" But in this house all the slaves and 
servants belonged to Visakha. Who, therefore, would take hold of 
her hands and her feet.f* There was no one who dared even open his 
mouth. 

Visakha, hearing the words which her father-in-law had uttered, 
said, "Dear father-in-law, this is no sufficient reason why I should 
leave your house. It is not as if I were a common wench brought 
hither by you from some bathing-place on the river. Daughters who 
have mothers and fathers living do not leave the house of their father- 
in-law for any such reason as this. Indeed, for this very reason, when 
I set out to come hither, my father summoned eight householders 
and placed me in their hands and said, 'If any fault is charged against 
my daughter, you are to clear her of the charge.' Send, therefore, 
for my sponsors and let them clear me of the charge." 

"What she says is right," said the treasurer. Accordingly he 
summoned the eight householders and said to them, "At a time of 
festivity, while I was sitting and eating rich rice-porridge out of a 
golden dish, this young woman said that I was eating unclean food. 
[402] Convict her of this charge and expel her from this house." 
"Is what he says true, dear girl.?" 



72 



Book ^, Story 8. Dhammapada 53 [N. 1.4022- 



" I did not say precisely that. What happened was this : A certain 
monk going his round for ahns stopped at the door of the house, and 
my father-in-law, who at the time was eating rich rice-porridge flavored 
with honey, completely ignored him. I thought to myself, 'My 
father-in-law is acquiring no fresh merit in his present state of exist- 
ence, but is consuming only stale merit.' So I said to the Elder, 
*Pass on. Reverend Sir. My father-in-law is eating stale fare.' What 
fault is to be found with me for so doing.?" "None at all. What our 
daughter said was entirely proper. Why should you get angry with 
her.?" 

"Noble sirs, I grant that there is no fault to be found with her for 
this. But on a certain occasion, in the middle watch of the night, she 
went behind the house accompanied by her slaves, both male and 
female." "Is what he says true, dear girl.?" "Dear friends, my reason 
for going was no other than this: My full-blooded mare had given 
birth to a foal in the stable attached to the house. I thought to myself, 
*It is not right that I should sit here and make no sign.' So I ordered 
my slaves to procure torches, and accompanied by my slaves, both 
male and female, I went to the stable and saw to it that proper care 
was given to the mare." "Noble sir, our daughter does work in your 
house which is not fit even for female slaves to do. What fault do 
you find in this.?" 

"Noble sirs, I grant that there is no fault to be found with her 
for this. But when she was on the point of coming here, her father 
admonished her, giving her Ten Admonitions with a deeply hidden 
meaning. I do not know what they mean. Let her tell me the mean- 
ing of them. [403] For example, her father said to her, *The indoor 
fire is not to be carried outside.' Pray how could we live without 
giving fire to the neighbors who live on both sides of us.?" "Is what 
he says true, dear girl.?" "Dear friends, that was not my father's 
meaning. What he meant was this: *Dear daughter, if you see any 
fault in your father-in-law or in your husband, say nothing about it 
when you go to this house or to the other house, for there is no fire 
that may be compared to this fire.'" 

"Noble sirs, let this be as it may. But her father said to her, 
*The outdoor fire is not to be carried inside.' When the fire in the 
house is extinguished, what else can we do than to bring fire in from 
without.?" "Is what he says true, dear girl.?" "Dear friends, that 
was not my father's meaning. What he meant was this: *If either 
women or men in your neighbors' houses speak ill of your father-in- 




-N. 1.40426] Marriage of Visdkha 73 

law or of your husband, you must not bring home what you have 
heard them say and repeat it, saying, "So-and-so said this or that 
unkind thing about you." For there is no fire comparable to this 
fire.'" 

Thus she was found free from fault in this matter, and as in this 
so also in the others. And this is the true meaning of the remaining 
admonitions: "Give only to him that gives" means that one should 
give only to those that return borrowed articles. "Give not to him 
that gives not" means that one should not give to those who do not 
return borrowed articles. "Give both to him that gives and to him 
that gives not" means that when poor [404] kinsfolk and friends 
seek assistance, one should give to them, whether or not they are 
able to repay. 

"Sit happily" means that when a wife sees her mother-in-law or 
her father-in-law or her husband, she should stand and not remain 
sitting. "Eat happily" means that a wife should not eat before her 
mother-in-law and her father-in-law and her husband have eaten. 
She should serve them first, and when she is sure that they have had 
all they care for, then and not until then may she herself eat. "Sleep 
happily" means that a wife should not go to bed before her mother- 
in-law and her father-in-law and her husband. She should first perform 
the major and minor duties which she owes them, and when she has 
so done, then she may herself lie down to sleep. 

"Tend the fire" means that a wife should regard her mother-in- 
law and her father-in-law and her husband as a flame of fire or as a 
serpent-king. "Honor the household divinities" means that a wife 
should look upon her mother-in-law and her father-in-law and her 
husband as her divinities. 

When the treasurer had heard this exposition of the meaning of 
the Ten Admonitions, he sat with bowed head, unable to make answer. 
Then the householders asked him, "Treasurer, is there any other fault 
in our daughter .J^" "Noble sirs, there is not." "Why then, if she is 
without fault, do you seek without cause to expel her from your 
house.^" At this point Visakha said, "Dear friends, although at first 
it would not have been proper for me to leave at the command of 
my father-in-law, inasmuch as when I came hither my father placed 
me in your hands to determine my guilt or my innocence, nevertheless 
now, seeing that you have found me free from fault, it is entirely 
proper for me to go." 

Forthwith she gave orders, "Prepare for my departure my slaves. 



74 Book i, Story 8. Dhammapada 53 [N. 1.40426- 

both male and female, and my carriages and other conveyances." 
Thereupon the treasurer detained those householders and said to 
Visakha, [405] "Dear daughter-in-law, it was through ignorance 
that I spoke. Pardon me." "Dear father in-law, I pardon you 
freely so far as in me lies. But I am the daughter of a house which 
has firm faith in the Religion of the Buddha, and we cannot exist 
without the Congregation of Monks. If I may be permitted to minister 
to the Congregation of Monks, according to my inclination, I will 
remain." "Dear daughter-in-law, you may minister to your monks 
to your heart's content." 

Visakha caused an invitation to be sent to the Possessor of the 
Ten Forces, and on the following day entertained him in her house. 
The Naked Ascetics also, hearing that the Teacher was going to the 
house of Treasurer Migara, went and sat down in a circle about the 
house. When Visakha had given Water of Donation to the Teacher, 
she sent the following message to her father-in-law, "The feast is all 
ready. Let my father-in-law come and wait upon the Possessor of the 
Ten Forces." Now Treasurer Migara desired to go, but the Naked 
Ascetics dissuaded him, saying, "Householder, do not think of going 
to the monk Gotama." So he sent back the following message, "Let 
my daughter-in-law herself wait upon him alone." 

When Visakha had served the Congregation of Monks presided 
over by the Buddha with food, and the meal was over, she sent a 
second message to her father-in-law, "Let my father-in-law come and 
hear the Teacher preach the Law." Thought the treasurer, "It would 
be highly improper for me not to go now," and desiring greatly to 
hear the Law, he set out. Thereupon the Naked Ascetics addressed 
him a second time, saying, "Well then, if you are determined to hear 
the monk Gotama, sit outside of a curtain and listen." And preceding 
him, they drew a curtain around. The treasurer went and sat outside 
of the curtain. 

Then said the Teacher, "You may sit beyond a curtain or beyond 
a wall or beyond a mountain, or you may even sit beyond the range of 
mountains that encircles the earth; I am the Buddha, and I can make 
you hear my voice." [406] And as though seizing and shaking great 
trunks of rose-apple trees or causing ambrosial rain to fall, he began 
to preach the Law in orderly sequence. Now when a Supreme Buddha 
preaches the Law, they that stand before and they that stand behind, 
they that stand beyond a hundred Cakkavalas or a thousand Cak- 
kavalas, and they that stand in the Abode of the Sublime Gods say. 



I 

I 



-N. 1.40718] Marriage of Visakha 75 

"The Teacher is looking at me alone; he is preaching the Law to me 
alone." For the Teacher appears to be looking at each individual and 
to be conversing with each individual. The Buddhas are said to be 
like the moon. For as the moon in mid-heaven appears to all beings 
alike, so that each individual thinks, "The moon is over me, the 
moon is over me," so also the Buddhas appear to stand face to face 
with each individual, no matter where that individual may stand. 
This is said to be the fruit of their generosity in cutting off their 
gloriously adorned heads, gouging out their anointed eyes, uprooting 
the flesh of their hearts, and giving to be the slaves of others sons 
like Jali, daughters like Kanhajina, and wives like Maddi. 

As Treasurer Migara, sitting outside of the curtain, turned over 
in his mind the teaching of the Tathagata, he became established in 
the Fruit of Conversion in a thousand ways adorned, and became 
endowed with unwavering belief, and acquired firm faith in the Three 
Refuges. And lifting the hem of the curtain, he went forwards, and 
taking in his mouth the breast of his daughter-in-law, he adopted her 
as his mother, saying, "To-day henceforth you are my mother." 
And thenceforth she was called Mother of Migara. [407] Later on, 
when she had a son, she gave him the name Migara. Then the great 
treasurer, letting go the breast of his daughter-in-law, went to the 
Exalted One, fell at his feet, stroked his feet with his hands and covered 
them with kisses, and thrice called out his own name, saying, "I am 
Migara, Reverend Sir." Then he said, "Reverend Sir, all this time 
I have not known the abundant fruit of alms given to you, but now, 
through my daughter-in-law, I have come to know of it and have 
obtained release from all the suffering of the states of punishment. 
When my daughter-in-law came to my house, she came for my welfare 
and salvation." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

To-day I know where given alms yield abundant fruit; 

For my welfare indeed my excellent daughter-in-law came to my house. 

Visakha invited the Teacher for the following day, and on the 
following day her mother-in-law attained the Fruit of Conversion. 
And from that time on that house kept open door for the Religion of 
the Buddha. 

Then the treasurer thought to himself, "My daughter-in-law has 
done me a great service. I will make her a present. Now her great- 
creeper-parure is so heavy that it is impossible for her to wear it all 
the time. I will therefore have a light parure made for her which she 



76 Booh k. Story 8. Dhammapada 53 [N.i.407i8- 

can wear both by day and by night in all the four postures." Accord- 
ingly at a cost of a hundred thousand pieces of money he had a parure 
made for her called the solid polished parure, and when this was com- 
pleted, inyited the Congregation of Monks presided over by the Buddha 
and gave them a bountiful feast. Then he caused Visakha to bathe 
herself in sixteen water-pots of perfumed water and to put on the 
solid polished parure. And when she had so done, he caused her to 
take her stand before the Teacher and to pay obeisance to the Teacher. 
Then the Teacher pronounced the words of thanksgiving [408] and 
went back to the monastery. 

Thenceforth Visakha gave alms, performed the other works of 
merit, and obtained the Eight Boons from the Teacher.^ And even 
as the crescent moon waxes great in the sky, even so did Visakha wax 
great with sons and daughters. It is said that she had ten sons and 
ten daughters, and that each of these had ten sons and ten daughters, 
and that each of these had ten sons and ten daughters. Thus the 
children and grandchildren and great-grandchildren in the line of 
direct descent from her numbered eight thousand four hundred and 
twenty persons. She herself lived to be a hundred and twenty years 
old, and yet there was not a single gray hair in her head; she always 
seemed to be about sixteen years old. 

When people saw her on her way to the monastery, surrounded by 
her children and grandchildren, there were always those who would 
ask, "Which of these is Visakha.^" When they saw her coming, they 
would think to themselves, "Let her walk a little way farther; our 
mistress looks well when she walks." And when they saw her sitting 
or lying down, they would think to themselves, "Let her lie a little 
longer; our mistress looks well when she is lying down." Thus there 
was no one who could ever say, "She does not look well in any of the 
four postures." 

Moreover, she had the strength of five elephants. Once upon a 
time the king, who had heard that Visakha possessed the strength of 
five elephants, [409] resolved to test her. So on his way back from 
the monastery, to which he had gone to listen to the Law, he released 
an elephant against her. The elephant lifted up his trunk and made 
straight for Visakha. Of the five hundred women who accompanied 
her, some fled in terror, while others threw their arms about her. 
"What does this mean.?" asked Visakha. 

* See Vinaya, Mahd Vagga, viii. 15: i. 290-294. 



M. 41017] Marriage of Visdkha 77 

"Noble mistress," they replied, "they say that the king desires 
to test your strength and has therefore released an elephant against 
you." When Visakha saw the elephant, she thought to herself, "Why 
should I flee? How now shall I take hold of him? If I grasp him 
firmly, I may kill him." So taking his trunk between two of her 
fingers, she forced him back. The elephant, unable to resist her strength 
and to keep his footing, fell back on his haunches in the royal court. 
Thereupon the populace applauded her, and she returned home with 
her retinue in safety. 

Now at this time, at Savatthi, Visakha Mother of Migara had 
many children and many grandchildren and many great-grand- 
children. And her children were free from sickness and her grand- 
children were free from sickness and her great-grandchildren were 
free from sickness, and she was considered to bring good luck. And 
of all her many thousand children and grandchildren and great- 
grandchildren, not one had as yet met death. On festivals and holi- 
days the residents of Savatthi always invited Visakha first to their 
feasts. 

Now on a certain festive occasion, as the multitude, richly dressed 
and adorned, were on their way to the monastery to listen to the Law, 
[410] Visakha also, after eating in the house to which she had been 
invited, put on her great-creeper-parure and accompanied the multi- 
tude to the monastery. And taking off her ornaments, she gave them 
to her slave-girl, even as it is said: 

Now at this time there was a festival at Savatthi, and the people, 
richly dressed and adorned, went to the Grove; and Visakha Mother 
of Migara, richly dressed and adorned, also went to the monastery. 
And Visakha Mother of Migara took off her ornaments, and wrapping 
them in her cloak, gave them to her slave-girl, saying, "Ho! take 
this bundle." 

It is said that, as she was on her way to the monastery, she thought 
to herself, "It is not fitting that I should enter the monastery covered 
with jewels, wearing on my person a parure so costly as this, extending 
from head to foot." Therefore removing her parure, she made a 
bundle of it and placed it in the hands of her slave-girl, who alone 
could carry it, possessing as she did the strength of five elephants 
acquired by her own merit. Therefore she said to her, "Dear girl, 
take this parure. When I return from the Teacher's sermon, I will 
put it on again." And when she had given the parure to her slave- 
girl, she put on her solid polished parure, and approaching the Teacher, 



78 Book ^, Story 8. Dhammapada 53 [N.1.41O18- 

listened to the Law. At the end of the sermon she saluted the Exalted 
One, rose from her seat, and went out. Her slave-girl, who had for- 
gotten the parure, accompanied her. 

Now it was the custom of Elder Ananda, after the congregation 
had departed from listening to the Law, in case anything had been 
forgotten and left behind, to put it away. So on this particular day, 
seeing the great-creeper-parure, he told the Teacher, "Reverend Sir, 
Visakha has gone away and forgotten her parure." "Put it aside, 
Ananda." So the Elder took it up [411] and hung it beside the 
staircase. Visakha thought to herself, "I will find out what medicines 
and other requisites are needed by the monks who are coming and 
going and who are sick or in need." And for the purpose of providing 
for them she made the rounds of the monastery with Suppiya. 

Now whenever the young monks and novices saw these two female 
lay disciples going the rounds of the monastery, those who had need 
of ghee and honey and oil and the other requisites used to take their 
bowls and other vessels and come up to them. And on this day they 
followed their usual practice. Suppiya, seeing a certain sick monk, 
asked him, "What does my noble master require.^^" "Meat-broth." 
"Very well, noble sir, I will see that it is sent to you." So on the fol- 
lowing day, obtaining no suitable meat with which to make the broth, 
she cut flesh from her own thigh. Through her faith in the Teacher 
her body was made whole. ^ 

When Visakha had attended all the sick monks and all the young 
monks and novices, she went out by another door. Stopping at the 
approach to the monastery, she said to her slave-girl, "Dear girl, 
bring me my parure. I should like to put it on." At that moment 
the slave-girl reflected that she had forgotten to bring it with her 
when she came out. So she replied, "Noble mistress, I forgot to bring 
it with me." "Well then, go back and get it. But in case my noble 
Elder Ananda has taken it up and put it away, do not bring it to me. 
In that case I give it freely to my noble Elder." Now Visakha knew 
in her heart, "It is the practice of the Elder to put away articles that 
have been forgotten and left behind by persons of consequence." It 
was for this reason that she said this. 

When the Elder saw the slave-girl, he asked her, "For what pur- 
pose have you returned .f^" The slave-girl replied, "When I went 
away I forgot to take with me the parure which belongs to my noble 

* See Vinaya, Mahd Vagga, vi. 23. 1-9: i. 216-218. Cf. Divydvaddna, p. 472. 



-N. 1.4 135] Marriage of Visakha ^^^^ 79 

mistress." "I hung it by the staircase. Go get it." But the slave- 
girl replied, "Noble sir, nothing that has been touched by your hand 
[412] may be removed by my noble mistress." And filled with joy 
and delight, she returned to her mistress. "What about it.?" asked 
Visakha. The slave-girl told her the whole story. "Dear girl," said 
Visakha, "I will wear nothing that has been touched by my noble 
master. I give it to him freely. But the parure will be a troublesome 
thing for my noble masters to take care of. I will therefore sell it 
and give my noble masters the equivalent of the money it brings. 
Go fetch it hither." So the slave-girl went and brought back the 
parure. 

Visakha did not put on the parure, but sent for goldsmiths and 
had it appraised. The goldsmiths reported, "The parure is worth 
nine crores, and the workmanship is worth a hundred thousand." 
So Visakha caused the parure to be placed in a cart and said, "Very 
well, sell it." But there was no one who could have bought it at that 
price. (Women who are able to wear the great-creeper-parure are 
hard to find. Indeed on the whole circle of the earth there are but 
three women who have obtained the great-creeper-parure: the eminent 
female lay disciple Visakha, the wife of Bandhula king of the Mallas, 
and Mallika daughter of the treasurer of Benares.) 

Therefore Visakha herself alone gave the price for it, and causing 
the nine crores of treasure and a hundred thousand additional to be 
placed in a cart, she caused it to be conveyed to the monastery. Then 
she saluted the Teacher and said, "Reverend Sir, this thought has 
been in my mind: *My noble master. Elder Ananda, touched with his 
hand my golden-creeper-parure, and from the moment he touched 
it I decided that I could no longer wear it. Therefore I decided to sell 
it and to give you the purchase-money.' But when I tried to sell it, 
I could find no one who was able to buy it, and therefore made up the 
price for it myself and have brought it to you. Which of the four 
requisites shall I present to you. Reverend Sir.?" 

The Teacher replied, [413] "Visakha, would it suit you to erect 
a dwelling-place for the monks at the eastern gate of the monastery.?" 
"That would suit me exactly. Reverend Sir," replied Visakha, her 
heart filled with delight. So for nine crores she bought the site, and 
with m'ne crores more began to build a dwelling-place for the monks. 

Now one day, as the Teacher surveyed the world at dawn, he 
perceived that the faculties requisite for Conversion were possessed 
by a certain treasurer's son named Bhaddiya, who, after passing from 



80 Book Jf^, Story 8, Dhammapada 53 [N. 1.4135- 

the World of the Gods, had been reborn in the household of the 
treasurer of the city of Bhaddiya. Therefore, after eating his break- 
fast in the house of Anathapindika, he set out for the north gate. 

As a rule, when the Teacher took his meal in the house of Visakha, 
he went out by the south gate and resided at the Jetavana; and when 
he took his meal in the house of Anathapindika, he went out by the 
east gate and resided at Pubbarama. Therefore, when the people saw 
the Exalted One going out by the north gate, they knew that he was 
about to set out on a journey. 

When, therefore, on that day, Visakha heard that the Teacher 
was going in the direction of the north gate, she went to him quickly, 
saluted him, and said, "Reverend Sir, is it your intention to set out 
on a journey.'^" "Yes, Visakha." "Reverend Sir, I am causing a 
dwelling-place to be erected for you at an expenditure of all this 
treasure. Pray turn back. Reverend Sir." "Visakha, this is a journey 
which does not permit of my turning back." 

Visakha thought to herself, "Doubtless the Exalted One has good 
reason for what he is doing." So she said to the Teacher, "Well then. 
Reverend Sir, before you depart, direct some monk who knows what 
should be done and what should not be done to remain behind." [414] 
"Visakha, take the bowl of whatever monk you please." 

Now although she was especially fond of Elder Ananda, yet, 
thinking to herself, "Elder Moggallana the Great possesses great 
magical power, and with his assistance my work will be made easy," 
she took the bowl of Elder Moggallana the Great. The Elder looked 
at the Teacher, and the Teacher said, "Moggallana, take with you 
your retinue of five hundred monks and turn back." The Elder did 
as he was commanded. 

By the supernatural power of Elder Moggallana the Great they 
went fifty or sixty leagues for trees and stones and returned with 
great trees and stones on the same day. Nor did it tire them to hoist 
trees and stones on the carts, nor did an axle break, and in but a short 
time they erected a dwelling-place two stories high. There were 
five hundred rooms on the ground floor and five hundred rooms on 
the floor above; thus the dwelling-place contained a thousand rooms 
in all. The Teacher, after journeying about for nine months, returned 
to Savatthi. In those nine months also the work on Visakha's dwelling 
was completed, and she was building a pinnacle of solid, beaten, ruddy 
^old, intended to hold sixty water-pots. [415] 

When Visakha heard that the Teacher was on his way to the Jeta- 



I 



-N.l .41614] 



Marriage of Visakha 



vana, she went forth to meet him, and conducting him to the monas- 
tery which she was building, exacted the following promise from him, 
"Reverend Sir, bring the Congregation of Monks here for these four 
months and take up your residence here, and I will have the dwelHng- 
place for the monks finished." The Teacher consented to come. 
Thenceforth she gave alms to the Congregation of Monks presided 
over by the Buddha in that very monastery. 

Now a certain friend of hers came to her with a piece of cloth worth 
a hundred thousand pieces of money and said to her, "Friend, I should 
like to spread this small carpet in your dwelling-place. Tell me where 
I may spread it." Visakha replied, "If I say to you, * There is no 
room,' you will think, 'She does not wish to give me any space;' 
therefore you yourself may look through the two floors and the 
thousand rooms and see whether there is any place to lay your carpet." 
So the woman took the carpet worth a hundred thousand pieces of 
money and went through the whole dwelling-place. But finding no 
coverings of less value than her own, she thought to herself, "I shall 
obtain no merit in the building of this dwelling-place," and overcome 
with sadness, stopped in a certain place and stood there weeping. 

Elder Ananda saw her and asked her, "What are you weeping 
ioT?'' She told him what was the matter. Said the Elder, "Do not 
grieve. I will show you where you can spread your carpet. Make of 
it a mat for the feet and spread it between the foot of the stairs and 
the place where the monks wash their feet*. When the monks bathe 
their feet, they will first wipe their feet there [416] before going into 
the monastery. Thus you will earn abundant merit." It appears that 
Visakha had overlooked this place. 

After Visakha had for four months given alms to the Congregation 
of Monks presided over by the Buddha, on the last day she gave cloth 
for robes to the Congregation of Monks, each novice receiving cloth 
for robes worth a thousand pieces of money each. Last of all she gave 
medicines to the monks, filling the bowl of each monk. The treasure 
she spent in the giving of alms amounted to nine crores. Thus in all 
she spent twenty-seven crores of treasure in the Religion of the Buddha, 
nine crores for the site of the monastery, nine crores to build it, and 
nine crores for alms. No other woman in the world gave away so 
much money as this woman who lived in the house of a heretic. 

On the day when the monastery was completed and the festival 
of the opening of the monastery was in progress, as the shadows of 
evening lengthened, she walked round about the monastery, accom- 



82 Book 4, Story 8. Dhammapada 53 [N.1.41618- 

panied by her children and her grandchildren and her great-grand- 
children. And then she thought within herself, "Now is entirely ful-1 
filled the prayer which I prayed in times of yore." And in five, 
stanzas, with her sweet voice, she breathed forth the following Solemn 
Utterance: 

When shall I give the gift of a monastery, a pleasing dwelling-place plastered with 
cement and mortar? Fulfilled is my desire. 

When shall I give the furnishings of a lodging, beds and chairs and mats and pillows? 
Fulfilled is my desire. [417] 

When shall I give the gift of food, ticket-food flavored with pure meat-broths? Ful- 
filled is my desire. 

When shall I give the gift of robes, Benares cloth, linens and cottons? Fulfilled is my 
desire. 

When shall I give the gift of medicaments, ghee and butter and honey and oil and 
jaggery? Fulfilled is my desire. 

The monks, hearing the sound of her voice, said to the Teacher, 
"Reverend Sir, during all this time we have never known Visakha to 
sing. But to-day, surrounded by her children and her grandchildren 
and her great-grandchildren, she is going round and round the monas- 
tery singing. Is her bile out of order or has she gone mad.^^" The 
Teacher replied, "Monks, my daughter is not singing. But her 
Earnest Wish is now fulfilled, and her heart is filled with joy at the 
thought, *The prayer I prayed is now fulfilled,' and she is breathing 
forth a Solemn Utterance as she walks about." "But, Reverend 
Sir, when was it that she prayed this prayer.^" "Do you wish to hear, 
monks.?" "Yes, Reverend Sir, we wish to hear." Thereupon the 
Teacher told them the following 

8 a. Story of the Past: Visakha's Earnest Wish 

Monks, a hundred thousand cycles of time in the past, a Buddha 
named Padumuttara appeared in the world. The term of his life 
was a hundred thousand years, his retinue of Arahats numbered a 
hundred thousand, his city was named Harhsavati, his father was 
Sunanda, and his mother was Sujata Devi. The female lay disciple 
who was his principal benefactress obtained from him the Eight Boons, 
and standing in the relation of a mother to him, provided the Teacher 
with the Four Requisites, going to wait upon him both in the evening 
and in the morning. Now she had a friend who invariably accom- 
panied her to the monastery, and when this friend observed how 
intimately she conversed with the Teacher and how she was beloved 



-N. 1.41825] Marriage of Visakha 83 



f 

^m by the Teacher, she considered within herself, "By what means may 

^H women become thus beloved of the Buddhas?" 

^^ So one day she asked the Teacher, "Reverend Sir, in what relation 

does this woman stand to you?" "She is the chief of my benefac- 
tresses." [418] "Reverend Sir, by what means may women become 
the chief benefactresses of the Buddhas.?" "By making an Earnest 
Wish for a hundred thousand cycles of time." "Reverend Sir, would 
it be possible for a woman to attain this position by making an Earnest 
Wish at this moment.?" "Yes, that would be possible." "Well then. 
Reverend Sir, accept food at my hands for seven days with your 
hundred thousand monks." The Teacher consented to do so. 

So for seven days she gave alms to the Teacher. On the last day, 
taking the Teacher's bowl and robe, she saluted the Teacher, and 
prostrating herself at his feet, made the following Earnest Wish, 
"Reverend Sir, I seek not through the giving of these alms any such 
reward as sovereignty over the gods; but may I receive the Eight 
Boons at the hands of a Buddha like you, may I stand in the relation 
of a mother to him, and may I be the foremost of the women entitled 
to provide him with the Four Requisites." 

Thought the.Teacher, "Will her Earnest Wish be fulfilled.?" After 
pondering the future in his mind and surveying a hundred thousand 
cycles of time, he said to her, "At the end of a hundred thousand 
cycles of time a Buddha named Gotama will arise in the world. At 
that time you will be a female lay disciple named Visakha; you will 
receive the Eight Boons at his hands, you will stand in the relation 
of a mother to him, and you will be the foremost of the women entitled 
to provide him with the Four Requisites." 

Thus it was inevitable, so to speak, that she should receive this 
Attainment. After spending the remainder of the term of life allotted 
to her in the performance of works of merit, she passed out of that 
state of existence and was reborn in the World of the Gods. After 
passing through the round of existence in the Worlds of the Gods and 
the world of men, she was reborn in the dispensation of the Buddha 
Kassapa as Sanghadasi, the youngest of seven daughters of Kiki, 
king of Kasi. She married and went to live with her husband's family, 
and for a long period of time gave alms and performed other works of 
merit in company with her sisters. 

One day she fell at the feet of the Supreme Buddha Kassapa and 
made the following Earnest Wish, "May I at some time in the future 
stand in the relation of mother to a Buddha like you, and may I be 



84 



Booh 4, Story 9. Dhammapada 54-55 [N.1.41825- 



the foremost of the women entitled to provide him with the Four 
Requisites." Thereafter she passed through the round of existence 
in the Worlds of the Gods and the world of men, and in her present 
state of existence [419] was reborn as the daughter of Treasurer 
Dhanafijaya, who was the son of Treasurer Ram. And in her present 
state of existence she has wrought many works of merit in my Religion. 
End of Story of the Past. 

"Thus, monks, my daughter was not singing, but was breathing 
forth a Solemn Utterance as she saw the fulfillment of the prayer she 
had prayed." And when he had thus spoken, the Teacher expounded 
the Law, saying, "Monks, even as out of a great heap of flowers of 
various kinds a skillful garland-maker makes all manner of garlands 
of flowers, even so the mind of Visakha inclines to the doing of all 
manner of good deeds." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

53. Even as from a heap of flowers a man may make many garlands, 

Even so he that is bom a mortal man should perform many good deeds. 



IV. 9. ELDER ANANDA'S QUESTION ^ 

The perfume of flowers goes not against the wind. This religious 
instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at 
Savatthi by way of reply to a question which the Elder Ananda 
asked him. [420] 

We are told that one evening, absorbed in meditation, the Elder 
pondered the following thought: "The Exalted One possesses the 
three perfumes of superlative excellence; namely, the perfume of 
sandal, the perfume of roots, and the perfume of flowers. Each of 
these perfumes, however, goes only with the wind. Is there possibly 
a substance whose perfume goes against the wind, or is there possibly 
a substance whose perfume goes both with the wind and against the 
wind.^" Then the following thought occurred to him: "What is the 
use of my trying to determine this question all by myself .^^ I will 
ask the Teacher, and the Teacher alone." Accordingly he approached 
the Teacher and put the question to him. Therefore it is said: 

"Now one evening the Venerable Ananda arose from profound 
meditation and drew near to the place where sat the Exalted One, 
and when he had drawn near, [421] he addressed the Exalted One as 

^ This story is almost word for word the same as Anguttara, i. 225-^^6. Text: N i. 
420-423. 



~N.l .42211] 



Elder Ananda's question 



85 



follows, * Reverend Sir, there are these three substances whose perfume 
goes only with the wind and not against the wind. What are the 
three.? The perfume of roots, the perfume of sandal, and the perfume 
of flowers. These, Reverend Sir, are the three substances whose 
perfume goes only with the wind and not against the wind. But, 
Reverend Sir, is there possibly a substance whose perfume goes both 
with the wind and against the wind, or is there possibly a substance 
whose perfume goes both with the wind and against the wind.?' 

"Said the Exalted One in answer to the question, *Ananda, there 
is a substance whose perfume goes with the wind, a substance whose 
perfume goes both with the wind and against the wind.' 'But, Rever- 
end Sir, what is that substance whose perfume goes with the wind, 
that substance whose perfume goes both with the wind and against 
the wind.?' 'Ananda, if in any village or market-town in this world 
any human being, whether man or woman, seeks refuge in the Buddha, 
seeks refuge in the Law, seeks refuge in the Order; if he refrains from 
taking life, from taking that which is not given, from indulgence in 
the sins of the flesh and from lying, and avoids occasions of heedlessness 
through the use of liquor or spirits or other intoxicants; if he is virtu- 
ous; if he lives the life of a householder in righteousness, with a heart 
free from the stain of avarice; if he is liberal and generous, if he 
is open-handed, if he takes delight in giving, if he is attentive to 
petitions, if he takes delight in the distribution of alms, in all parts 
of the world monks and Brahmans utter his praise. If in such and 
such a village or market-town either a man or a woman seeks refuge 
in the Buddha, ... if he takes delight in the distribution of alms, 
deities and spirits utter his praise. If in such and such a [422] village 
or market-town either a man or a woman seeks refuge in the Buddha, 
... if he takes delight in the distribution of alms, such acts as these, 
Ananda, are the substance whose perfume goes both with the wind and 
against the wind, whose perfume goes both with and against the 
wind.' " So saying, he pronounced the following Stanzas, 

54. The perfume of flowers goes not against the wind. 

Nor that of sandal, nor that of Tagara or MalUka flowers; 
But the perfume of the righteous goes against the wind; 
To every point a good man exhales fragrance. 

55. Above and beyond all varieties of perfume. 
Whether of sandal or of lotus 

Or of Tagara or VassikI flowers. 
The perfume of virtue is preeminent. 



86 



Book Jf,, Story 10. Dhammapada 56 [N. 1.4238- 



IV. 10. SAKKA GIVES ALMS TO KASSAPA THE GREAT ' 

Weak is this perfume. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Veluvana with reference to 
alms given to Elder Kassapa the Great. [423] 

For one day Elder Kassapa the Great arose from a Trance of 
Cessation which had lasted seven days and started out with the 
intention of making an unbroken round for alms in Rajagaha. At 
the same time five hundred pink-footed nymphs who were the wives 
of Sakka king of gods roused themselves and prepared five hundred 
portions of alms, intending to give those alms to the Elder. Taking 
their alms, they halted on the road and said to the Elder, "Reverend 
Sir, accept these alms; do us a favor." The Elder replied, "Begone, 
all of you. I intend to bestow my favor on the poor." "Reverend 
Sir, do not destroy us; do us a favor." But the Elder knew them 
and refused them again. [424] When they still showed unwillingness 
to depart and renewed their request, he said, "You do not know your 
place. Begone!" So saying, he snapped his fingers at them. 

When the nymphs heard the Elder snap his fingers, they were 
unable to retain their composure, and not daring to remain where 
they were, took flight and returned once more to the World of the 
Gods. Said Sakka, "Where have you been.^^" "Sire, we went out, 
saying to ourselves, *We will give alms to this Elder who has just 
arisen from trance.'" "But did you succeed in giving your alms or 
not.?" "He refused to accept our alms." "What did he say.?" "He 
said, *I intend to bestow my favor on the poor.'" "In what way did 
you go?" "In this way, Sire." "Why should the likes of you seek 
to bestow alms on the Elder.?" asked Sakka. 

Sakka himself desired to give alms to the Elder. So he disguised 
himself as an old weaver worn out by old age, an old man with broken 
teeth, gray hair, and a bent and broken body. And transforming 
Wellborn the celestial nymph into just such an old woman, and creating 
by supernatural power a weavers' lane, he sat spinning out thread. 
The Elder went towards the city, thinking to himself, "I will bestow 
favor on poor folk." And seeing this street outside of the city, he 
looked all about and noticed those two persons. At that moment 
Sakka was spinning out the thread and Wellborn was feeding a 

1 Derived from Udana, iii. 7: 29-30. Text: N i. 423-430. 



-N. 1.42614] Sakha gives alms to Kassapa the Great 87 

shuttle. The Elder thought to himself, "These two persons are doing 
manual labor in old age; there are doubtless no persons in this city 
poorer than these two. [425] If they will give me but a ladleful, I 
will accept it and bestow my favor upon them." Accordingly he went 
towards them. 

When Sakka saw them approaching, he said to Wellborn, "My 
lady, my noble Elder approaches hither. Pretend not to see him; be 
silent; sit down. In an instant we shall deceive him and give him 
alms." The Elder approached and stood at the door of the house. 
But they pretended not to see him, continued their work as if nothing 
had happened, and bided their time. Then said Sakka, "Methinks 
an Elder stands at the door of the house. Just go find out." Said 
Wellborn, "My lord, you go find out yourself." 

Sakka went out of the house, saluted the Elder with the Five Rests, 
placed both hands on his knees, and wept. Then, straightening him- 
self up, he said, "Which Elder are you.^" Then, drawing back a little, 
he said, "My eyes are grown dim." Then, placing his hand on his 
forehead, he looked up and said, "Alas! alas! it is a long, long time 
since our Elder Kassapa the Great has come to the door of my hut. 
Is there anything in the house .^" 

Wellborn pretended to be somewhat embarrassed, but immediately 
answered, "Yes, husband, there is." Sakka took the Elder's bowl, 
saying, "Reverend Sir, consider not whether the food be coarse or 
fine, but be gracious to us." The Elder gave the bowl, thinking," It 
matters not whether they give me pot-herb or a fistful of rice-dust, I 
will accept it and bestow my favor upon them." [426] Sakka went 
into the house, took boiled rice from the rice- jar, filled the bowl, and 
placed it in the Elder's hand. 

Straightway that portion of alms, richly flavored with all manner 
of sauces and curries, filled the whole city of Rajagaha with its fra- 
grance. The Elder thought to himself, "This man is weak, but his 
alms are as powerful as the food of Sakka. Who can he be.^^" Per- 
ceiving that it was Sakka, he said, "You have done a grievous wrong 
in depriving poor folk of the opportunity to acquire merit. By bestow- 
ing alms on me to-day, any poor man soever might obtain the post of 
commander-in-chief or the post of treasurer." "Is there any man 
poorer than I, Reverend Sir?" " How do you come to be poor, enjoying 
as you do splendor of dominion in the World of the Gods.^^" 

"Reverend Sir, this is the explanation. Before the Buddha ap- 
peared in the world I performed works of merit. When the Buddha 



88 Book ^, Story 10. Dhammapada 56 [N.i.426i4- 

appeared in the world, three deities of equal rank were reborn who, by 
the performance of works of merit, possessed greater glory than I, 
When these deities say in my presence, 'Let us make holiday,' and 
take female slaves [427] and go down into the street, I take to my 
heels and enter my house. The glory from their persons overspreads 
my person, but the glory from my person does not overspread their 
persons. Who, Reverend Sir, is poorer than I.?" "If this be true, 
henceforth do not attempt to deceive me by giving alms to me." 
"Have I acquired merit, or have I not acquired merit, by giving alms 
to you through deception.?" "You have acquired merit, brother." 
"If this be true. Reverend Sir, it is my bounden duty to perform works 
of merit." So saying, Sakka saluted the Elder, and accompanied 
by Wellborn, walked sunwise about the Elder. Then, flying up into 
the air, he breathed forth the following Solemn Utterance: 

Oh, almsgiving, the perfection of almsgiving. 
Well bestowed on Kassapa! 

Moreover, it is said in the Udana: 

Once upon a time the Exalted One was in residence in the city of 
Rajagaha, at Veluvana monastery in Kalandakanivapa. Now at 
this time Venerable Kassapa the Great was in residence at Pipphali 
Cave. For the space of seven days he sat in unbroken posture, ab- 
sorbed in one of the forms of Ecstatic Meditation. Now on the 
expiration of those seven days Venerable Kassapa the Great arose 
from that trance, and straightway the thought occurred to him, 
"Suppose I were to go about Rajagaha for alms." Now at that time 
^ve hundred celestial nymphs greatly desired that Venerable Kassapa 
the Great should receive alms from them. But Venerable Kassapa 
the Great refused those five hundred [428] celestial nymphs. And 
early in the morning he put on his undergarment, and taking bowl 
and robe, entered Rajagaha for alms. 

Now at that time Sakka king of gods desired to give alms to Ven- 
erable Kassapa the Great. Therefore, taking the form of a weaver, 
he sat weaving thread, with Wellborn the Asura nymph filling a 
shuttle. Venerable Kassapa the Great approached the place where 
sat Sakka king of gods, and Sakka king of gods, seeing Venerable 
Kassapa the Great approaching, came forth from his place of abode, 
advanced to meet him, took his bowl, escorted him within the house, 
took boiled rice from the boiler, filled his bowl, and gave it to Venerable 
Kassapa the Great. The portion of rice was flavored with all manner 



-N. 1.4309] Sakka gives alms to Kassapa the Great 



89 



of sauces and with all manner of curries, with an abundance of the 
choicest sauces and curries. 

Thereupon the following thought occurred to Venerable Kassapa 
the Great, "Who is this being the supernatural power of whose magic 
is so great?" Then the following thought occurred to Venerable 
Kassapa the Great, "This is Sakka king of gods." When he perceived 
this, he spoke thus to Sakka king of gods, "How [429] came you to 
do this, Kosiya? Do nothing of the sort again." "Reverend Kassapa, 
we also have need of merit; we also must perform works of merit." 
Then Sakka king of gods took leave of Venerable Kassapa the Great, 
walked sunwise about him, and flying up into the air, thrice breathed 
forth the following Solemn Utterance: 

Oh, almsgiving, the perfection of almsgiving. 
Well bestowed on Kassapa! 

The Exalted One, even as he stood in the monastery, heard the sound 
of his voice and straightway addressed the monks, "Monks, behold 
Sakka king of the gods. Having breathed forth a Solemn Utterance, 
he is flying through the air." "What has he done. Reverend Sir.'^" 
"He has given alms to my son Kassapa through deception. Having so 
done, he is proceeding through the air breathing forth a Solemn Utter- 
ance." "Reverend Sir, how did he know that he ought to give alms to 
the Elder .^" "Monks, both gods and men love him who gives alms as 
did my son." So saying, he himself also breathed forth the same Solemn 
Utterance. Moreover, the following passage occurs in the Sutta: 

With Divine Ear, purified, transcending that of man, the Exalted 
One heard Sakka king of gods, as he flew up into the air, thrice breathe 
forth the following Solemn Utterance in the sky: 

Oh, almsgiving, the perfection of almsgiving. 
Well bestowed on Kassapa! [430] 

Now the Exalted One, seeing this thing, breathed forth at that 
time the following Solemn Utterance: 

If a monk depend on his alms-bowl, if he support himself and support no other. 
If he be tranquil and ever mindful, the gods love such a monk. 

Having breathed forth this Solemn Utterance, he said, "Monks, 
Sakka king of gods, approaching my son with the perfume of virtue, 
gave alms to him." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

56. Weak is this perfume, this perfume of Tagara and of sandal; 

The perfume of the virtuous is the finest that is wafted to the gods. 



90 



Book 4, Story 11. Dhammapada 57 [N. 1.431 1- 



IV. 11. GODHIKA ATTAINS NIBBANA ^ 

If men are endowed with the virtues. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while in residence at Veluvana near Rajagaha 
with reference to the attainment of Nibbana by Elder Godhika. [431] 

For while this Venerable Elder was in residence at Black Rock on 
Mount Isigili, heedful, ardent, resolute, having attained emancipation 
of the mind by the practice of meditation, he was attacked by a certain 
disease brought on by diligent application to duty, and fell away from 
a state of trance. A second time and a third time, and unto six times, 
did he enter into a state of trance and fall away therefrom. As he 
entered into a state of trance for the seventh time, he thought to him- 
self, "Six times I have fallen away from a state of trance. Doubtful 
is the future state of him who falls away from a state of trance. Now 
is the time for me to use the razor." 

Accordingly he took the razor with which he shaved his hair, and 
lay down on his bed, intending to sever his windpipe. Mara perceived 
his intention and thought to himself, "This monk intends to use the 
razor. Those who use the razor are indifferent to life. Such men, 
having attained Insight, win Arahatship. But if I try to prevent him 
from carrying out his intention, he will pay no attention to my 
words. I will therefore induce the Teacher to prevent him." So 
in the guise of an unknown he approached the Teacher and spoke 
thus, [432] 

Mighty hero, mighty in wisdom, resplendent with mystic power and glory, 
Thou that hast overcome all hatred and fear, I bow myself before thy feet, all-seeing 
one. 

Mighty hero, thy disciple, though he has overcome death. 
Desires and meditates death. Dissuade him, thou giver of Hght. 

Exalted One, renowned among men, how shall thy disciple who delights in the Law 
Come to his end without accomplishing his desire, while yet untrained? 

At that moment the Elder drew his knife. The Teacher, perceiv- 
ing that it was Mara, pronounced the following Stanza, 

Thus do those that are steadfast, nor do they yearn for Ufe. 
Godhika has uprooted Craving and has attained Nibbana. 

1 This story is almost word for word the same as Samyutta, iv. 3. 3: i. 120-122. 
Cf. E. Windisch, Mara und Buddha, pp. 113-116. Text: N i. 431-434. 




.43320] Godhika attains Nibbana 91 



Now the Exalted One, accompanied by a large number of monks, 
entered the place where the Elder had lain down and used his knife. 
At that moment Mara, the Evil One, like a pillar of smoke or a mass of 
darkness, was searching in all directions for the Elder's consciousness. 
Thought he, "Where has his rebirth-consciousness fixed itself.?" The 
Exalted One pointed out to the monks the pillar of smoke and the 
mass of darkness and said to them, "Monks, that is Mara, the Evil 
One, searching for the consciousness of the goodly youth Godhika. 
Thinks he, ' Where has the consciousness of the goodly youth Godhika 
fixed itself. f^' But, monks, the consciousness of the goodly youth 
Godhika has not fixed itself. For, monks, the goodly youth Godhika 
has passed into Nibbana." Mara, unable to find the place where the 
consciousness of the Elder had fixed itself, assumed the form of a prince, 
[433] and taking in his hand a lute made of the light yellow wood of the 
vilva-tree, approached the Teacher and asked him, 

Above, below, across, to all the points and intermediate points 
Have I searched, but I cannot find him. Where has Godhika gone? 

Said the Teacher to Mara, 

This steadfast man, endowed with resolution, given to meditation, delighting ever 

in meditation. 
Exerting himself by day and by night, longing not to live. 

Has overcome the host of Mara and will return no more to be bom again. 
Godhika has uprooted Craving and has attained Nibbana. 

When the Teacher had thus spoken, Mara, the Evil One, addressed 
the Exalted One with a Stanza. 

Overwhelmed with disappointment, he dropped the girdle of his lute, 
And with heavy heart that demon straightway disappeared. 

Then said the Teacher, "Evil One, what have you to do with the 
place where the consciousness of the goodly youth Godhika has 
fixed itself.? A hundred or a thousand like you could never find it." 
So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

'57. If men are endowed with the virtues, live the life of Heedfulness, 

Are emancipated through perfect knowledge, Mara can never find the way to 
them. 



9^ Booh -4? Story 12, Dhammapada 58-59 [N.i.434i5- 



IV. 12. SIRIGUTTA AND GARAHADINNA ^ 

As upon a heap of rubbish. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to 
Garahadinna. 

For at Savatthi once lived two friends, Sirigutta and Garahadinna. 
The former was a lay disciple of the Buddha, the latter an adherent of 
the Naked Ascetics, the Niganthas. [435] The Naked Ascetics used 
to say repeatedly to Garahadinna, "Go to your friend Sirigutta and 
say, 'Why do you visit the monk Gotama? What do you expect to 
get from him.'^ ' Why not admonish him thus, that he may visit us and 
give us alms.f*" Garahadinna listened to what they said, went re- 
peatedly to Sirigutta, and wherever he found him, standing or sitting, 
spoke thus to him, "Friend, of what use to you is the monk Gotama.'^ 
What do you expect to get by visiting him.^ Should you not visit my 
own noble teachers instead and give alms to them?" 

Sirigutta listened to his friend's talk and despite it kept silence 
for several days. One day, however, he lost his patience and said to 
Garahadinna, "Friend, you constantly come to me, and wherever 
you find me, standing or sitting, speak thus to me, * What do you expect 
to gain by visiting the monk Gotama? Visit my noble teachers in- 
stead and give alms to them.' Now just answer me this question, 
*What do your noble teachers know?'" "Oh, sir, do not speak thus! 
There is nothing my noble teachers do not know. They know all about 
the past, the present, and the future. They know everybody's 
thoughts, words, and actions. They know everything that can hap- 
pen and everything that cannot happen." "You don't say so." 
"Indeed I do." "If this be true, you have committed a grievous fault 
in allowing me to remain ignorant of it all this time. [436] Not until 
to-day did I learn of the supernatural power of knowledge possessed 
by your noble teachers. Go, sir, and invite your noble teachers in 
my name." 

Garahadinna went to the Naked Ascetics, paid obeisance to them, 
and said, "My friend Sirigutta invites you for to-morrow." "Did 
Sirigutta speak to you of himself?" "Yes, noble sirs." They were 
pleased and delighted. Said they, "Our work is done. What gain will 
not accrue to us from the moment Sirigutta reposes faith in us?" 

^ This story is referred to at Thera-Gdthd Commentary, ccxxx, and at MUinda- 
panhay 350i«. Text: N i. 434-447. 



-N. 1.43715] Sirigutta and Garahadinna 9S 

Now Sirigutta's place of residence was a large one, and in one place 
there was a long empty space between two houses. Here, therefore, 
he caused a long ditch to be dug, and this ditch he caused to be filled 
with dung and slime. Beyond the ditch, at both ends, he caused posts 
to be driven into the ground, and to these posts he caused ropes to be 
attached. He caused the seats to be so placed, with the front legs 
resting on the ground and the back legs resting on the ropes, that the 
instant the heretics sat down they would be tipped over backwards 
and flung head first into the ditch. In order that no sign of a ditch 
might be visible, he had coverlets spread over the seats. He caused 
several large earthenware vessels to be washed clean, and their mouths 
to be covered with plaintain-leaves and pieces of cloth. And these 
vessels, empty though they were, he caused to be placed behind the 
house, smeared on the outside with rice-porridge, lumps of boiled rice, 
ghee, jaggery, and cake-crumbs. 

Early in the morning Garahadinna went quickly to the house of 
Sirigutta and asked him, "Has food been prepared for my noble 
teachers.^ " " Yes, friend, food has been prepared." " But where is it.? " 
"In all these earthenware vessels is rice-porridge, in all these is boiled 
rice, in all these are ghee, jaggery, cakes, and other kinds of food. 
[437] Likewise have seats been prepared." "Very well," said Gara- 
hadinna, and went his way. 

As soon as Garahadinna had departed, five hundred Naked Ascetics 
arrived. Sirigutta came forth from the house, paid obeisance to the 
Naked Ascetics with the Five Rests, and taking his stand before them 
and raising his clasped hands in an attitude of reverent salutation, 
thought to himself, "So you know all about the past, the present, and 
the future ! So at least your supporter tells me. If you really do know 
all this, do not enter my house. For even if you enter my house, there 
is no rice-porridge prepared for you, nor boiled rice, nor any other kind 
of food. If you do not know all this and still enter my house, I will 
cause you to be flung into a ditch filled with dung, and will then 
cause you to be beaten with sticks." Having thus reflected, he gave 
the following order to his men, "When you observe that they are about 
to sit down, take your places in the rear and pull the coverlets which 
are spread over the seats out from under, lest the coverlets be smeared 
with filth." 

Then said Sirigutta to the Naked Ascetics, "Come hither. Reverend 
Sirs." The Naked Ascetics entered. They were about to sit down 
on the seats which had been prepared, when Sirigutta's men called 



94 Booh ^, Story 12, Dhammapada 58-59 [N.i.437i5- 

out to them, "Wait, Reverend Sirs. Do not sit down yet." "For what 
reason.''" "When your reverences enter our house, you must observe 
a certain etiquette in taking your seats." "What must we do, 
brother .f'" "Each one of you must take his stand at the foot of the 
seat which has been prepared for him, and then you must all sit down 
at once." We are told that Sirigutta had this done in order that 
no one of the Naked Ascetics should fall into the ditch by himself, and 
thus be able to warn the rest of his brethren not to sit down on the 
seats. [438] 

"Very well," said the Naked Ascetics. For they thought, "We 
ought to do whatever these men tell us to do." So all of them took 
their places in order, each at the foot of the seat which had been 
prepared for him. Then Sirigutta's men said to them, "Reverend 
Sirs, sit down quickly, all at once." When Sirigutta's men ob- 
served that they were about to sit down, they pulled the coverlets 
which were spread over the seats out from under. The Naked Ascetics 
sat down all at once. Thereupon the legs of the seats which rested on 
the ropes gave way, and the Naked Ascetics were immediately tipped 
over backwards and flung head first into the ditch. When the Naked 
Ascetics fell into the ditch, Sirigutta closed the door. As fast as they 
crawled out of the slime, he caused them to be beaten with sticks, 
calling out to them, "So you know all about the past, the present, and 
the future ! " Finally he said, "This will suffice to teach them a lesson," 
and caused the door to be opened. They escaped through the door and 
began to run away. But Sirigutta had previously made slippery the 
ground along the road they would have to take, by covering it with 
whitewash. The result was that they lost their foothold and fell 
again and again. Here again he caused them to be beaten with 
sticks. Finally he said, "This will suffice for you," and let them go. 
"You have ruined us!" they wailed; "you have ruined us!" So 
saying, they went to the door of their supporter's house. 

When Garahadinna saw the sorry plight of the Naked Ascetics, 
he became very angry and said, "Sirigutta has ruined me. Even as 
they stretched out their hands and paid obeisance to him, he has 
beaten with sticks and brought humiliation upon my noble teachers, 
my Field of Merit, who are able to bestow the Six Worlds of the Gods 
at their own good pleasure." [439] Forthwith he went to the royal 
palace and caused a fine of a thousand pieces of money to be inflicted 
upon Sirigutta. The king sent Sirigutta a summons. Sirigutta im- 
mediately went to the king, paid obeisance to him, and said, "Your 



-N. 1.44013] Sirigutta and Garahadinna ^^^^ 95 

majesty, will you wait until you have first investigated the matter, 
before inflicting punishment, or is it your intention to inflict punish- 
ment without an investigation?" "I intend to investigate the matter 
before I inflict punishment." "Very well, your majesty. First inves- 
tigate the matter, and then do as you think proper." 

Sirigutta then told the king the whole story from the beginning, 
saying, "Your majesty, my friend is an adherent of the Naked As- 
cetics. He used to come to me repeatedly, and wherever he found me, 
standing or sitting, used to say to me, 'Friend, of what use to you is 
the monk Gotama.^ What do you expect to gain by visiting him.^^'" 
Sirigutta told the whole story, and having so done, said to the king, 
"Your majesty, if you think it right to inflict punishment in this case, 
do so." Looking at Garahadinna, the king said, "Is what you have 
just told me the truth .^" "It is the truth, your majesty." Then said 
the king to Garahadinna, "Why did you take to yourself teachers who 
knew so little, and go about and say of your teachers to the disciple 
of the Tathagata, *They know everything'.^ You have brought pun- 
ishment on your own head, and on your own head only shall it descend." 
So saying, the king ordered punishment to be inflicted upon Garaha- 
dinna. Likewise he caused the Naked Ascetics who resorted to his 
house to be beaten with sticks and expelled. 

Garahadinna was very angry about this and for a fortnight after- 
wards refused to speak to Sirigutta. Finally he thought to himself, 
"It isn't worth while for me to go about acting thus. What I should 
do is to bring humiliation upon the monks who resort to Sirigutta's 
house." Accordingly he went to Sirigutta and said to him, "Friend 
Sirigutta!" "What is it, friend.?" [440] "There is quarrel, there is 
strife, between those that are called kinsmen and friends. You do not 
speak. Why do you act in this way.? " "Friend, I do not speak to you 
because you do not speak to me. But, friend, whatever is done is 
done, and I will not on that account break off our friendship." From 
that time on both stood in one place and sat in one place. 

Now one day Sirigutta said to Garahadinna, "Of what use to you 
are the Naked Ascetics.? What do you expect to gain by visiting them? 
Should you not approach my Teacher instead and give alms to my own 
noble monks?" That was the very thing Garahadinna longed to do. 
It was as though Sirigutta had scratched him on a spot that itched. 
Garahadinna asked Sirigutta, "What does your Teacher know?" 
"Oh, sir, do not speak thus! There is nothing beyond the range of 
my Teacher's knowledge. He knows all about the past, the present. 



96 Book ^, Story 12, Dhammapada 58-59 [N.i.440i8-j 

and the future. In sixteen different ways he comprehends the thoughts i 
of all living beings." "If this be true, I know not why you have noti 
told me about it all this time. Very well. Go to your Teacher and 
invite him for to-morrow. I should like to entertain him. Beg him, 
with his five hundred monks, to accept my hospitality." 

Sirigutta approached the Teacher, paid obeisance to him, andj 
said, "Reverend Sir, my friend Garahadinna asks me to invite you| 
to his house. [441] He asks me to beg you, with your five hundred] 
monks, to accept his hospitality for to-morrow. Several days ago, 
however, I did such and such to the Naked Ascetics who resort to 
his house. I am not sure that he intends to seek revenge for what I 
did. But I am by no means certain that it is with a pure motive that 
he desires to give you alms. Consider the matter well. If you think 
proper, accept; if not, decline." The Teacher considered within 
himself, "What does he intend to do to us.^" Immediately he became 
aware of the following, "He will cause a great pit to be dug between 
two houses and will cause eighty cartloads of acacia-wood to be 
brought and dumped into the pit, completely filling it. Then he will 
set the wood on fire and seek to humiliate us by causing us to be thrown 
into this charcoal-pit." 

Again considering within himself, "Have I suflficient reason for 
going there or have I not.?" the Teacher saw the following, "I will 
extend my foot and place it upon the charcoal-pit. Thereupon the 
matting, so placed as to cover the pit, will disappear, and a gigantic 
lotus as big as a wheel will spring up, rending the charcoal-pit asunder. 
Then I will set foot upon the pericarp of the lotus and will sit down in 
a seat, and my five hundred monks will likewise mount the lotus and 
sit down. A great multitude will assemble, and in this assemblage 
I will pronounce a discourse of thanksgiving consisting of two Stanzas. 
At the conclusion of the Stanzas eighty thousand living beings will 
obtain Comprehension of the Law, Sirigutta and Garahadinna will 
attain the Fruit of Conversion and will spend their great wealth in 
my Religion. For the sake of this goodly youth it is my duty to go 
there." [442] Accordingly the Teacher accepted the invitation. 

Sirigutta went and informed Garahadinna that the Teacher had 
accepted his invitation. Said he, "Prepare hospitality for the Prince 
of the World." Garahadinna thought to himself, "Now I shall know 
what ought to be done to him." So he caused a great pit to be dug 
between two houses and caused eighty cartloads of acacia-wood to be 
brought and dumped into the pit, completely filling it. Then he set the 



-N.l. 44318] 



Sirigutta and Garahadinna 



97 



wood on fire, and putting bellows in position, caused them to be blown 
all night long, until the pile of acacia- wood was a mass of blazing char- 
coal. Across the top of the pit he caused unhewn logs to be laid and 
caused them to be covered with matting and smeared with cow-dung. 
On one side he caused a gangway to be built of the flimsiest kind of 
sticks. Thought he, "The moment they set foot on this framework 
the sticks will break, and they will topple over and fall into the char- 
coal-pit." Behind the house he caused earthenware vessels to be 
placed, precisely as Sirigutta had done, and there also caused seats 
to be prepared. 

Early in the morning Sirigutta went to Garahadinna's house and 
said to him, "Friend, have you provided food.?" "Yes, friend, I 
have." "But where is it?" "Come and see," said Garahadinna. 
And he took him and showed him the earthenware vessels, precisely as 
Sirigutta had done. "Very well, sir," said Sirigutta. A great multi- 
tude assembled. When heretics invite the Buddha, a great multitude 
always assembles. The heretics assemble, saying to themselves, "We 
shall witness the discomfiture of the monk Gotama." [443] The 
orthodox assemble, saying to themselves, "To-day the Teacher will 
preach the Law with might, and we shall see for ourselves the power 
of a Buddha and the grace of a Buddha." 

On the following day the Teacher, accompanied by five hundred 
monks, went to the house of Garahadinna and stood before the door. 
Garahadinna came forth from the house, paid obeisance to the monks 
with the Five Rests, and taking his stand before them and raising his 
clasped hands in an attitude of reverent salutation, thought to him- 
self, "So, Reverend Sir, you know all about the past, the present, and 
the future! In sixteen different ways you comprehend the thoughts of 
all living beings! So at least your supporter tells me. If you really 
do know all this, do not enter my house. For even if you enter my 
house, you will find no rice-porridge or boiled rice or any other kind 
of food. Instead I will cause you to be flung into a charcoal-pit and 
will bring humiliation upon you." 

Having thus reflected, he took the Teacher's bowl and said to him, 
" Come hither. Exalted One." Then he said to the Teacher, "Reverend 
Sir, when you come to our house, you must observe a certain etiquette 
in coming." "What must we do, brother.?" "You must enter the 
house all by yourself, preceding the rest. After you have sat down, 
the rest may come in." This, we are told, was the thought that 
occurred to him, "If the rest see him go in first and fall into the char- 



98 Book ky Story 12. Dhammapada 58-59 [N.i.443i8~ 

coal-pit, they will not venture near it. I will cause him alone to fall 
therein, and thereby confound him." "Very well," said the Teacher, 
and advanced to the pit all by himself. Garahadinna went as far as 
the charcoal-pit, then stepped back, and standing at a distance, said, 
"Go forward, Reverend Sir." 

The Teacher extended his foot and placed it over the charcoal-pit. 
Thereupon the matting disappeared, and lotus flowers as big as wheels 
sprang up, rending the charcoal-pit asunder. [444] The Teacher 
set foot on the pericarp of the lotus, and going forward, sat down on 
the Seat of the Buddha, miraculously prepared. The monks likewise 
went thereon and sat down. Fire, as it were, arose in the belly of 
Garahadinna. He approached the Teacher and said to him, "Reverend 
Sir, be unto me a refuge." "What does this mean.^" "There is no 
rice-porridge or boiled rice or any other kind of food in the house for 
the five hundred monks. What am I to do.^" "But what have you 
done.^" "Between two houses I caused a great pit to be dug, and this 
pit I caused to be filled with charcoal, thinking to myself, 'I will cause 
the Teacher to fall therein and thus confound him.' But instead of 
this, great lotus flowers have sprung up, rending the charcoal-pit 
asunder. And all the monks have set foot on the pericarp of the lotus 
and have gone forward and sat down on seats miraculously prepared. 
What am I to do.?" 

"Did you not just now point out to me certain earthenware vessels 
and say, 'All these vessels are filled with rice-porridge; all these are 
filled with boiled rice,' and so forth.?" "What I said was false, master. 
The vessels are empty." "Nevermind. Go look at the rice-porridge 
and other kinds of food in those vessels." At that instant the vessels 
over which he spoke the word "rice-porridge" were filled with rice- 
porridge, the vessels over which he spoke the words "boiled rice" 
were filled with boiled rice, and so it happened likewise with the other 
vessels. [445] 

When Garahadinna beheld this miracle, his body was suffused 
with joy and happiness and his heart believed. With profound rever- 
ence he waited on the Congregation of Monks presided over by the 
Buddha. The meal over, Garahadinna, indicating that he wished 
the Buddha to pronounce the words of thanksgiving, took his bowl. 
Said the Teacher in pronouncing the words of thanksgiving, "These 
beings, because they are without the Eye of Knowledge, know neither 
my merits, nor the merits of my disciples, nor the merits of the Religion 
of the Buddha. Inasmuch as they are without the Eye of Knowledge, 



: 



■N. 1.4479 



Sirigutta and Garahadinna 



99 



they are blind. Only the wise have eyes." 
the following Stanzas, 



So saying, he pronounced 



58. As upon a heap of rubbish cast out on the highway. 

The lotus will grow, sweetly fragrant, delighting the heart, 

59. Even so, among them that are as rubbish, blind folk, unconverted. 

The disciple of the Supremely Enlightened shines with exceeding glory because 
of wisdom. [446] 

At the conclusion of the religious instruction eighty thousand 
living beings obtained Comprehension of the Law. Both Garahadinna 
and Sirigutta attained the Fruit of Conversion and thereafter dis- 
pensed all of their wealth in alms in the Religion of the Buddha. 

The Teacher rose from his seat and went to the monastery. In 
the evening the monks began a discussion in the Hall of Truth, "Oh, 
how wonderful are the virtues of the Buddhas! To think that lotus 
flowers should spring up and rend asunder a blazing mass of acacia- 
coals!" [447] The Teacher came in and asked them, "Monks, what 
is it you are sitting here now talking about.?" When they told him, 
he said, "Monks, it is not at all wonderful that just now, when I, 
who am now a Buddha, was present, lotus flowers sprang up from a 
bed of coals. When my knowledge was not yet ripe and I was merely 
a Future Buddha, they sprang up also." "At what time was that. 
Reverend Sir.? Pray tell us the story." In response to their requests, 
the Teacher related a Story of the Past. 

I would gladly fall into Hell, heels up, head down. 

I will do naught that is not honorable. Here, take alms! 

And the Teacher related in detail the Khadirangara Jataka.^ 

1 Jdtaka 40: i. 226-234. 



BOOK V. THE SIMPLETON, BALA VAGGA 



V. 1. THE KING AND THE POOR MAN WITH A BEAUTIFUL 

WIFE 1 

Long is the night to him that watcheth, [1] This religious instruc- 
tion was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana 
with reference to Pasenadi Kosala and a certain other man. 

1 This story, of which a late Burmese version is translated by Rogers in Buddha- 
ghosha's Parables, chap, xv, pp. 125-135, illustrates on a large scale the literary methods 
and devices employed by the Hindu fiction writer in general, and by the redactors of 
the Dhammapada Commentary , the Jdtaka Book, and the Peta-Vatthu Commentary 
in particular, in their manipulation of recurring psychic motifs. The structure of the 
story is unusually interesting. It consists of a principal story, or frame-story, and 
three embedded stories. Each of these four stories was originally quite independent, 
and the motif (or motifs) upon which each turns occurs repeatedly in Hindu and 
Buddhist fiction. 

V. 1, the frame-story, is the story of the king and the poor man with a beautiful 
wife and turns on the David and Uriah motif (2 Samuel xi; cf. the story of King Cyrus 
and Queen Panthea, Xenophon's Cyrop. vi). The same story occurs in Peta-Vatthu 
Commentary, iv. 1: 216^-217^; iv. 15: 279^^-280^. As the king lies sleepless on his bed, 
resolved to kill the poor man in order to gain possession of his wife, he hears Four Omi- 
nous Sounds. The Brahmans tell him that the sounds portend his death, and prevail 
upon him to order the sacrifice of every kind of living creature. At this point the 
description of the sacrifice at Samyutta, i. 75-76, is introduced. The queen calms the 
king's fears and conducts him to the Buddha, who interprets the sounds. 

By way of interpretation of the sounds is introduced 1 a, the story of the four 
adulterers and of their torment in the Hell Pot. The Story of the Four Ominous 
Sounds from the Hell Pot bifurcates in the Jdtaka Book, the result being the Story of 
the Present and the very similar Story of the Past, which together make up Jdtaka 
314: iii. 43-48. This story, together with the frame-story of v. 1, occurs also in Peta- 
Vatthu Commentary, iv. 15: 27923-280^ 21613-2178, 280^-282^^ The order of stanzas 
in the Dhammapada Commentary and the Jdtaka Book is: Du Sa Na So; in the Peta- 
Vatthu Commentary: Sa Na Du So. Dhammapala's glosses on the stanzas are different 
from the glosses in the Jdtaka Commentary. Dhammapala follows the Dhammapada 
Commentary version of the story rather than the Jdia/ca version, but handles his material 
just as freely as do the authors of the Dhammapada Commentary and the Jdtaka Com- 
mentary. Cf. also Jdtaka 418: iii. 428-434 (eight 'sounds), and Jdtaka 77: i. 334-346 
(sixteen dreams). For a striking parallel in the Kandjur (thrice four sounds and eight 
dreams), see Introduction, § 12, paragraph 2. Cf. also Chavannes, Cinq cents Contes 
et Apologues, 411 : iii. 102-111 ; 498: iii. 317-325. On the story of the Sixteen Dreams, 
see Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, pp. 314-317; also JRAS., 1893, pp. 509 ff.; and 
Winternitz, History of Buddhist Literature, p. 229, note 1. Cf. also Keith-Falconer, 



-N.2.3i] King and poor man with beautiful wife 101 

The story goes that on the day of a certain festival King Pasenadi 
Kosala mounted his magnificently adorned pure white elephant Pun- 
darika and with great pomp and kingly majesty marched sunwise 
round the city. When the dismissal took place, the populace, pelted 
with clods of earth and beaten with sticks, ran hither and thither, 
craning their necks to see what was going on. Royal pomp, we are 
told, is the reward kings receive for generous almsgiving, keeping the 
moral precepts, and performing works of merit. 

On the topmost floor of a seven-storied palace the wife of a certain 
poor man opened a window, looked at the king, and then withdrew. 
To the king it was as if the full moon had entered a bank of clouds; 
in fact, so infatuated with her was he that he nearly fell off the back 
of the elephant. [2] Quickly completing the sunwise circuit of the 
city, he entered the royal precincts and said to a trusted minister, 
"Did you see, in such and such a place, a palace which I looked at.^" 
"I did, your majesty." "Did you see a certain woman there.?" "I 
did, your majesty." "Go and find out whether she is married or not." 
He went, and learning that she was married, returned and said to the 
king, "She is a married woman." Thereupon the king said to him, 
"Well then, summon her husband." So the minister went and said 
to the husband, "Come, sir, the king summons you." The husband 
thought to himself, "I have reason to fear for my life on account of 
my wife." Not daring, however, to disobey the king's command, 
he went to the palace, paid obeisance to the king, and stood waiting. 
The king said to him, "Hereafter you are to be my servant." "Your 
majesty, I should prefer to earn a living by doing my own work. Let 
me pay you tribute." " I don't wish your tribute. From this day forth 
you are to be my servant." So the king gave him a shield and a sword. 

This, they say, was the thought in the king's mind, "I will fix 
guilt upon him, kill him, and take his wife." The husband, in fear 
and trembling of death, served the king most faithfully. As the fire 
of his passion increased, the king, finding no flaw in him, thought to 

BidpaVs Fables, Introduction, pp. xxxi-xxxiii, and Translation, pp. 219-247. With 
the king's repentence and the release of the victims the frame-story ends. 

Then follow two Stories of the Past, 1 b and 1 c, the first depending on the 
frame-story and the second on the first. 1 b is the story of the king of Benares 
and Queen Dinna and turns on two well-known motifs, the Vow to a Tree-spirit and the 
Laugh and Cry. The first of these recurs in stories viii. 3 and viii. 9 of this collection; 
the second has been fully treated by Bloomfield, JAOS., 36. 68-79. 1 c is the story 
of the woman who killed a ewe and is in all respects similar to Jdtaka 18: i. 166-168. 
Text: N ii. 1-19. 



102 



Book 5, Story 1, Dhammapada 60 [N.2.3i- 



himself, [3] "I will charge him with some fault and punish him with 
death." So he summoned him and said to him, "Fellow, go a league 
hence to the bank of the river, and in such and such a place you will 
find red earth and water-lilies both white and blue. These you must 
bring back to me in the evening when I go to bathe. Should you 
fail to return at that moment, I will punish you." (A servant is 
regarded as of less account than the four kinds of slaves. For slaves 
bought with money and other kinds of slaves have only to say, "My 
head aches," or "My back aches," to obtain relief from their duties. 
This is not the case, however, with servants. Servants must do what- 
ever they are told to do.) The husband thought to himself, "The 
king's order must be obeyed. I shall have to go, and no mistake. 
But red earth and water-lilies both white and blue are found only in 
the country of the dragons. Where can such as I get them.f^" 

Terrified with the^fear of death, he went home and said to his wife, 
"Wife, is my rice cooked.?" "It is on the brazier, master." Unable 
to wait until the rice was cooked, he bade her take some of the gruel 
out with a ladle, stuffed the rice, all dripping as it was, into a basket, 
hastily adding some curry, and hurried away on his league's journey. 
Even as he hurried along, the rice was cooked. 

He put aside a choice portion of rice and began to eat. As he was 
eating he saw a traveler and said to him, "Master, I have put aside 
a choice portion of rice. Take it and eat it." The traveler took the 
rice and ate it. When the king's servant had finished his meal, [4] 
he cast a handful of rice into the water, and having rinsed his mouth, 
cried out with a loud voice, "May the winged dragons, the guardian 
divinities of this pool, hear my prayer! The king, desiring to visit 
punishment upon me, has laid upon me this command, * Bring me 
red earth and water-lilies both white and blue.' By giving rice to 
a traveler I have gained a thousand rewards, and by giving rice to 
the fish in this water I have gained a hundred rewards. I make over 
to you all the merit I have acquired by these actions. Bring me red 
earth and water-lilies both white and blue." Three times did he utter 
these words with a loud voice. 

Now the king of the dragons lived there; and when he heard those 
words, he disguised himself as an old man, and going to the king's 
servant, said to him, "What is it that you say.?" The king's servant 
repeated his words. "Make over the merit to me," said the dragon. 
"I do make it over to you, master," said the man. Again the dragon 
said, "Make over the merit to me." "I do make it over to you, 



■N.2.65] King and poor man with beautiful wife 



103 



master," replied the man. When the king's servant had repeated 
his words the third time, the dragon brought red earth and water-hHes 
both white and blue and gave them to the king's servant. 

The king thought to himself, "Many are the devices of men. If 
by any means he should obtain what I sent him for, my purpose might 
not succeed." So he had the door closed very early and the seal 
brought to him. The king's servant returned at the king's bathing- 
time, but found the door closed. Summoning the porter, he ordered 
him to open the door. Said the porter, "It cannot be opened. The 
king had the seal brought to the royal apartments very early." "I 
am the king's messenger. Open the door," said the king's servant. 
But the door remained closed, and the king's servant thought to 
himself, "There is no hope for me now. What shall I do.^" [5] 

He flung the lump of red earth on the threshold, hung the flowers 
over the door, and cried with a loud voice, "All ye that dwell in the 
city, be witnesses that I have executed the king's order. The king is 
seeking without just cause to kill me." Thrice he cried these words 
with a loud voice and then, thinking to himself, "Where shall I go 
now.f^" he concluded, "The monks are soft-hearted. I will go and 
sleep at the monastery." (In times of prosperity people here in the 
world scarcely know even that monks exist, but when they are whelmed 
with adversity, they desire to go to a monastery. Therefore was it 
that the king's servant, reflecting "I have no other refuge," went to 
the monastery and lay down in a pleasant place to sleep.) 

As for the king, he was unable to sleep that night, but was con- 
sumed with the fire of passion as he thought about that woman. Said 
he to himself, "When day breaks, I will kill that man and fetch the 
woman here to my palace." At that moment he heard four sounds. 

At that moment four men reborn in the Hell of the Iron Caldron, 
sixty leagues in measure, who, after boiling and bubbling like grains 
of rice in a red-hot kettle for thirty thousand years, had reached the 
bottom, and after thirty thousand more years had come again to the 
rim, lifted up their heads, looked at each other, tried to pronounce a 
Stanza apiece, but, unable to do so, gave utterance each to a single 
syllable, turned over, and flopped back again into the Iron Caldron. 

The king, unable to sleep, immediately after the middle watch 
heard these sounds. [6] Frightened and terrified in mind, he pon- 
dered within himself, "Is my life to come to an end, or that of my chief 
consort, or is my kingdom to fall.^" All the rest of the night he was 
unable to close his eyes; and when morning came, he sent for his 



104 



Book 5, Story 1. Dhammapada 60 [N.2.65- 



house-priest and said to him, "Master, immediately after the middle 
watch I heard loud and terrible sounds. Whether they portend the 
end of my kingdom or of my queen or of myself I know not; therefore 
I sent for you." 

"Your majesty, what sounds did you hear.^" "Master, I heard 
the sounds *Du, Sa, Na, So.' Consider what they portend." As for 
the Brahman, he was absolutely in the dark as to what the sounds 
meant. But fearing that, if he admitted his ignorance, he would lose 
both gain and honor, heanswered, "It is a grave matter, your majesty." 
"Master, be more specific." "It means that you are to die." The 
king's fear doubled. "Master, is there no way to avert this.?" "Yes, 
your majesty, there is. Have no fear. I know the three Vedas." 
"But what must be done.?" "By offering the sacrifice of every kind 
of living creature you can save your life, your majesty." "What 
must we procure.?" "A hundred elephants, a hundred horses, a hun- 
dred bulls, a hundred cows, a hundred goats, a hundred asses, a hun- 
dred thoroughbreds, a hundred rams, a hundred fowls, a hundred pigs, 
a hundred boys, and a hundred girls." Thus did the Brahman direct 
the king to procure a hundred of every kind of living creature. [7] 
For, said he to himself, "If I direct the king to procure wild animals 
only, people will say, 'He does that because he wants to eat them 
himself.'" Therefore was it that he included also elephants, horses, 
and human beings. 

The king, thinking to himself, "I must save my life at any cost," 
said to the Brahman, "Procure quickly every kind of living creature." 
The king's men received their orders and procured more than the 
required number. Moreover, it is said in the Kosala Samyutta,^ 
"Now at that time a great sacrifice was prepared for King Pasenadi 
Kosala: five hundred bulls, five hundred steers, five hundred cows, 
five hundred goats, five hundred rams were led to the stake for the 
sacrifice. They that were his slaves or bond-servants or laborers, 
fearing pimishment, fearing calamity, made preparations for the sacri- 
fice, weeping and wailing. The populace, making lament for their 
kinsfolk, made a loud noise, a noise like that of the earth splitting 
open." 

Queen Mallika, hearing that noise, went to the king and said, "Your 
majesty, how is it that your senses are disordered and weary.?" [8] 
"How now, Mallika. Know you not that a poisonous serpent has 



^ SamyvMa, iii. 1. 9. 2-3: i. 75-76. 



-N.2.9io] King and poor man with beautiful wife 105 

penetrated my ears?" "Why, what do you mean, your majesty?" 
"At night I heard such and such a sound, and when I asked the house- 
priest about it, he said to me, *It means that you are to die, but you 
can save your life by offering a sacrifice of every kind of hving crea- 
ture.' Now I must save my Hfe at any cost. Therefore was it that I 
ordered these living creatures to be procured." 

Said Queen Mallika, "You are a simpleton, your majesty. You 
may have an abundant supply of food, you may feast upon viands 
flavored with all manner of sauces and curries cooked by the bucket- 
ful, you may rule over two kingdoms, but all the same you have very 
little sense." "Why do you say that?" " Where did you ever hear of 
one man's saving his life by the death of another? Just because a 
stupid Brahman told you to, is that any reason why you should over- 
whelm the populace with suffering? In a neighboring monastery 
resides the Teacher, the foremost personality in the world of men and 
gods, possessed of limitless knowledge as regards the past, the present, 
and the future. Ask him and do as he advises you." 

So the king went to the monastery in light conveyances with Mallika, 
but was so terrified with the fear of death that he was unable to speak 
a word. He paid obeisance to the Teacher and stood respectfully at 
one side. The Teacher was the first to speak, saying to him, "Your 
majesty, how is it that you come here so late in the day?" The king 
gave no answer. Then said Mallika to the Tathagata, "Reverend Sir, 
immediately after the last watch he heard a sound, and he told the 
house-priest about it, and the house-priest said to him, *It means that 
you are to die, but you can avert such a calamity [9] by taking every 
kind of living creature and offering a sacrifice of their blood; in this 
way you can save your life.' So the king ordered the living creatures 
to be procured. That is why I brought him to you here." "Is this 
true, your majesty?" "Yes, Reverend Sir." "What sound did you 
hear?" The king repeated the sound to him just as he had heard it. 
The moment the Tathagata heard it, he was silent for a moment, and 
then said to him, "Your majesty, have no fear. This does not mean 
that you are to die. The sounds you heard were uttered by evildoers 
in torment to express their sufferings." "Why, what did they do. 
Reverend Sir?" The Exalted One, requested to tell the story of their 
misdeeds, said, "Well then, your majesty, listen." So saying, he re- 
lated the following 



106 



Book 5, Story 1. Dhammapada 60 [N.2.9ii- 



1 a. Story of the Past: The Hell Pot 

In times gone by, when men lived twenty thousand years, appeared 
the Exalted Kassapa. As he journeyed from place to place with 
twenty thousand monks freed from the Depravities, he arrived at 
Benares. The residents of Benares united by twos and threes and in 
larger groups and provided food for the visitors. At that time there 
were living at Benares four sons of wealthy merchants. Each of them 
possessed four hundred millions of treasure, and they were boon com- 
panions. One day they took counsel together, saying, "We have much 
wealth in our houses. What shall we do with it.^^ With a Buddha so 
great and so good journeying from place to place, shall we give alms, 
shall we perform works of merit, shall we keep the moral precepts.^" 

Not one of the four assented to this proposal. One said, "Let us 
spend our time drinking strong drink and eating savory meat. This 
would be a profitable way for us to spend our lives." Another said, 
[10] "Let us spend our time eating fragrant rice three years old, with 
all manner of choice flavors." Another said, "Let us have all manner 
of hard food cooked and spend our time eating it." Another said, 
"Friends, there is only one thing for us to do, and it is this: The 
woman does not live who will refuse to do your will if you offer her 
money. Let us offer money to other men's wives and commit adultery 
with them." "Good, good!" cried all of them, agreeing to his 
proposal. 

From that time on they sent money to beautiful women, one after 
another, and for twenty thousand years committed adultery. When 
they died, they were reborn in the Avici Hell, where they suffered 
torment during the interval between two Buddhas. Dying again, 
because the fruit of their evil deeds was not yet exhausted, they were 
reborn in the Hell of the Iron Caldron, sixty leagues in measure. After 
sinking for thirty thousand years, they reached the bottom, and after 
rising for thirty thousand years, they came again to the brim. Each 
one of them desired to pronounce a single Stanza, but all they could 
do was to utter a single syllable apiece. Then they flopped over and 
sank back again into the Iron Caldron. 

"Your majesty, what was the first sound you heard.?" "'Du,' 
Reverend Sir." The Teacher, completing the Stanza left uncompleted 
by the evildoer, recited it in full as follows, 

Du. An evil life we led, we who gave not what we had. 

With all the wealth we had, we made no refuge for ourselves. [11] 



-N.2.145] King and poor man with beautiful wife 107 

Having made known the meaning of this Stanza to the king, the 
Teacher asked him what the other sounds were that he heard. When 
the king told him, he completed the remainder as follows, 

Sa. Sixty thousand years in all have we completed; 

We are boiling in Hell. When will the end come? 

Na. There is no end. Whence comes an end? No end appears; 

For then both you and I, sir, committed sin. 

So. Be sure that when I go hence and am reborn as a human being, 

I shall be bountiful, keep the moral precepts, and do much good. 

When the Teacher had pronounced these Stanzas, one after another, 
and declared their meaning, he said, " Your majesty, those four men de- 
sired, each of them, to pronounce a single Stanza, but all they could do 
was to utter a single syllable apiece. Then they flopped over and sank 
back again into the Iron Caldron." (Those evildoers, we are told, have 
been sinking in the Hell Pot ever since King Pasenadi Kosala heard 
those sounds, but not even yet have a thousand years elapsed.) ^ 

The king was profoundly moved by the discourse of the Teacher. 
Thought he to himself, "A grievous sin indeed is this sin of adultery. 
Those four adulterers were tormented in Hell during the interval 
between two Buddhas. Passing from that existence, they were reborn 
in the Hell of the Iron Caldron, sixty leagues in measure, and there 
endured torment for sixty thousand years. Even so the time of their 
release from suffering has not yet come. I also conceived a sinful 
passion for the wife of another [12] and got no sleep all night long. 
From this time forth I shall no more set my heart on another man's 
wife." And he said to the Tathagata, 

"Reverend Sir, to-day I know how long the night is." Now the 
king's servant was also seated there; and when he heard this remark, 
his faith was confirmed, and he said to the Teacher, "Reverend Sir, 
to-day the king has come to know how long the night is. Yesterday 
I myself came to know how long a league is." The Teacher joined the 
words of both men and said, "For one man the night is long; for an- 
other a league is long; for a fool the revolution of being is long." 
So saying, he taught the Law by pronouncing the following Stanza, 

60. Long is the night to him that watcheth; long is a league to him that is weary; 
Long is the revolution of being for simpletons that know not the Good Law. [14] 

The king paid obeisance to the Teacher, and then went and released 
those living beings from their bonds. Thereupon both men and women, 

^ On the bearing of this remark on the date of the work, see Introduction, § 8. 



108 



Book 5, Story 1. Dhammapada 60 [N.2.145^ 



released from their bonds, bathed their heads and went to their own 
homes, extoHing the virtues of MalHka and saying, "Long live our 
gracious Queen Mallika, through whom our lives were spared!" 

In the evening the monks assembled in the Hall of Truth and began 
to discuss the incidents of the day. "How wise," said they, "is this 
Mallika! By her own wisdom has she saved the lives of all these 
people." The Teacher, seated in his Perfumed Chamber, hearing the 
talk of the monks, came forth from the Perfumed Chamber, entered 
the Hall of Truth, sat down on the Seat of Wisdom, and asked them, 
"Monks, what is it that you are sitting here now talking about .^" 
They told him. "Monks, this is not the first time Mallika has saved 
the lives of a large number of people by her own wisdom. She did so 
in a former existence also." And he made his meaning clear by relating 
the following 



1 b. Story of the Past: The King of Benares and Queen Dinna 

In times long gone by a king's son approached a certain banyan- 
tree and prayed thus to the spirit that dwelt therein, "Good spirit, 
in this Land of the Rose-Apple are a hundred kings and a hundred 
queens. If, on the death of my father, I obtain the kingdom, I will 
make an offering to you with the blood of these kings and queens." 
When his father died and he came into his kingdom, he reflected, 
"It is through the supernatural power of the tree-spirit that I have 
received my kingdom. I must now make my offering to him." So 
he set out with a large force, overpowered one king, and with the aid 
of the conquered king another [15] and another, until finally he had 
all the kings in his power. Then, taking the hundred kings and the 
hundred queens with him, he proceeded to the tree. 

As he marched along, he said to himself, "Dinna, the chief -consort 
of the youngest king, is great with child. I will therefore let her go. 
But the rest I will kill by giving them poison to drink." As he was 
clearing the ground under the tree, the tree-spirit thought, "This 
king is taking all these kings and is preparing to make an offering to 
me with their blood because of his conviction that he captured them 
with my assistance. But if he slays them, the royal stock of the Land 
of the Rose-Apple will be rooted out, and the foot of the tree will be 
polluted." 

The tree-spirit asked himself whether he could stop him. Realizing 
that he could not, he went to another spirit, told him what wes the 



-N.2.176] King and poor man with beautiful wife 109 

matter, and asked him whether he could. Receiving a negative answer, 
he went to yet another, but with the same result. Then he went to all 
the Cakkavala deities, but they could do nothing for him. Finally 
he went to the Four Great Kings, who said to him, " We can do nothing, 
but our King is superior to us in deeds of merit and in wisdom; ask 
him." So he went to Sakka and told him what was the matter. 
"Sakka," said he, "if you remain in an attitude of ease and indiffer- 
ence, and the stock of princes is rooted out, you will be responsible for 
it." [16] 

Sakka said, "I cannot stop him, but I will tell you how he can be 
stopped. Put on your night-gown, go forth from your tree in plain 
sight of the king, and act as though you were going away. The king 
will say to himself, *The tree-spirit is going away; I must stop him,' 
and will use every effort to persuade you to remain. Then you say to 
him, * You made the following promise to me, "I will bring a hundred 
kings and a hundred queens and make an offering to you with their 
blood;" but you have come here without the consort of King Ugga- 
sena. I will not accept an offering from such a liar.' As soon as the 
king hears you say that, he will bring King Uggasena's consort. Queen 
Dinna. She will instruct the king in the Law and will save the lives 
of this numerous company." Such was the ruse Sakka suggested to 
the tree-spirit. 

The tree-spirit did as Sakka suggested, and the king promptly 
brought Queen Dinna. She approached her own consort. King Ugga- 
sena, although he was seated in the outer circle of the hundred kings, 
and paid obeisance only to him. The king of Benares was offended at 
her and said to himself, "Although I, the oldest king of all, am pres- 
ent, she pays obeisance to the youngest of all." Then she said to the 
king of Benares, "Do I owe you allegiance? This my lord is for me the 
giver of dominion. Why should I pass him by and pay obeisance to 
you.?" 

The tree-spirit honored her with a handful of flowers in plain sight 
of the assembled throng, crying out, "Well said, your majesty! Well 
said, your majesty!" [17] 

Again the king of Benares said to her, "If you pay not obeisance to 
me, why do you not pay obeisance to this tree-spirit, who has great mag- 
ical power and has bestowed dominion and majesty on me.^^" "Your 
majesty, it was by your own merit that you overpowered these kings; 
the tree-spirit did not overpower them and give them into your hands 
at all." Again the tree-spirit honored her in the same way, saying. 



110 



Book 5y Story 1. Dhammapada 60 [N. 2.175- 



"Well said, your majesty!" Again she said to the king, "You say, 
*The tree-spirit overpowered all these kings and gave them into my 
hands.' Just now a tree to the left of your spirit was burned with fire. 
If your spirit possesses such great magical power, why could he not 
put out that fire? " Again the tree-spirit honored her in the same way, 
saying, "Well said, your majesty!" 

As the queen spoke, she wept and laughed. The king said, "You 
have gone mad." "Your majesty, why do you speak thus? Such as I 
are not mad." " Then why do you weep and laugh? " " Your majesty, 
listen to me: 



1 c. Story of the Past: The woman who killed a ewe 

"In times long goneby I was reborn as the daughter of a good family. 
While living in my husband's house, an intimate friend of my husband 
visited the house as a guest. When I saw him, I desired to cook him 
a meal. So I gave my servant a penny and said to her, * Get me some 
meat.' She was unable to get any, and when she returned she told 
me so. Now there was a ewe lying in the rear of the house; so I cut 
off her head and prepared a meal. Because I cut off the head of that 
one ewe, I was reborn in Hell. After suffering torment in Hell, because 
the fruit of my evil deed was not yet exhausted, my own head was cut 
off just as many times as there were hairs in the ewe's fleece. Now 
suppose you kill all these people. When will you ever obtain release 
from torment? [18] It was because I remembered the great suffering 
I endured that I wept." So saying, she recited the following Stanza, 

Because I cut off the head of one ewe, I suffered as many times as there were hairs 

in the ewe*s fleece. 
If you cut off the heads of so many living beings, prince, how will you fare? 

"But why do you laugh?" "Because of the joy I feel over having 
obtained release from this suffering, your majesty." Again the tree- 
spirit honored her with a handful of flowers, saying, "Well said! your 
majesty." 

The king said, "Oh, what a grievous sin it was that I was minded 
to commit! Because this queen killed one ewe, she was reborn in 
Hell. Torment still remaining to her, her head was cut off as many 
times as there were hairs in the ewe's fleece. If I kill all these human 
beings, when shall I ever be purged of my sin?" So he released all 
the captive kings, paid obeisance to those that were older than he, 
did honor, with hands reverently clasped, to those that were younger 



-N.2.203] King and poor man with beautiful wife 



111 



than he, asked them all to forgive him, and sent them back to their 
own dominions. 

When the Teacher had related this story, he said, "Thus, monks, 
this was not the first time Mallika saved the lives of a great number 
of people by her own wisdom. She did so in a former existence also." 
And when he had so said, he identified the characters in the Story of 
the Past as follows, "At that time the king of Benares was Pasenadi 
Kosala, Dinna was Queen Mallika, and the tree-spirit was I myself." 
And having identified the characters in the Story of the Past, he gave 
instruction in the Law further, saying, "Monks, [19] it is never law- 
ful to take the life of a living creature. Those who take life sorrow 
for a long time." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

If people would understand this, that suflFering has here in this world its origin in birth, 
No living being would take the life of another, for he that takes life sorrows. 



V. 2. THE REBELLIOUS PUPIL ^ 

Should a man fail to find a companion. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Savatthi with 
reference to a pupil of Elder Kassapa the Great. 

The story goes that while the Elder was in residence at Pipphali 
Cave, he had two pupils to wait upon him. One of these performed 
his duties faithfully, but the other frequently shirked his duties and 
sought to take credit for work really done by his brother-pupil. 
For example, the faithful pupil would set out water for washing the 
face, and a tooth-stick. Knowing this, the faithless pupil would go 
to the Elder and say, "Reverend Sir, water for washing the face is 
set out, and a tooth-stick. Go wash your face." And when it was 
time to prepare water for bathing the feet and for the bath, he would 
pursue the same tactics. 

The faithful pupil thought to himself, "This fellow is constantly 
shirking his work and is seeking to take credit for my work. Very 
well! I will attend to him." So one day, while the faithless pupil 
was asleep after a meal, he heated water for the bath, poured it into 
a water-jar, and set it in the back room, [20] leaving only a pint-pot 
of water steaming in the boiler. In the evening the faithless pupil 
woke up and saw steam coming out. "He must have heated water 

1 This story foUows closely Jdtaka 321 : iii. 71-74. Text: N ii. 19-25. 



in 



Book 5, Story 2, Dhammapada 61 [N .2.208- 



and put it in the bathroom," thought he. So he went quickly to the 
Elder, bowed, and said, "Reverend Sir, water has been placed in 
the bathroom; go and bathe." So saying, he accompanied the Elder 
to the bathroom. But when the Elder saw no water, he said, "Brother, 
where is the water?" The youth went to the room where the fire was 
kept, and lowering a ladle into the boiler, perceived that it was 
empty. "See what the rascal has done!" he exclaimed. "He has set 
an empty boiler on the brazier, and then gone — who knows where.? 
Of course I thought there was water in the bathroom and went and 
told the Elder so." Much put out, he took a water-jar and went to 
the bathing-place on the river. 

When the faithful pupil returned, he brought water from the' 
back room and set it in the bathroom. The Elder thought to him- 
self, "I supposed that this young fellow had heated water for me, for 
he came to me and said, 'Water has been placed in the bathroom; 
come and bathe.' But just now, in a fit of irritation, he took a water- 
jar and went to the bathing-place on the river. What can this mean.?" 
After considering the matter, he came to the following conclusion, 
"All this time this young fellow has been shirking his duties and has 
sought to take credit for work really done by his brother-pupil." 

When the faithless pupil returned and sat down, the Elder ad- 
monished him, saying, "Brother, a monk ought not to say he has 
done a thing unless he has done it. For example, just now you came 
to me and said, * Reverend Sir, water has been placed in the bathroom; 
come and bathe.' But when I went in, you were annoyed and took a 
water-jar and went out. One who has become a monk should not do 
so." The pupil was highly offended. Said he to himself, "See what 
the Elder has done! What a way to talk to me just because of a few 
drops of water!" On the following day he refused to accompany the 
Elder on his rounds. The Elder therefore took his other pupil with 
him to a certain place. 

While he was away, the faithless pupil went to the house of a 
layman who was a supporter of the Elder. The layman asked him, 
"Reverend Sir, where is the Elder.?" [21] "The Elder doesn't feel 
well, and therefore remained at the monastery." "What then should 
he have. Reverend Sir.?" "Give him such and such food," said the 
novice, pretending that the Elder had told him to ask for it. Accord- 
ingly they prepared food such as he asked for, and gave it to him. 
He took the food, ate it himself on the way back, and returned to the 
monastery. 



-N. 2.2212] 



The rebellious pupil 



113 



Now the Elder had received from his supporter robes of great 
size and fine texture, and these he presented to the novice who accom- 
panied him. The novice dyed them and converted them into under 
and upper garments for himself. On the following day the Elder 
went to the house of his supporter. "Reverend Sir," said they, 
"your novice told us that you were not feeling well, and therefore 
we prepared food such as he suggested and sent it to you. Evidently, 
after eating it, you recovered." The Elder said nothing, but returned 
to the monastery. In the evening, when the faithless novice came in 
and after bowing to him sat down, the Elder said to him, "Brother, 
yesterday, I am informed, you did such and such. Such conduct ill 
becomes those who have renounced the world. You should not eat 
food which you got for another by hinting." 

The novice was provoked and conceived a grudge against the Elder. 
He said to himself, "Yesterday, just because of a few drops of water, 
he called me a liar. To-day, just because I ate a fistful of food his 
supporter gave me, he said to me, 'You should not eat food which you 
got for another by hinting.' Besides that, he gave an entire set of 
robes to his other pupil. Oh, the Elder has treated me very badly! I 
shall find some way of getting even with him." 

On the following day, when the Elder entered the village for alms, 
leaving him alone in the monastery, he took a stick, broke all the 
vessels used for eating and drinking, set fire to the Elder's hut of 
leaves and grass, smashed to pieces with a hammer everything that 
didn't burn, and ran away. When he died, he was reborn in the Great 
Hell of Avici. [22] 

The populace discussed the incident: "They say that a pupil 
of the Elder, unable to endure a slight rebuke, took offense, set fire 
to the Elder's hut of leaves and grass, and ran away." Some time 
afterwards a certain monk left Rajagaha, and desiring to see the 
Teacher, came to Jetavana and paid obeisance to the Teacher. The 
Teacher greeted him in a friendly manner and asked, "Whence have 
you come.?" "From Rajagaha, Reverend Sir." "Is all well with 
my son Kassapa the Great.?" "All is well with him. Reverend Sir. 
But a certain pupil of his, taking offense at a slight rebuke, set fire to 
his hut of leaves and grass and ran away." Said the Teacher, "This 
is not the first time he has taken offense at receiving an admonition. 
He did the same thing in a previous state of existence also. This is not 
the first time he has destroyed a house. He did the same thing in a 
previous state of existence also." So saying, he related the following 



114 Book 5, Story 2, Dhammapada 61 [N .2.2213- 



2 a. Story of the Past : The monkey and the singila bird 

In times long past, when Brahmadatta reigned at Benares, a 
singila bird built him a nest and made his home in the Himalaya 
country. Now one day, while it was raining, a monkey came there 
shivering with the cold. The singila saw him and pronounced the 
following Stanza, 

Monkey, your head and your hands and your feet are just like a man's. 
What excuse have you, pray, for having no house? 

The monkey thought to himself, "It is true that I have hands 
and feet; but I lack the intelligence to build a house." And desiring 
to make his meaning clear, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

Singila, my head and my hands and my feet are indeed just Kke those of a man; 
But as for what they say is man's highest endowment, intelligence, I have it not. 

The bird thought, "To live in a house would never do for one like 
you." And out of scorn for the monkey he pronounced the two follow- 
ing Stanzas, [23] 

He that is unstable, light-minded, and treacherous. 

He that never keeps the moral precepts, such a one will never attain happiness. 

Monkey, exert yourself to the utmost, abandon your past habits. 
Build yourself a hut to protect yourself from the cold and the wind. 

The monkey said to himself, "This bird calls me unstable, light- 
minded, treacherous to my friends, one who never keeps the moral 
precepts. Very well! Now I will show him what happiness is." So 
saying, he destroyed the nest and scattered it to the winds. When 
the monkey seized the nest, the bird slipped out and flew away. 

When the Teacher had given this religious instruction, he identified 
the characters in the Jataka as follows, "At that time the monkey 
was the novice that destroyed the house; the singila bird was Kas- 
sapa." And he said, "Monks, this is not the first time the novice 
took offense at an admonition and destroyed a house. He did the 
same thing in a previous state of existence also. It were better for 
my son Kassapa to live alone than to live with such a simpleton." 
So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

61. Should a man fail to find a companion who is his better or his equal. 

He should resolutely pursue a solitary course. One cannot be friends with a 
simpleton. 



■N.2.261S] 



A Jonah in the house 



115 



V. 3. A JONAH IN THE HOUSE ^ 

I have sons. This religious instruction was given by the Teacher 
while at Savatthi with reference to Treasurer Ananda. [25] 



3 a. The niggardly treasurer 

At Savatthi, we are told, lived a treasurer named Ananda. He had 
eighty crores of treasure, but he was a great miser. Every fortnight 
he would gather his kinsfolk together and admonish his son Mulasiri 
on these three points: "Do not think that these eighty crores of 
treasure are a large sum. What one possesses one should never give 
away. One should always be acquiring more. For if a man lets penny 
after penny slip through his fingers, slowly but surely his substance 
wastes away. Therefore it is said. 

Observing how pigments fade away, how ants amass their store, 

How bees gather honey, so should the wise man administer his household." 

Some time afterwards, after showing his son his five great stores 
of treasure, he died, given over to pride and stained with the stains 
of avarice. Now in a certain village near the gate of that city lived 
a thousand families of Candalas, [26] and Ananda was conceived 
in the womb of one of these Candala women. The king, learning of 
his death, sent for his son Mulasiri and appointed him to the post of 
treasurer. 

3 b. Sequel : A Jonah in the house 

These thousand families of Candalas, who made their living by 
working for hire in a body, from the day of his conception received no 
more wages and had not a morsel of rice to sustain them. They said 
to each other, "Although we are now working, we receive no food. 
There must be a Jonah amongst us." So they divided into two groups 
and made a thorough investigation while his mother and father were 
absent, and coming to the conclusion, "A Jonah has arisen in this 
house," they removed his mother. From the time of his conception 
she had been able only with great diflficulty to procure suflBcient food 
to sustain her. Finally she gave birth to a son. 

His hands and feet and eyes and ears and nose and mouth were 

1 Cf. Jdtaka, i. 238-239, and the beginning of chap, xxv of Rogers, BuddhaghosMs 
Parables. This story is referred to at Milindaj)anha, 350i«. Text: N ii. 25-29. 



116 Book 5, Story 3, Dhammapada 62 [N .2. 2613- 

not where they should have been. Monstrosity that he was, he looked 
like a mud sprite and was exceedingly repulsive. In spite of this, 
however, his mother did not abandon him, for great is the love of a 
mother for the child she has carried in her womb. She had great 
diflSculty in feeding him. If she took him with her when she went 
out, she got nothing. But if she left him at home and went out alone, 
she received food to support her. When he was old enough to get a 
living by begging alms, she placed a potsherd in his hand and sent 
him away, saying to him, "Dear son, because of you we have been 
brought to great distress. Now we can support you no longer. In 
this city meals are provided for poor folk and travelers. Get your 
living by begging alms in the city." [27] 

He went from house to house, finally coming to the house where 
he had formerly lived in his existence as Treasurer Ananda. Remem- 
bering his former existence, he entered his own house. He went 
through three chambers, and no one noticed him. But when he 
entered the fourth chamber, the young sons of Treasurer Mulasiri 
took fright and burst into tears. The treasurer's servants came in and 
said to him, "Leave this house, unspeakable monster!" So saying, 
they beat him and pulled him and dragged him out and threw him on 
the dust-heap. 

As the Teacher was going his round for alms, accompanied by the 
Elder Ananda as junior monk, he came to this very place. The Teacher 
looked at the Elder and, in response to a question, told him what had 
happened. The Elder sent for Mulasiri, and a great company of 
people assembled. The Teacher, addressing Mulasiri, asked him, 
"Do you know that man.^" "I do not." "He is your father. Treasurer 
Ananda." Mulasiri would not believe it. So the Teacher said to 
Treasurer Ananda, "Ananda, point out your five great stores of 
treasure to your son." He did so, and Mulasiri believed and sought 
refuge in the Teacher. The Teacher, instructing him in the Law, 
pronounced the following Stanza, 

62. " I have sons, I have wealth." With these thoughts the simpleton vexes himself. 
But he is not his own. How then can sons be his? How can wealth be his? 



-N.2.316] The wise fool 117 



V. 4. THE PICKPOCKET! 

The fool. This religious instruction was given by the Teacher 
while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to two thieves 
who broke their bonds. [29] 

The story goes that these two men, who were boon companions, 
accompanied a great throng to Jetavana to hear the Law. One of 
them listened to the Law; the other watched for a chance to steal 
something. The first, through listening to the Law, obtained the 
Fruit of Conversion; the second found a matter of five farthings tied 
to the skirt of a certain man and stole the money. The confirmed 
thief had food cooked as usual in his house, but there was no cooking 
done in the house of the convert. His comrade the thief, and likewise 
the thief's wife, ridiculed him, saying, "You are so excessively wise 
that you cannot obtain money enough to have regular meals cooked 
in your own house." The convert thought to himself, "This man, 
just because he is a fool, does not think that he is wise." [30] And 
going to Jetavana with his kinsfolk, he told the Teacher of the incident. 
The Teacher, instructing him in the Law, pronounced the following 
Stanza, 

63. The fool who thinks he is a fool is for that very reason a wise man; 
But the fool who thinks he is a wise man is rightly called a fool. 



V. 5. THE WISE FOOL 2 

Even if a fool, oil his life long. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference 
to the Elder Udayi. [31] 

The story goes that when the Great Elders left the Hall of Truth, 
Udayi used to go in and sit in the Seat of the Law. Now one day some 
visiting monks saw him there, and thinking to themselves, "This 
must be the learned Great Elder," asked him some questions about 
the Aggregates of Being and other matters. Discovering that he 
knew nothing about any of these things, they said in scorn, "Who is 
this monk that he should live in the same monastery with the Buddhas.^^ 
He does not even know about the Aggregates of Being, the Elements 

1 Text: N ii. 29-30. ^ Xext: N ii. 30-32. 



118 Book 5, Story 6. Dhammapada 65 [N.2.316- 

of Being, and the Organs and Objects of Sense." So they reported 
the matter to the Tathagata. The Teacher, instructing them in the 
Law, pronounced the following Stanza, 

64. Even if a fool, all his life long, associate with a wise man, 

He will no more perceive the Law than a spoon the taste of broth. 



V. 6. FROM VICE TO VIRTUE ^ 

If an intelligent man, but for a moment. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to the thirty Patheyyaka monks. [32] 

For the Exalted One first preached the Law to these men in Kap- 
pasika Grove, where they were seeking a woman. At that time all 
of them obeyed the command, "Come, monks!" and received bowls 
and robes created by supernatural power. Taking upon themselves 
the Thirteen Pure Practices, they returned after a long time to the 
Teacher, hearkened to his discourse on the Beginningless,^ and before 
leaving their seats, attained Arahatship. 

The monks began a discussion in the Hall of Truth: "In how 
short a time did these monks perceive the Law!" The Teacher, 
hearing this, said to them, "Monks, this is not the first time these 
thirty companions committed sin. They did the same thing in a 
previous state of existence also. But hearing the religious instruction 
of Maha Tundila in the Tundila Jataka,^ [33] they perceived the 
Law very quickly and took upon themselves the Five Precepts. It 
was solely through the merit acquired by this act that they attained 
Arahatship just now, even as they sat in their seats." So saying, he 
pronounced the following Stanza, 

65. If an intelligent man, but for a moment, be associated with a wise man, 

He quickly perceives the Law, just as the tongue perceives the taste of broth. 

^ This story is derived from the Vinaya, Mahd Vagga, i. 14: i. 23-24. See also 
Story i. 8 e: i. 100. Text: N ii. 32-33. 

2 Samyutta, xv: ii. 178-193. For a translation of the greater part of this remark- 
able SamyuUa, see Introduction, § 2 a. 

3 Jdtaka 388: iii. 286-293. 



-N.2.354] A leper is tempted to deny his faith 



119 



V. 7. A LEPER IS TEMPTED TO DENY HIS FAITH ^ 

Fools of little wit, walk. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Veluvana with reference to 
the leper Suppabuddha. The story of the leper Suppabuddha is 
found in the Udana. 

For at that time the leper Suppabuddha, seated in the outer circle 
of the congregation, heard the Exalted One preach the Law and 
attained the Fruit of Conversion. [34] Desiring to inform the Teacher 
of the blessing he had received, but not daring to force his way into 
the midst of the congregation, he waited until the populace had paid 
obeisance to the Teacher, had accompanied him a little way, and had 
turned back; then he went to the monastery. 

At that moment Sakka king of gods thought to himself, "Yonder 
leper Suppabuddha desires to make known the blessing he has received 
in the Religion of the Teacher. I will test him." So he went to him, 
and poised in the air, spoke thus to him, "Suppabuddha, you are a 
poor man, a man afflicted with misery. I will give you limitless wealth 
if you will say, *The Buddha is not the Buddha, the Law is not the 
Law, the Order is not the Order. I have had enough of the Buddha, 
I have had enough of the Law, I have had enough of the Order.'" 
The leper said to him, " Who are you.^^" " I am Sakka." "Fool, shame- 
less one, you are not fit to talk to me. You say that I am poor and 
needy and afflicted. On the contrary I have attained happiness and 
great wealth: 

The wealth of faith, the wealth of morality, the wealth of modesty, of fear of sin, 
The wealth of sacred lore, of renunciation, of wisdom, the seven stores of wealth are 
mine. 

Whoso possesses these stores of wealth, be it a woman or a man. 
Such a one men call not poor; the life of such a one is not in vain. 

"These are the seven stores of honorable wealth. They that 
possess these stores of wealth are not called poor by Buddhas or 
Private Buddhas." [35] When Sakka heard him speak thus, he left 
him by the way, went to the Teacher, and told him all the questions 
and answers. The Exalted One said to him, "Sakka, it is not possible, 
even with a hundred such pieces of money, even with a thousand, to 

* This story is derived from Uddna, v. 3: 48-50, as the text expressly says at 
ii. 3321. Text: N ii. 33-37. 



120 Book 5, Story 7. Dhammapada 66 [N. 2.355- 

prevail upon the leper Suppabuddha to say, The Buddha is not the 
Buddha, the Law is not the Law, the Order is not the Order.'" 

So Suppabuddha the leper went to the Teacher, and the Teacher 
received him in a friendly manner. And having informed the Teacher 
of the blessing he had received, he arose from his seat and went his 
way. When he had gone but a little way, he was killed by a young 
heifer. We are told that this heifer was an ogress who had been a 
cow in each of a hundred existences, and that as a cow she had killed 
four youths: Pukkusati,^ a young man of station; Bahiya Daruciriya;^ 
Tambadathika, the robber outlaw ;3 and Suppabuddha the leper. 

7 a. Story of the Past : The four youths and the courtezan 

The story goes that in a former state of existence these four youths 
were sons of wealthy merchants, and the ogress was a beautiful 
courtezan. One day they accompanied her to a pleasure garden, 
took their pleasure with her, and when the evening came, decided on 
the following course of action, "There is no one here except ourselves. 
We will take from this woman the thousand pieces of money we 
have given her, rob her of all the jewels she possesses, kill her, and 
go our way." The courtezan heard what they said and thought to 
herself, "These shameless fellows have taken their pleasure with 
me and now wish to kill me. I will get even with them." So as 
they were killing her, she made the following Earnest Wish, [36] 
"May I become an ogress, and may I be able to kill them, even as 
they are now killing me." As the fruit of this Earnest Wish, she 
killed them. 

Several monks informed the Exalted One of the death of the leper 
and asked him, "What will be his future state.^^ How did he come 
to be a leper .f^" The Teacher explained that since he had attained the 
Fruit of Conversion, he had been reborn in the World of the Thirty- 
three. 

7 b. Story of the Past : The insolent youth 

In a previous state of existence, seeing the Private Buddha Tagara- 
sikhi, he showed want of forbearance by spitting on him. He was 
therefore tormented in Hell for a long period of time, and because 

^ Commentary on Majjhima 140. 
^ Dhammapada Comm£ntary, viii. 2. 
' Dhammapada Commentary, viii. 1. 



-N.2.388 



A leper is tempted to deny his faith 



121 



the fruit of that evil deed was not yet exhausted, he was reborn as 
a leper. 

"Monks," said he, "all living beings in this world reap the bitter 
fruit of every single evil deed they commit." And joining the con- 
nection and instructing them in the Law, he pronounced the following 
Stanza, 

66. Fools of little wit walk with their very selves for enemies. 
Committing evil deeds the fruit whereof is bitter. 



V. 8. A FARMER IS UNJUSTLY ACCUSED OF THEFT ^ 

That deed is not well done. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference 
to a certain farmer. [37] 

This farmer, we are told, tilled a certain field not far from Savatthi. 
One day some thieves gained entrance to the city through an under- 
ground watercourse, and digging a tunnel into the house of a certain 
rich man, robbed him of a large amount of gold and coin, escaping 
through the same watercourse. One of the thieves outwitted his 
companions and secreted a purse containing a thousand pieces of 
money in a fold of his garment. Having so done, he accompanied 
his companions to this field, where they divided their spoils. As the 
thief departed with his share, the purse dropped out of the fold of his 
garment, but he did not notice his loss. 

That day, early in the morning, the Teacher surveyed the world, 
and seeing that this farmer had entered the Net of his Knowledge, 
he considered within himself what would happen. And he became 
aware of the following, "This farmer will go early in the morning to 
till his field. The owners of the stolen property will follow the thieves, 
and when they see the purse, they will arrest him. Excepting me, 
he will have no other witness. [38] Since he is predestined to the 
Path of Conversion, it is my duty to go to him." 

Early in the morning the farmer went to till his field, and thither 
went also the Teacher with the Elder Ananda as attendant-monk. 
Seeing the Teacher, the farmer went and paid obeisance to the Exalted 
One, and then resumed tilling his field. The Teacher said nothing 
to him. Going to the place where the purse had fallen and seeing it, 
he said to the Elder Ananda, "See, Ananda, a poisonous snake!" 

1 Text: N ii. 37-40. 



122 



Booh 5, Story 8, Dhammapada 67 [N .2.388- 



"I see, Reverend Sir, a deadly, poisonous snake!" The farmer heard 
their conversation and thought to himself, "In season and out of 
season I go back and forth over this field. Can there be a snake here, 
as they say?" The Teacher, after making this remark, went his way. 
The farmer said to himself, "I will kill the snake." So saying, he 
took a goad-stick, went to the spot, and discovered the purse. "The 
Teacher must have referred to this purse," thought he. Not knowing 
exactly what to do about it, he laid the purse aside, covered it with 
dust, and resumed his plowing. 

When the night grew bright, men discovered the theft which had 
been committed in the house, trailed the thieves to the field, and 
coming to the spot where they had divided their spoils, saw the foot- 
prints of the farmer. Following his footsteps to the spot where the 
purse was buried, they removed the earth and picked up the purse. 
Thereupon they reviled him, saying, "So you robbed the house, and 
here you are plowing the field!" And having given him a good 
beating, they took him and arraigned him before the king. [39] 

When the king heard what had happened, he ordered the farmer 
to be put to death. The king's men straightway bound his hands 
behind his back and led him to the place of execution, lashing him with 
whips as they led him along. As the farmer walked along and the 
king's men lashed him with whips, he kept repeating the words, "See, 
Ananda, a poisonous snake!" "I see. Reverend Sir, a deadly, poison- 
ous snake!" Not another word did he utter. The king's men asked 
him, "You are repeating words of the Teacher and of the Elder Ananda. 
What does this mean.?" The farmer replied, "I will tell, if I am per- 
mitted to see the king." 

So they led him to the king and told the king what had happened. 
The king asked the farmer, "Why do you speak thus.?" "I am not a 
thief, your majesty." So saying, the farmer told him the whole story 
from the time when he went forth to till his field. When the king 
had heard his story, he said, "Why, this man names as his witness the 
foremost man in all the world, the Teacher. It is not right to fasten 
the guilt upon him. I shall find some way out of this difficulty." 

Accordingly, when it was evening, the king took the farmer with 
him, went to the Teacher, and asked him, "Exalted One, did you and 
the Elder Ananda go to a place where a certain farmer was plowing?" 
"Yes, your majesty." "What did you see there?" "A purse con- 
taining a thousand pieces of money, your majesty." "When you 
saw it, what did you say?" " Such and such, your majesty." " Rever- 



-N.2.4119] A farmer is unjustly accused of theft 123 

end Sir, if this man had not named a person like you as his witness, 
he would never have saved his life. He saved his life by repeating 
the words you uttered." When the Teacher heard this, he said, 
"Yes, your majesty, I also said just that when I went there. A wise 
man should not do a deed of which he must afterwards repent." [40] 
And joining the connection, he instructed him in the Law by pronounc- 
ing the following Stanza, 

67. That deed is not well done, of which a man must afterwards repent. 
The fruit whereof he receives weeping, with tearful face. 



V. 9. SUMANA THE GARDENER ^ 

That deed is well done. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Veluvana with reference to 
the gardener Sumana. [41] 

We are told that every day, early in the morning, the gardener 
Sumana used to serve King Bimbisara with eight measures of jasmine 
flowers, for each of which he received eight pieces of money. Now one 
day, just as he was entering the city with the flowers, the Exalted 
One, surrounded by a mighty retinue of monks, diffusing rays of 
six colors, with all the mighty power of a Buddha, entered the city 
for alms. (Sometimes the Exalted One proceeds like any other monk 
on an alms pilgrimage, concealing the six-colored rays with his robe, 
as when he went a journey of three leagues to meet Angulimala. At 
other times, as when he enters Kapilavatthu and other cities, he 
diffuses rays of six colors from his person. On this particular day, 
diffusing rays of six colors from his person, with all the mighty power 
of a Buddha, with all the grace of a Buddha, he entered Rajagaha.) 

When the gardener saw the person of the Exalted One, as it had 
been an oblation of precious stones, an oblation of gold, and beheld 
the glory and splendor of the thirty-two major characteristics and 
the eighty minor characteristics of a great man, he thought to himself, 
"What good office can I perform for the Teacher.?" Seeing nothing 
better to do, he thought, "I will honor the Teacher with these flowers." 
Then he thought again, "These are the flowers with which I always 

^ This story is referred to at Milindapanha, 115^^, 291^^^S 350^. On an interesting 
reference to another story about the same person at Khuddaka Pdtha Commentary, 
12916-13024, see Introduction, § 7 d, last paragraph. Text: N ii. 40-4*7. 



124 



Book 5, Story 9, Dhammapada 68 [N.2.4119- 



serve the king. If he fails to receive them, he may put me in prison 
or kill me or banish me. What am I to do?" Then this thought 
occurred to him, "Let the king kill me or banish me from his kingdom. 
No matter what he gives me, he can give me wealth which will last 
only so long as my life endures in this present existence. But if I 
honor the Teacher, it will avail to my welfare and salvation in untold 
millions of cycles of time." [42] Therefore he surrendered his life 
to the Tathagata. 

Thought he, "So long as my believing heart turns not back, I 
will do him honor." And pleased and delighted, elated and happy, 
he honored the Teacher. How did he do it.? First he threw two 
handfuls of flowers over the Teacher. These remained suspended over 
his head like a canopy. Then he threw two handfuls more, which 
descended on his right side and remained suspended like the curtain 
of a pavilion. The next two handfuls he threw descended behind him 
and remained suspended. The last two handfuls he threw descended 
on his left side and remained suspended. Thus the eight measures of 
flowers, eight handfuls in all, surrounded the Tathagata on four sides. 

In front it was as if there were a gate for him to enter; the stems 
of the flowers were turned inward, and the petals were turned outward. 
The Exalted One proceeded as if he were encased in plates of silver. 
The flowers, senseless things though they were, behaved as though 
possessed of intelligence, neither breaking apart nor falling, accom- 
panying the Teacher whenever he moved, and remaining stationary 
whenever he stood still. From the person of the Teacher proceeded 
rays like the hundred forks of lightning; in front and behind, on 
his right hand and on his left, and from the crown of his head did 
rays of light flash forth. 

Not one who met him face to face, as he proceeded, ran away, 
but all without exception walked thrice about him sunwise, and in 
numbers like clusters of young palm-trees [43] ran before him. The 
whole city was agitated. There were ninety million people living in 
the city at this time and ninety million people living outside of the 
city; and of these one hundred and eighty million people there was 
not one man or woman who did not come forth bringing alms. Roaring 
the roar of lions and waving thousands of cloths, the great multitude 
inarched before the Teacher. 

In order to make known the meritorious deed of the gardener, 
the Teacher proceeded through the city for a distance of three leagues 
to the beating of kettle-drums. The whole body of the gardener 



-N.2.451] 



Sumana the gardener 



U5 



was suffused with the five sorts of joy. After accompanying the 
Tathagata a little way, he penetrated the rays of the Buddha as one 
might plunge into a sea of vermilion, praised the Teacher, paid obei- 
sance to him, and then taking his empty basket, went home. 

His wife asked him, "Where are your flowers.^" "I honored the 
Teacher with them." "Now what will you do for the king.?" "The 
king may kill me or banish me from his kingdom. I have surrendered 
my life to the Teacher and rendered him honor. I had eight handfuls 
of flowers in all, and with these I honored the Teacher. The populace 
is accompanying the Teacher, shouting thousands of acclamations. 
It is the noise of the acclamations of the populace that we hear in 
this place." 

Now the wife of the gardener was an utter simpleton, [44] and 
was therefore incapable of believing in such a miracle. So she rebuked 
her husband, saying, "Kings are harsh and cruel, and when once 
provoked, do much harm by cutting off hands and feet and inflicting 
other punishments. Much harm might come to me through what 
you have done." Then she took her children with her, went to the 
royal palace, sent for the king, and when he asked her what was the 
matter, said to him, "My husband has honored the Teacher with 
the flowers he should have served to you and has returned home 
empty-handed. I asked him what he had done with the flowers, and 
this is what he told me. I rebuked him, saying, * Kings are harsh 
and cruel, and when once provoked, do much harm by cutting off 
hands and feet and inflicting other punishments. Much harm might 
come to me through the offense you have committed.' So I aban- 
doned him and came here. What he has done may be good or evil. 
All that I care for, your majesty, is to have you know that I have 
abandoned him." 

Now the king was a Noble Disciple. At the very first sight of the 
Buddha he had obtained the Fruit of Conversion; his faith was firm 
and his mind was at peace. He thought to himself, "Oh, this woman 
is an utter simpleton! Naturally she could have no faith in such 
a work of merit." But he pretended to be angry and said to her, 
"Woman, what say you.^^ He honored the Teacher with flowers he 
should have served to me.^^" "Yes, your majesty." "You did well 
to abandon him. I shall find a way of dealing with this fellow for 
rendering honor to another with flowers that belonged to me." Having 
dismissed her with these words, he went quickly to the Teacher, paid 
obeisance to him, [45] and walked with the Teacher alone. 



126 



Booh 5, Story 9, Dhammapada 68 [N.2.451- 



The Teacher, perceiving that the mind of the king was at peace, 
proceeded to the city and marched through the street to the beating 
of kettle-drums, until he arrived at the gate of the king's palace. The 
king took his bowl and invited the Teacher to enter, but the Teacher 
indicated his desire to sit in the palace court. The king recognized 
his desire and gave the order, "Erect a pavilion with all speed." 
Accordingly a pavilion was immediately erected, and the Teacher 
sat therein, surrounded by the Congregation of Monks. 

Now why did the Teacher not enter the king's palace.? We are 
told that the following thought occurred to him, "If I go in and sit 
down, the populace will not be able to see me, and the good deed of 
the gardener will not be manifest; but if I sit in the palace court, the 
populace will be able to see me, and the good deed of the gardener 
will become manifest to all." (For the Buddhas alone have the 
courage to publish abroad the virtues of the virtuous; other folk 
display jealousy in reciting the virtues of the virtuous.) 

The four banks of flowers remained suspended on four sides. The 
populace waited upon the Teacher, and the king served the Congre- 
gation of Monks presided over by the Buddha with choice food. At 
the conclusion of the meal the Teacher returned thanks, and surrounded 
as before by the four banks of flowers and accompanied by a great 
multitude shouting shouts of exultation, proceeded to the monastery. 

The king accompanied the Teacher a little way and turned back. 
Then he sent for the gardener and asked him, "What did you say when 
you honored the Teacher.?^" The gardener replied, "Your majesty, 
I surrendered my life to him and honored him, saying, *The king may 
kill me or banish me from his kingdom.'" The king said, "You are 
a great man." So saying, he presented him with eight elephants, 
eight horses, eight male slaves, [46] eight female slaves, eight magnifi- 
cent sets of jewels, eight thousand pieces of money, eight women 
taken from the royal harem, adorned with all the adornments, and 
eight choice villages. These Eightfold Gifts did the king give him. 

The Elder Ananda thought to himself, "Shouts of exultation and 
acclamation have continued all during the day since early morning. 
What will be the reward of the gardener.'^" So he asked the Teacher 
the question. The Teacher replied, "Ananda, think not that it was 
a little thing this gardener did. For he surrendered his life to me and 
rendered honor to me. Therefore, because he reposed faith in me, he 
will not enter a state of suffering for a hundred thousand cycles of 
time, but will receive the fruit of his good deed in the World of the 



-N.2.4811] 



Sumana the gardener 



127 



Gods and in the world of men and will become a Private Buddha named 
Sumana." 

When the Teacher returned to the monastery and entered his 
Perfumed Chamber, those flowers fell upon the battlement. 

In the evening the monks began a discussion in the Hall of Truth: 
"Oh, how wonderful was the deed of the gardener! He surrendered his 
life to the living Buddha, rendered him honor with flowers, and 
straightway received eightfold gifts." The Teacher came forth from 
his Perfumed Chamber, proceeded to the Hall of Truth by one of 
three passageways, [47] and seating him'self in the Seat of the Buddha, 
asked them, "Monks, what is it you are sitting here now talking 
about?" When they told him, he said to them, "Yes, monks, one 
should do only deeds the doing of which is not followed by remorse, 
but every remembrance of which brings only joy." And joining the 
connection and instructing them in the Law, he pronounced the 
following Stanza, 

68. That deed is well done the doing of which is not followed by remorse, 
The fruit whereof one receives with joy and pleasure. 



V. 10. RAPE OF UPPALAVANNA ^ 

As sweet as honey, thinks a fool an evil deed. This religious instruc- 
tion was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana 
with reference to the nun Uppalavanna. [48] 

We are told that Uppalavanna made her Earnest Wish at the 
feet of the Buddha Padumuttara, and that after performing works 
of merit for a hundred thousand cycles of time, as she passed from 
birth to birth among gods and men, she passed from the World of 
the Gods in the dispensation of the present Buddha and was reborn 
in Savatthi as the daughter of a rich merchant. The hue of her skin 
was like the hue of the calyx of the blue lotus, and therefore they 
gave her the name Uppalavanna. When she reached marriageable 
age, all the princes and merchants in the Land of the Rose-Apple, 
without a single exception, sent to the merchant her father, asking 
him to give them his daughter in marriage. 

1 For the story of Uppalavanna's career before her adoption of the religious life, 
one of the most extraordinary stories in Buddhist literature, see Anguttara Com- 
mentary, JRAS.y 1893, pp. 532 ff.; Therl-Gdthd Commentary, Ixiv: 182-190; and 
Tibetan Tales, x: 206-215. Text: N ii. 48-52. 



128 



Book 5, Story 10, Dhammapada 69 [N.2.48ii- 



Thereupon the merchant thought to himself, "I shall not be able 
to satisfy the wishes of all, but I shall find some way out of the diffi- 
culty." So he summoned his daughter and said to her, "You might 
become a nun." Now she was in her last existence before attaining 
Nibbana, and therefore his words were to her as it were oil a hundred 
times refined, sprinkled on her head. Therefore she replied, "Dear 
father, I will become a nun." So he prepared rich gifts in her honor, 
and conducting her to the Community of Nuns, had her admitted 
to the Order. [49] 

Not long after she had been admitted to the Order, her turn came 
to unlock and lock the Hall of Confession. After she had lighted the 
lamp and swept the Hall, her attention was attracted to the flame of 
the lamp. And standing there, she looked repeatedly at the flame; 
and concentrating her attention on the element of fire, entered into 
a state of trance. Consummating the trance, she attained Arahat- 
ship, together with the Supernatural Faculties and Powers. 

Some time later she went on a pilgrimage for alms in the country, 
and on her return entered a dark forest. At that time it was not for- 
bidden nuns to reside in a forest. There they built her a hut, set up 
a bed, and hung curtains round. From the forest she went to Savatthi 
to receive alms, and then set out to return to her hut. Now a cousin 
of hers, a young Brahman named Ananda, had been in love with 
her ever since she lived in the world; and when he heard where she 
had gone, he went to the forest ahead of the nun, entered the hut, 
and hid under the bed. 

On her return the nun entered the hut, closed the door, and sat down 
on the bed, unable to see in the dark, because she had just come in 
out of the sunlight. Hardly had she seated herself on the bed when 
the youth crawled out from under and climbed on top. The nun cried 
out, "Fool, do not ruin me! Fool, do not ruin me!" But the youth 
overcame her resistance, worked his will of her, and went his way. 
As if unable to endure his wickedness, [50] the great earth burst 
asunder, and he was swallowed up and reborn in the Great Hell of 
Avici. 

The nun told the other nuns what had happened, and the nuns 
told the monks, and the monks told the Exalted One. Having heard 
this, the Teacher addressed the monks as follows, "Monks, the 
simpleton, whoever he may be, whether monk or nun, or lay disciple 
male or female, who commits an act of sin, acts with as much joy 
and happiness, with as much pleasure and delight, as though he 



-N.2.527] 



Rape of Uppalavannd 



129 



were eating honey or sugar or some other sweet-tasting substance." 
And joining the connection and instructing them in the Law, he 
pronounced the following Stanza, 

69. As sweet as honey, thinks a fool an evil deed, so long as it bears no fruit; 
But when it bears fruit, then the fool comes to grief. [51] 

Some time later the throng assembled in the Hall of Truth began 
to discuss the incident: "Even those that have rid themselves of 
the Depravities like the pleasures of love and gratify their passions. 
Why should they not.^ They are not kolapa-trees or ant-hills, but are 
living creatures with bodies of moist flesh. Therefore they also like 
the pleasures of love and gratify their passions." The Teacher drew 
near and asked them, "Monks, what are you sitting here now talking 
about.?" They told him. Then he said, "Monks, they that have 
rid themselves of the Depravities neither like the pleasures of love nor 
gratify their passions. For even as a drop of water which has fallen 
upon a lotus-leaf does not cling thereto or remain thereon, but rolls 
over and falls off, even as a grain of mustard-seed does not cling to 
the point of an awl or remain thereon, but rolls over and falls off, 
precisely so twofold love does not cling to the heart of one who has 
rid himself of the Depravities or remain there." And joining the 
connection, he instructed them in the Law by pronouncing the 
following Stanza, found in the Brahmana Vagga, 

401. Even as water does not cling to a lotus-leaf, nor a grain of mustard-seed to the 
point of an awl. 
Whoso in like manner clings not to the pleasures of sense, him I call a Brahman.^ 

Now the Teacher summoned King Pasenadi Kosala and said to 
him, "Your majesty, in this Religion young women of family, as 
well as young men of family, renounce many kinsfolk [52] and much 
wealth, retire from the world, and take up residence in the forest. 
In case women reside in the forest, it is possible that evil-minded 
men, inflamed by lust, may conduct themselves towards them with 
disrespect and arrogance, do them violence, and bring their religious 
life to naught. Therefore a place of residence for the Community 
of Nuns should be erected within the city." The king agreed to this 
and had a place of residence for the Community of Nuns erected on one 
side of the city. From that time on the nuns resided only within 
the city. 

^ See Story xxvi. 18. 



130 



Book 5, Story 11, Dhammapada 70 [N. 2.5^9- 



V. 11. JAMBUKA THE NAKED ASCETIC ^ 

Though month after month with the tip of a blade of kusa grass. This 
religious instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in resi- 
dence at Veluvana with reference to Jambuka, the Naked Ascetic. 



11 a. Story of the Past: The jealous monk 

The story goes that in times long past, in the dispensation of the 
Supremely Enlightened Kassapa, a certain layman dwelling in a 
village erected a residence for a certain Elder, and supplied him with 
the four requisites during his term of residence there, the Elder taking 
his meals regularly in the layman's house. Now a certain monk 
freed from the Depravities, making his round for alms by day, stopped 
at the door of the layman's house. When the layman saw him, pleased 
with his deportment, he invited him into his house, and reverently 
served him with the choicest viands. And he presented him with a 
large robe, saying, "Reverend Sir, dye this robe and wear it as an 
undergarment." [53] And he said further to him, "Reverend Sir, 
your hair has grown long; I will go fetch a barber to cut your hair. 
And on my return I will procure you a bed for you to lie on." 

When the monk who was the layman's guest, and who took his 
meals regularly in the layman's house, saw the attentions bestowed 
on the visiting monk by the layman, he became very jealous. And 
as he went to his residence, he thought to himself, "This moment 
this lajrman is devoting all his attentions to this visiting monk. But 
to me, who take my meals in his house regularly, he pays no attention 
at all." The visiting monk, who was his sole companion, dyed the 
robe which the layman had given him, and put it on and wore it as 
an undergarment. The layman brought the barber back with him 
and had him cut the Elder's hair. Having so done, he caused a bed 
to be spread for the Elder and said to him, "Reverend Sir, lie on this 
very bed." Then, after inviting the two Elders to be his guests on 
the morrow, he departed. 

The resident monk could endure no longer the attentions bestowed 
by the layman on the visiting monk. So in the evening he went to 
the place where the Elder lay, and reviled him by uttering the four 

^ From this story is derived Thera-Gdthd Commentary, cxc. Dhammapala quotes 
the Dhammapada Commentary by name. This story is referred to at Milinda'panha^ 
350i«-". Text: N ii. 52-63. 



-N.2.552] Jamhuka the Naked Ascetic 131 

kinds of insults: "Brother visitor, you might better eat excrement 
than eat food in the layman's house. You might better tear out 
your hair with a Palmyra comb than allow your hair to be cut by a 
barber brought hither by the layman. You might better go naked 
than wear as an undergarment a robe given you by the layman. You 
might better lie on the ground than lie on a bed brought you by the 
layman." Thought the visiting Elder, "May this foolish fellow not 
be destroyed because of me!" Paying no attention to the insults 
of the resident monk, he arose early in the morning [54] and went 
whithersoever he wished. 

The resident monk also arose early in the morning, and performed 
the customary duties about his residence. When it was time for him 
to set out on his round for alms, thinking to himself, "The visiting 
Elder is undoubtedly asleep now, and will awaken at the sound of the 
bell," he struck the bell with the outer surface of his finger nail. 
Having so done, he entered the village. After preparing offerings of 
food, the layman watched for the two Elders to come. Seeing the 
resident monk, he asked, "Reverend Sir, where is the visiting Elder.?" 
The resident monk replied, "Brother, what say you.? The Elder 
who came to your house yesterday went into an inner room as soon 
as you departed, and fell asleep. Although I rose very early, he pays 
no attention either to the noise of my sweeping the residence, or to 
the sound of the washing of the jars for water for drinking and for 
refreshment, or to the stroke of the bell." 

Thought the layman to himself, "It is incredible that my noble 
Elder, a monk so perfect in deportment, should sleep until this time 
of day. It must be that the Venerable Elder resident in my household, 
observing my attentions to him, said something to him." Accordingly, 
wise man that he was, the layman reverently served the resident monk 
with food; and having so done, washed his bowl carefully, filled it 
with food flavored with the choicest gravies, and said to him, "Rever- 
end Sir, should you happen to see my noble Elder, be good enough to 
give him this food." The monk took the bowl and thought to himself, 
"If the Elder eats such food as this, he will take such a liking to this 
spot that he will never leave it." So as he went along the road, he 
threw away that food. When he reached the Elder's place of residence, 
he looked for him there, but failed to find him. 

Now because the monk committed this evil deed, [55] the medita- 
tions he performed for so long as twenty thousand years were power- 
less to protect him. When the term of his life was completed, he was 



132 Book 5, Story 11, Dhammapada 70 [N. 2.552- 

rebom in the Avici Hell, where he suffered extreme torment for the 
space of an interval between two Buddhas. In the dispensation of 
the present Buddha he was reborn in the city of Rajagaha in a certain 
household possessed of an abundant store of food and drink. 



lib. Story of the Present: Jambuka the Naked Ascetic 

From the time he could walk, he would neither lie on a bed nor 
eat ordinary food, but ate only his own excrement. His mother and 
father brought him up, thinking, "He does this because he is too young 
to know any better." But also when he grew older, refusing to wear 
clothes, he went naked, made his bed on the ground, and ate only 
his own excrement. Thought his mother and father, "This youth 
is not fit to live in a house. He is fit to live only with the Naked 
Ascetics, the Ajivakas." So they took him to the Ajivakas and 
committed him to their charge, saying, "Admit this youth to your 
Order." So they admitted him to their Order. In admitting him 
they placed him in a pit up to his neck, laid planks over his two collar- 
bones, and seating themselves on the planks, pulled out his hair with 
Palmyra combs. His mother and father invited the Ajivakas to be 
their guests on the following day and departed. 

On the following day the Ajivakas said to him, "Come, let us go 
into the village." But he refused to go, saying, "You go, but I shall 
remain right here. They repeatedly urged him to accompany them, 
but he refused to do so, and they left him behind and went their way. 
When he knew they were gone, he removed a plank from the public 
Jakes, and descending therein, took up excrement in both his hands, 
molded it into lumps, [56] and ate it. The Ajivakas sent him 
food from the village, but he refused to eat it. Repeatedly urged to 
do so, he said, "I have no need of this food; I get food of my own." 
"Where do you get it?" said they. "Right here," said he. Likewise 
on the second day and on the third and on the fourth he refused, 
in spite of much urging, to accompany them to the village, saying, 
"I shall remain right here." 

Said the Ajivakas, "Day after day this man refuses to accompany 
us to the village. Likewise he will have none of the food we send 
him and says, 'Right here I procure food of my own.' What can he 
be doing? Let us watch him and find out for ourselves." So when they 
went to the village, they left two of their number behind to watch 
him. These men pretended to follow in the train of the other monks 



-N.2.572«] 



Jamhuka the Naked Ascetic 



133 



and then went and hid themselves. As soon as he thought they had 
gone, he descended as before into the jakes and began to eat excre- 
ment. When the spies saw what he was doing, they told the Ajivakas. 
As soon as the Ajivakas heard the news, they said to themselves, "Oh, 
what an outrageous thing he has done! If the disciples of the monk 
Gotama should learn of this, they would circulate evil report of us, 
saying, *The Ajivakas make a practice of eating excrement.' This 
man is not fit to remain with us." So they expelled him from their 
Order. 

Now the public jakes was a pool of considerable size, formed by 
a depression in the surface of a flat rock. When Jambuka had been 
expelled by the Ajivakas, he used to go by night to the public jakes 
and eat filth. When people came to ease themselves, he would stand 
leaning with one hand on one side of the rock, [57] with one foot 
raised and resting on his knee, with his mouth wide open, facing in 
the direction of the wind. When people saw him, they would approach 
and salute him and ask him, "Reverend Sir, why does your noble self 
stand there with mouth wide open.?" "I am a wind-eater," Jambuka 
would reply; "I have no other food." "But, Reverend Sir, why do 
you stand with one foot resting on your knee.'^" "I am a man who 
practices cruel austerities, dreadful austerities. If I walk with my 
two feet, the earth quakes. Therefore I stand with one foot resting on 
my knee. I spend my life in a standing posture, never sitting and never 
lying down." 

For the most part men believed whatever he said. Therefore all 
the inhabitants of Anga and Magadha were greatly agitated and said, 
"Oh, how wonderful are such ascetics as these! Never before have 
we seen such ascetics!" And month after month they brought him 
abundant food. But he was unwilling to accept anything they brought 
him and said, "I eat only the wind. I have no other food; for were 
I to eat any other food, it would make an end of my austerities." 
But the people replied, "Reverend Sir, do not destroy us. If only an 
austere ascetic like you would partake of food at our hands, it would 
insure our welfare and salvation for a long period of time." They 
asked him repeatedly, but other food did not please him. But finally, 
under the pressure of their entreaties, he placed on the tip of his 
tongue with the tip of a blade of kusa grass some butter, honey, and 
molasses they brought him, and dismissed them with the following 
words, "Go your way now; this will suffice to your welfare and 
salvation." In this manner he spent fifty-five years, going naked. 



134 



Book 5, Story 11, Dhammapada 70 [N.2.5723- 



eating excrement, tearing out his hair, and making his bed on the 
ground. [58] 

It is the invariable practice of the Buddhas to survey the world 
at dawn. Therefore one day, as the Buddha surveyed the world, 
this Naked Ascetic Jambuka entered the Net of his Knowledge. 
"What will happen.?" pondered the Teacher. Straightway he per- 
ceived that Jambuka possessed the dispositions requisite for the attain- 
ment of Arahatship with the Supernatural Faculties. And he became 
aware of the following, "I will pronounce a single Stanza, and at the 
conclusion of the Stanza, beginning with this ascetic, eighty-four 
thousand living beings will obtain Comprehension of the Law. 
Through this man a great multitude will win Salvation." 

On the following day the Teacher made his round for alms in 
Rajagaha, and when he had returned from his round, he said to the 
Elder Ananda, "Ananda, I intend to go to the Naked Ascetic Jam- 
buka." "Reverend Sir, can it be that you intend to go to him.?" 
"Yes, Ananda, I do." Having so said, as the shadows of evening 
lengthened, the Teacher set out to go to him. Thereupon the 
deities thought, "The Teacher is going to visit the Naked Ascetic 
Jambuka. Now Jambuka lives on a flat rock polluted by ex- 
crement, urine, and toothsticks. We must therefore cause rain to 
fall." So by their own supernatural power they caused rain to fall, 
though but for a moment. Immediately the flat rock was pure and 
spotless. For the deities caused the five kinds of rain to fall upon 
that rock. 

In the evening, therefore, the Teacher went to the Naked Ascetic 
Jambuka. And making a slight noise, he said, "Jambuka!" Jambuka 
thought to himself, "What wicked fellow is this that addresses me 
as Jambuka.?" And he replied, "Who is it.?" "It is I, a monk." 
"What do you wish, great monk.?" "Give me lodging here for just 
one night." "There is no lodging to be had here, great monk." [59] 
"Jambuka, do not act thus; give me lodging for just one night. For 
monks seek the society of a monk, men the society of men, and animals 
the society of anjLmals . " "But are you a monk .? " " Yes, I am a monk. ' ' 
"If you are a monk, where is your gourd, where is your wooden 
spoon, where is your sacrificial thread.?" "All these I use; but because 
I find it troublesome to carry them about with me to every place I 
visit, I obtain them within and take them with me when I go." At 
this Jambuka was offended and said, "So you intend to take them 
with you when you go?" Then said the Teacher to him, "Never 



-N.2.602S] 



Jambuka the Naked Ascetic 



135 



mind, Jambuka; tell me where I can find lodging." "There is no 
lodging to be had here, great monk." 

Now there was a certain mountain-cave not far from Jambuka's 
place of abode; and the Teacher, pointing to it, asked, "Is there any- 
one who lives in that mountain-cave.?" "No one lives there, great 
monk." "Well then, permit me to lodge there." "Suit yourself, 
great monk." So the Teacher prepared a bed in the mountain-cave 
and lay down. In the first watch the Four Great Kings came to wait 
upon the Teacher, illuminating the four quarters with one blaze of 
light. Jambuka saw the light and thought to himself, "What is 
that light.'^" In the second watch came Sakka king of the gods. 
Jambuka saw him and thought to himself, "Who is that.?" In the 
third and last watch drew near Maha Brahma, who with one finger 
can illuminate one Cakkavala, with two fingers two Cakkavalas, and 
with ten fingers ten, illuminating the whole forest. Jambuka [60] 
saw him also and thought to himself, "Who can that be.?" 

So early the next morning he went to the Teacher, greeted him in 
a friendly manner, and taking his stand respectfully on one side, 
asked the Teacher, "Great monk, who were they that came to you, 
illuminating the four quarters as they came?" "The Four Great 
Kings." "Why did they come to you?" "To wait upon me." "But 
are you superior to the Four Great Kings?" "Yes, Jambuka, I am 
Sovereign Lord of the Four Great Kings." "And who was it that 
came to you in the second watch ? " " Sakka king of the gods . " " Why 
did he come to you?" "He came also to wait upon me." "But are 
you superior to Sakka king of the gods?" "Yes, Jambuka, I am 
superior to Sakka. Indeed, Sakka stands to me in the relation of a 
novice, as it were; one who does for me anything I need to have done; 
my physician in time of sickness." "Who was it that came to you 
in the third and last watch, illuminating the whole forest as he came?" 
"That was Maha Brahma, to whom blundering, stumbling Brahmans 
and others cry, 'Praise be to Maha Brahma!' " "But are you superior 
also to Maha Brahma?" "Yes, Jambuka, for I am he that is Brahma 
over Brahma." 

"You are a wonderful person, great monk. But I have dwelt 
here for fifty-five years, and in all these years not a single person has 
come to wait upon me; indeed, during all this period of time I have 
lived upon the wind and have remained in a standing posture, and yet 
none have come to wait upon me." Then said the Teacher to him, 
"Jambuka, you have succeeded in deceiving the foolish multitude 



136 



Book 5, Story 11, Dhammapada 70 [N.2.6O28- 



living in the world, and now you are attempting to deceive me. Is it 
not a fact that during these fifty-five years you have eaten excrement, 
made your bed upon the ground, gone naked, and pulled out your hair 
with a Palmyra comb? [61] But you have deceived the world, saying, 
*My food is the wind; I stand on one foot; I sit not down; I lie not 
down.' Now you are seeking to deceive me also. It is because of the 
low, false views which you held in a previous state of existence that you 
have all this time eaten excrement, made your bed upon the ground, 
gone naked, and pulled out your hair with a Palmyra comb. So also 
now you hold only low, false views." "But, great monk, what was it 
I did in a previous state of existence?" Then the Teacher related to 
him the evil deed he had committed in a previous state of existence. 

As the Teacher related the story to him, he was deeply moved, a 
sense of modesty and fear of mortal sin sprang up within him, and 
he crouched upon the ground. The Teacher tossed him a bath-robe, 
and he put it on. Then he saluted the Teacher and sat down respect- 
fully on one side. When the Teacher had completed his story of 
Jambuka's former deed, he preached the Law to him. At the con- 
clusion of the Teacher's discourse he attained Arahatship together 
with the Supernatural Faculties. Then, saluting the Teacher, he 
arose from his seat and asked the Teacher to admit him and to profess 
him as a member of the Order. 

Thus finally was exhausted the demerit he acquired by an evil 
deed committed in a previous state of existence. For this Jambuka, 
by reason of the four insults with which he had insulted a Great 
Elder who was an Arahat, was tormented in the Avici Hell until this 
great earth was elevated a league and three quarters; and because 
the fruit of his evil deed was not yet exhausted, he lived in shame for 
fifty-five years. But because this evil deed, once the fruit thereof 
was exhausted, could not destroy the fruit of the meditations which he 
had performed for twenty thousand years, therefore was it that the 
Teacher stretched forth his right hand to him and said, "Come, 
monk! lead the holy life." At that moment his characteristics as a 
layman vanished, and he took on the form of an Elder sixty years 
old, furnished with the Eight Requisites. [62] 

We are told that this was the day when the inhabitants of Anga 
and Magadha came to him with offerings. When, therefore, the 
inhabitants of both kingdoms came to him with offerings and saw 
the Tathagata, they thought, "Which is the greater of the two, our 
noble ascetic Jambuka or the monk Gotama?" And they came to 



-N.2.643] 



Jamhuka the Naked Ascetic 



137 



the following conclusion, "Were the hermit Gotama the greater, this 
ascetic would go to the monk Gotama. But by reason of the superior 
greatness of the Naked Ascetic Jambuka, the monk Gotama has come 
to him." When the Teacher perceived the thought of the multitude, 
he said, "Jambuka, resolve the doubt of your supporters." 

"Reverend Sir," replied Jambuka, "this is the very thing I should 
most like to do." And forthwith entering into the fourth trance and 
arising therefrom, he soared into the air to the height of a palmyra- 
tree. Then he cried out, " Reverend Sir, the Exalted One is my Teacher, 
and I am his disciple." Then he descended to the ground and saluted 
the Teacher. After that, again soaring into the air to the height of 
two palmyra- trees, then to the height of three palmyra-trees, and so 
on to the height of seven palmyra- trees, he proclaimed his own disciple- 
ship and descended. 

When the multitude saw this, they thought, "Oh, wonderful indeed 
and of lofty powers are the Buddhas!" Thereupon the Teacher ad- 
dressed the multitude, saying, "All this time has this ascetic lived 
here, placing on the tip of his tongue with the tip of a blade of kusa 
grass the food which you have brought to him, and saying, *Thus I 
am fulfilling the duties of an ascetic' But were he now to abstain 
from food through a feeling of remorse, these ascetic practices would 
not be worth a sixteenth part of the meritorious thought which actuates 
him to abstain from food." And joining the connection, he expounded 
the Law by pronouncing the following Stanza, 

70. Though month after month with the tip of a blade of kusa grass a simpleton should 
eat his food. 
Yet is he not worth a sixteenth part of them that have well weighed the Law. 



V. 12. THE SNAKE-GHOST AND THE CROW-GHOST ^ 

For an evil deed, once done. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Veluvana with reference 
to a certain snake-ghost. [64] 

For on a certain day, in the midst of a thousand ascetics wearing 
matted hair, the Venerable Elder Lakkhana and the Venerable Elder 
Moggallana the Great descended from Vulture Peak with the intention 
of making an alms-pilgrimage in Rajagaha. The Venerable Elder 

^ The Story of the Present is derived from Samyutta, xix: ii. 254 ff. Cf. stories v. 
13, X. 6, XX. 6, and xxii. 2. Text: N ii. 63-68. 



138 



Book 5, Story 12, Dhammapada 71 [N.2.644- 



Moggallana the Great, seeing a snake-ghost, smiled. Thereupon 
Elder Lakkhana asked him the reason for his smile, saying, "Brother, 
why do you smile?" Said Elder Moggallana the Great, "Brother, it 
is not the proper time for you to ask that question. Wait until we 
are in the presence of the Exalted One and then ask me." When 
they had completed their rounds for alms in Rajagaha and had come 
into the presence of the Teacher and had sat down. Elder Lakkhana 
asked Elder Moggallana, "Brother Moggallana, as you were descend- 
ing from Vulture Peak, you smiled; and when I asked you the reason 
for your smile, you said, 'Wait until we are in the presence of the 
Teacher and then ask me.' Now tell me the reason." 

Said the Elder, "Brother, I smiled because I saw a snake-ghost. 
This is what he looked like: his head was like the head of a man, and 
the rest of his body was like that of a snake. He was what is called 
a snake-ghost. He was twenty-five leagues in length. Flames of 
fire started from his head and went as far as his tail; flames of fire 
started from his tail and went as far as his head. Flames of fire starting 
from his head played on both sides of his body; flames of fire starting 
from his sides descended on his body. There are two ghosts, they say, 
whose length is twenty-five leagues, the length of the rest being three- 
quarters of a league. But the length of this snake-ghost and of this 
crow-ghost was twenty-five leagues." So much for the snake-ghost. 

On another occasion Moggallana saw a crow-ghost enduring tor- 
ment on the summit of Vulture Peak. And he asked the ghost about 
his former deed, pronouncing the following Stanza, [65] 

Your tongue is five leagues long, your head is nine leagues long. 

Your body rises twenty-five leagues above the earth; 

What was the deed you did to meet with such suflFering as this? 

Said the ghost, answering his question, 

Reverend Moggallana, I carried away to my heart's content, food 
Brought to a company of monks of the mighty sage Kassapa. 



12 a. Story of the Past: The crow-ghost 

Reverend Sir, in the dispensation of the Buddha Kassapa, a com- 
pany of monks entered a village for alms. When the villagers saw 
the Elders, they received them cordially, provided seats for them in a 
rest-house, furnished them with rice-porridge, gave them hard food, 
and*bathed their feet and anointed them with oil. And while waiting 
for the time to come to give alms, they sat and listened to the Law. 



-N. 2.6621] The snake-ghost and the crow-ghost 139 

At the conclusion of the recitation of the Law they took the Elders' 
bowls, filled them in their several houses with food flavored with 
various choice flavors, and returned with them. 

At that time I was a crow, perched on the ridge-pole of the rest- 
house. When I saw what was happening, I filled my mouth thrice 
out of the bowl taken by one of those villagers, taking three mouthfuls 
of food. Now that food did not belong to the company of monks, nor 
was it given and handed over to the company of monks. It was simply 
and solely the remains of food taken by the monks which the villagers 
would have carried to their own houses and eaten, and was brought 
forth merely on the occasion of the visit of the monks. Well, I took 
three mouthfuls; that was the extent of my misdeed in a former state 
of existence. As the result of that misdeed, when I died, [66] I 
suffered torment in the Avici Hell; and thereafter, because the fruit 
of my evil deed was not yet exhausted, I was reborn on Vulture Peak 
as a crow-ghost. Now as the fruit of my evil deed, I endure this 
suffering. End of Story of the crow-ghost. 

At this point, then, the Elder said, "I smiled because I saw a 
snake-ghost." Straightway the Teacher arose and witnessed to the 
truth of Moggallana's statement, saying, "Monks, what Moggallana 
says is the exact truth. I myself saw this very ghost on the day I 
attained Enlightenment. But out of compassion for others, I did not 
say, *As for those who will not believe my words, may it be to their 
disadvantage.'" (According to the Lakkhana Samyutta, when Mog- 
gallana the Great saw the ghost, the Teacher became his witness and 
told twenty stories.) When the monks heard what he said, they 
inquired about his deed in a former state of existence. Thereupon the 
Teacher related the following 

12 b. Story of the Past: The snake-ghost 

The story goes that in times long past men erected a bower of leaves 
and grass on the bank of the river near Benares for a Private Buddha. 
During his residence there the Private Buddha regularly went to the 
city for alms, and the residents of the city, in the evening and in the 
morning, took perfumes and garlands in their hands and went and 
ministered to the Private Buddha. Now a certain resident of Benares 
was plowing a field near the wayside, and as the multitude passed 
by in the evening and in the morning to do service to the Private 
Buddha, they trampled his field. The farmer tried to prevent them 



140 



Book 5, Story 12, Dhammapada 71 [N. 2. 6621- 



from so doing, saying to them, "Do not trample my field," but in 
spite of his best efforts, was unable to do so. Finally the following 
thought occurred to him, "If the bower of the Private Buddha were 
not in this place, they would not trample my field." Accordingly, 
when the Private Buddha had entered the city for alms, the farmer 
broke all of his vessels for eating and drinking and set fire to his 
bower of leaves and grass. [67] 

When the Private Buddha saw his bower burned down, he wandered 
forth at his own good pleasure. When the multitude drew near with 
perfumes and garlands and saw the bower of leaves and grass burned 
down, they said, "Where can our noble teacher have gone.^^" Now the 
farmer also had gone with the multitude, and standing among them, 
said, "It was I who burned down his bower of leaves and grass." 
Then the multitude cried out, "Seize him; seize him. All because of 
this wicked man, we have lost the privilege of seeing the Private 
Buddha." And they beat him with sticks and stones and deprived 
him of life. He was reborn in the Avici Hell. After suffering torment 
in this Hell until the great earth was elevated a league, he came out 
thence; and because the fruit of his evil deed was not yet exhausted, 
he was reborn on Vulture Peak as a snake-ghost. End of Story of 
the snake-ghost. 

When the Teacher had related his misdeed in a former state of 
existence, he said, "Monks, as for an evil deed, it is like milk. Even as 
milk does not turn as soon as it is drawn, even so an evil deed does 
not at once ripen. But when it has once ripened, that moment it 
brings with it suffering such as this." And joining the connection 
and preaching the Law, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

71. For an evil deed, when done, does not bear evil fruit at once, just as new-milked 
mUk does not turn at once. 
It follows the doer, the simpleton, to consume him, like fire covered with ashes. 



V. 13. THE SLEDGE-HAMMER GHOST ^ 

When to his disadvantage. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while in residence at Veluvana about a sledge-hammer ghost. 

* The Story of the Present is from SarhyuUa, xix: ii. 254 ff. Cf. stories v. 12, 
X. 6, XX. 6, and xxii. 2. The Story of the Past follows closely the Story of the Past in 
Jdtaka 107: i. 418-420. The Jdtaka, however, says nothing about the cripple's killing 
a Private Buddha. From the Dhammapada Commentary story is evidently derived 
Peta-Vatthu Commentary, iv. 16: 282-286. Text: N ii. 68-73. 



-N.2.706] 



The sledge-hammer ghost 



141 



For under the same circumstances as in the preceding story Elder 

Moggallana the Great, while descending from Vulture Peak with Elder 

Lakkhana, smiled on reaching a certain spot. When Elder Lakkhana 

asked him why he smiled, [69] he said, "Wait until we are in the 

presence of the Exalted One and then ask me." When Moggallana the 

Great had completed his alms-pilgrimage, he approached the Teacher, 

saluted him, and sat down respectfully on one side. Thereupon his 

companion asked him the same question again. Moggallana replied 

as follows, "Brother, I saw a ghost three-quarters of a league in height. 

Sixty thousand sledge-hammers, blazing and burning, rose and fell 

uninterruptedly on top of his head. Again and again they broke his 

skull, and again and again his skull sprang up again. When I saw 

him I smiled, for I thought to myself, 'In my present state of existence 

I never before saw such a being.'" In the Petavatthu occurs the 

following Stanza, together with many others, relating to this very 

ghost: 

Full sixty thousand sledge-hammers on all sides 
Fall on your head and break your skull. 

The Teacher listened to the Elder's story and said, "Monks, I also 
saw that very creature as I sat on the Throne of Enlightenment. 
But out of compassion for others, I did not say, *As for those who 
will not believe my words, may it be to their disadvantage.' Now, 
however, I will make Moggallana my witness and tell what I saw." 
When the monks heard this, they asked about the ghost's misdeed 
in a previous state of existence. Thereupon the Teacher related the 
following 



13 a. Story of the Past : The stone-thrower and his pupil 

Once upon a time, the story goes, there lived in Benares a cripple 
who was an adept at the art of slinging stones. He used to sit at the 
city-gate under a certain banyan-tree, sling stones, and cut the leaves 
of the tree. The boys of the city would say to him, "Make an elephant 
for us, make a horse for us;" [70] and he would make every animal 
they asked him to. As a reward he received from them food both 
hard and soft. One day, as the king was on his way to the pleasure- 
garden, he came to this place. The boys left the cripple within the 
shoots of the banyan-tree and ran away. Now it was noon when the 
king stopped and went in among the roots of the tree, and his body 
was overspread with the chequered shade. 



142 



Book 5, Story 13, Dhammapada 12 [N.2.706- 



"Wiiat does this mean?" said he, looking up. Seeing leaves cut 
in the forms of elephants and horses, he asked, "Whose work is this?" 
On being informed that it was the work of the cripple, he sent for him 
and said to him, "I have a house-priest who is excessively talkative. 
However little be said to him, he talks much and wearies me. Could 
you throw a pint-pot of goat's dung into his mouth?" "I could, 
your majesty. Have goat's dung brought, seat yourself behind a 
curtain with the house-priest, and I shall know just how to go to 
work." The king did as the cripple suggested. 

The cripple made a hole in the curtain with the tip of a knife. 
While the house-priest talked with the king, whenever he opened 
his mouth, the cripple threw in a pellet of goat's dung, and the house- 
priest swallowed every pellet thrown into his mouth. When the 
goat's dung was exhausted, the cripple shook the curtain. The king, 
understanding by this sign that the goat's dung was exhausted, said, 
"Teacher, while I am engaged in conversation with you, it is impossible 
for me to finish what I am saying. You talk so much that even in 
the act of swallowing a pint-pot of goat's dung you cannot keep 
silent." [71] The Brahman immediately became silent. From that 
time on, he dared not open his mouth and talk with the king. The 
king remembered the skillful work of the cripple, caused him to be 
summoned, and said to him, "Through you I have gained happiness." 
In token of his satisfaction, he gave him the Eightfold Gifts, and four 
fine large villages, north, east, south, and west of the city. Knowing 
this, a minister of the king who was his counselor in things temporal 
and spiritual pronounced the following Stanza, 

Capital skill indeed! but, good or bad. 

See, by a cripple's throw, were won villages in the four quarters! 



Now the minister at that time was this very Exalted One. 

Now a certain man, observing the worldly prosperity won by the 
cripple, thought to himself, "This man, born a cripple, has won great 
prosperity through this art of his. I also ought to learn this art.'* 
So he approached the cripple, bowed to him, and said to him, "Teacher, 
impart to me this art." "Good friend, I cannot do so." Although 
his request had been refused, he thought to himself, "Let be, I will 
win his favor." Accordingly he bathed and rubbed the cripple's hands 
and feet for a long time, and having thus won his favor, repeated his 
request. The cripple thought to himself, "This man has been exceed- 



-N.2.73i] The sledge-hammer ghost 143 

ingly kind to me." And unable to refuse his request, he taught him 
the art. Having so done, he said to him, "Good sir, your training is 
now complete; what will you do now?" "I shall go out into the world 
and display my art." "What will you do.^" "I will hit a cow or a 
man and kill him." "Good sir, the penalty for killing a cow is a 
hundred pieces of money and for killing a man a thousand. Even 
with son and wife, you will not be able to pay. Do not commit mur- 
der. [72] Look for something that has neither mother nor father 
and for hitting which there is no penalty." 

"Very well," said the man. So placing stones in a fold of his gar- 
ment, he walked about looking for just that sort of target. First he 
saw a cow. "This animal has a consort," thought he. Therefore he 
did not dare hit the cow. Then he saw a man. But he thought to 
himself, "This being has a mother and father." Therefore he did not 
dare hit the man. Now at that time a Private Buddha named Sunetta 
resided in a bower of leaves and grass near the city. When the man 
saw him enter the city through the gate for the purpose of receiving 
alms, he thought to himself, "This man has neither mother nor 
father. If I hit him, I shall have no penalty to pay; I will try my skill 
by hitting him." So aiming a stone at the right ear of the Private 
Buddha, he let fly. The stone entered the Private Buddha's right ear 
and came out of his left ear. The Private Buddha suffered intense 
pain, was unable to continue his alms-pilgrimage, and returning to 
his bower of leaves through the air, passed into Nibbana. 

When the Private Buddha failed to come, the people thought, 
"Something must have gone wrong with him." Accordingly they 
went to his hermitage, and when they saw that he had passed into 
Nibbana, they wept and lamented. The man who hit the Private 
Buddha saw the multitude flock to his hermitage and went thither 
also. Recognizing the Private Buddha, he said, "It was he who met 
me face to face at the gate as he entered the city, and I hit him in 
trying my skill." The multitude said, "This wicked fellow says that 
he hit the Private Buddha. Catch him! catch him!" And straight- 
way they beat him and then and there deprived him of life. He was 
reborn in the Avici Hell. Until this great earth was elevated a league, 
during all that time he suffered torment. Thereafter, because the 
fruit of his evil deed was not yet exhausted, he was reborn on the 
summit of Vulture Peak as a sledge-hammer ghost. 

The Teacher, after relating the story of his deed in a previous state 
of existence, said, [73] "Monks, if a simpleton acquires art or power> 



144 



Book 5, Story H, Dhammapada 73-7^ [N. 2.732- 



it results to his disadvantage; for a simpleton who acquires art or power 
turns it to his own hurt." And joining the connection and preaching 
the Law, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

72. When to his disadvantage a simpleton acquires knowledge, 
It injures the fortune of the simpleton and crushes his head. 



V. 14. CITTA AND SUDHAMMA * 

The simpleton will seek for false reputation. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to the Elder Sudhamma. The story begins at Macchi- 
kasanda and ends at Savatthi. [74] 

For a householder named Citta, residing in the city of Macchi- 
kasanda, observed the Elder Mahanama, one of the Band of Five, 
making his round for alms; and pleased with his deportment, took 
his bowl, invited him into his house, provided him with food, and 
at the conclusion of the meal listened to the Law and obtained the 
Fruit of Conversion. Now Citta, possessed of immovable faith, 
desiring to make his own pleasure-garden Ambataka Grove a place 
of residence for the Order, poured water into the right hand of the 
Elder and made the grove over to the Order. The moment he uttered 
the words, "The Religion of the Buddha is firmly established," the 
great earth shook to its ocean boundary. The great treasurer caused 
a splendid monastery to be erected in the grove, and thereafter the 
door stood open to monks who came from all four quarters. At 
Macchikasanda also resided the Elder Sudhamma. 

Some time afterwards, the two Chief Disciples, hearing the rumor 
of Citta's good qualities, decided to pay their respects to him and 
therefore went to Macchikasanda. Citta the householder, hearing 
that they were coming, proceeded forth half a league to meet them, 
escorted them to the monastery, invited them within, performed the 
usual duties for visitors, and then made the following request of the 
Captain of the Faith, "Reverend Sir, we desire to listen to a short 
discourse on the Law." The Elder replied, "Lay disciple, we are 
weary with the journey; nevertheless listen for a short while." Citta, 
merely by listening to the Elder's discourse on the Law, obtained the 



* This story is derived from the Vinaya, Culla Vagga, i. 18: ii. 15^^-183°. 
Anguttara Commentary (citations at HOS. 28, p. 50). Text: N ii. 74-83. 



Cf. 



-N.2.767" 



Citta and Sudhamma 



145 



Fruit of the Second Path. Then he bowed to the two Chief Disciples 
and invited them to be his guests, saying, "Reverend Sirs, pray take 
a meal in my house to-morrow with your thousand monks." [75] 
Then he turned to the resident monk, the Elder Sudhamma, and 
invited him, saying to him, "Reverend Sir, you also come to-morrow 
with the Elders." Angry at the thought, "He invited me last," 
Sudhamma refused the invitation; and although Citta repeated the 
invitation again and again, he still refused. The lay disciple said, 
"Pray be present. Reverend Sir," and went out. On the following 
day he prepared splendid offerings in his own residence. Very early 
in the morning the Elder Sudhamma thought to himself, "What 
manner of food has the householder prepared for the Chief Disciples .?* 
I will go see." So very early in the morning he took bowl and robe and 
went to his house. 

"Pray sit down. Reverend Sir," said the householder. "I will 
not sit down," replied Sudhamma; "I am about to set out on my 
round for alms." The Elder surveyed the offerings prepared for the 
Chief Disciples, and seeking to annoy the householder about the 
varieties of food provided, said, "Householder, your food is most 
excellent, but there is one thing you have omitted." "What is 
that, Reverend Sir.^" "Sesame-cake, householder." Thereupon the 
householder rebuked him, comparing him to a crow. Angered at 
this, the Elder said, "This is your residence, householder; I will 
depart." Three times the householder strove to prevail upon the Elder 
to remain, but each time the latter refused. Finally he left the house, 
went to the Teacher, and related the words that had passed between 
Citta and himself. Said the Teacher, "You, an inferior, have in- 
sulted a faithful, believing disciple." Having thus put the blame 
solely on the Elder, the Teacher sent him back to beg pardon of the 
disciple, saying, "Go beg pardon of Citta the householder." The 
Elder went to Citta and said, "Householder, it was all my fault; 
pardon me." [76] But the householder refused to pardon him and 
said, "I will not pardon you." 

Provoked at his failure to obtain pardon, he returned to the 
Teacher. The Teacher, although he knew that the householder 
would pardon Sudhamma, thought, "This Elder is stubborn in his 
pride; now let him go thirty leagues and come back." And so, with- 
out telling him how he might gain pardon, he just dismissed him. 
The Elder returned with pride humbled. The Teacher then gave the 
Elder a companion and said to the Elder, "Go with this companion 



146 



Book 5, Story H. Dhammapada 73-7i [N .2.767- 



and ask pardon of the householder." Said the Teacher, "A religious 
ought not to give way to pride or ill-will, thinking, 'This dwelling 
is mine, this residence is mine, this male lay disciple is mine, this 
female lay disciple is mine.' For if he so do, ill-will and pride and the 
other Depravities increase." And joining the connection and preach- 
ing the Law, he pronounced the following Stanzas, 

73. The simpleton will seek for false reputation, for precedence among the monks, 
For authority in the monasteries, for honors among other folk. 

74. "Let layman and monk both think that it was I, and I alone, who did this; 

Let them be subject to my will, both in everything that ought to be done, and 

in everything that ought not to be done!" 
Thus resolves the simpleton; so do his desire and pride increase. [78] 

After listening to this admonition Elder Sudhamma bowed to 
the Teacher, rose from his seat, walked sunwise about the Teacher, 
and then, accompanied by his companion-monk, went within sight 
of the lay disciple, atoned for his fault, and begged the disciple's 
pardon. The lay disciple both pardoned him and in turn asked his 
pardon, saying, "I pardon you. Reverend Sir; if I am to blame, 
pray pardon me also." The Elder abode steadfast in the admonition 
given by the Teacher, and in but a few days attained Arahatship 
together with the Supernatural Faculties. [79] 

The lay disciple thought to himself, "Even without seeing the 
Teacher I have attained the Fruit of Conversion; even without 
seeing him I have attained the Fruit of the Second Path. I ought to 
see the Teacher." So he ordered yoked five hundred carts full of 
sesame, rice, ghee, sugar, garments, coverlets, and other offerings, 
and sent word to the Congregation of Monks, to the Congregation 
of Nuns, and to the lay disciples both male and female, "Let those 
who wish to see the Teacher come; they will lack nothing for offerings, 
whether of food or aught else." With him went forth, of monks and 
nuns and lay disciples both male and female, five hundred each. 
That neither they nor his own retinue, three thousand souls in all, 
might lack broth or rice or aught else on the thirty-league journey, 
the householder Citta made ample provision. The deities, knowing 
that he had set out, posted themselves at intervals of a league along 
the way, and served that great multitude with rice-porridge, hard 
food, drink, and other necessities; there was no lack of aught for any. 
Proceeding at the rate of a league a day, waited upon in this manner 
by deities, the householder Citta and his retinue reached Savatthi in 



-N.2.816 



Citta and Sudhamma 



147 



a month. There were five hundred carts filled as described above; 
and as the householder proceeded, deities and men brought presents, 
which he gave away. 

The Teacher addressed Elder Ananda, "Ananda, as the shadows 
of evening draw on, the householder Citta will arrive with five hundred 
carts and will pay obeisance to me." "Reverend Sir, [80] when he 
pays obeisance to you, will any miracle take place.^^" "Yes, Ananda, 
a miracle will take place." "What miracle, Reverend Sir.?" "When 
he arrives and pays obeisance to me, a rain of celestial flowers will 
begin and will continue without interruption until a space eight 
karisas in extent is covered with a glistening mass of flowers knee- 
deep." Hearing rumor of this, the residents of the city said, "So 
great, they say, is the merit of the householder Citta who will to-day 
come and pay obeisance to the Teacher. Such, they say, is the miracle 
that will take place. We must without fail obtain the privilege of 
seeing this person of great merit." So they took presents and stood 
on both sides of the way. 

As the procession approached the monastery, five hundred monks 
led the way. The householder Citta said to the eminent female lay 
disciples, "Reverend Sisters, you follow in the rear." So saying, 
accompanied by five hundred male lay disciples, he went into the 
presence of the Teacher. (Now those that stand or sit in the presence 
of the Buddhas move not hither and thither, but stand on both sides 
immovable in the street of the Buddhas.) The householder Citta, a 
Noble Disciple who had attained the Three Fruits, entered the street 
trod by the Buddhas; whereupon every place he looked at trembled. 
"That must be the householder Citta," said the multitude and gazed 
at him. The householder Citta, penetrating the six-colored rays of 
light of the Buddha, approached the Teacher, and grasping the 
Teacher's feet by the two ankles, paid obeisance to him. At that 
very moment a rain of flowers fell precisely as the Teacher had 
predicted, and thousands of cries of applause went up. 

For one month the householder Citta abode with the Teacher. 
While he there abode, [81] he provided seats for the Congregation of 
Monks presided over by the Buddha within the monastery and 
bestowed rich offerings upon them. He also housed and cared for 
within the monastery those that came with him. Not for a single 
day was it necessary for him to use what he had in his own carts; 
he performed all his duties of almsgiving solely with the presents 
brought by gods and men. Finally he paid obeisance to the Teacher 



148 



Book 5, Story H. Dhammapada 73-74 [N.2.8I5- 



and said, "Reverend Sir, when I said to myself, *I will give alms to 
you,' and set out on my journey, I was a month on the way. Here I 
have spent a month, and I find it impossible to present to you any- 
thing which I have myself brought. All this time have I presented 
to you alms solely of presents brought to me by gods and men. Even 
were I to remain here a year, I should not receive the privilege of be- 
stowing alms of my own upon you. I desire to empty my carts and 
go; tell me where I can put away the offerings which I have brought." 

Said the Teacher to Elder Ananda, "Ananda, empty some place 
for the lay disciple and assign it to him." The Elder did so and is 
said to have assigned a suitable place to Citta the householder. Then 
the lay disciple, accompanied by the three thousand persons who had 
come with him, set out with empty carts on the return journey. Gods 
and men arose, saying, "Noble sir, your journey is made with empty 
carts;" and so saying, filled the carts with the seven kinds of jewels. 
As Citta the householder returned, he ministered to the needs of the 
multitude solely with the presents brought to himself. 

Elder Ananda bowed to the Teacher and said, "Reverend Sir, 
when Citta the householder came hither, he occupied a month traveling, 
spent just a month here, and all that time gave alms solely of presents 
brought him by gods and men. Now, having emptied five hundred 
carts, he will be an entire month going; but gods and men have arisen, 
[82] saying, 'Noble sir, your journey is made with empty carts,' and 
so saying, have filled his carts with the seven kinds of jewels. On the 
return journey, they say, he will minister to the multitude solely with 
the presents which have thus been brought to him. Now, Reverend 
Sir, was it solely because he came to visit you, that he received all 
this honor .^ Or would he also have received it, had he gone elsewhere .f^" 
"Ananda, he would have received it just the same, no matter whether 
he had come to visit me or had gone elsewhere. For this lay disciple 
is faithful and believing and virtuous. No matter what place such a 
man resorts to, there, wherever it is, he receives gain and honor." So 
saying, the Teacher pronounced the following Stanza in the Pakinnaka 
Vagga, 

303. If a man be faithful, endued with virtue, possessed of fame and wealth. 

No matter what place he resorts to, there, wherever it may be, he is honored. 



-N.2.8314 



Citta and Sudhamma 



149 



14 a. Story of the Past: Citta's deed in a former birth 

When the Teacher had thus spoken. Elder Ananda asked about 
Citta's deed in a former birth. In reply the Teacher said, "Ananda, 
Citta the householder made his Earnest Wish at the feet of the Exalted 
Padumuttara, and after passing through the round of existences among 
gods and men for a hundred thousand cycles of time, was reborn in 
the dispensation of the Buddha Kassapa as a hunter. One rainy day, 
after he had grown to be a man, he went to hunt in the forest with 
spear in hand. As he looked this way and that in search of quarry, 
he saw a certain monk seated in a natural cave with his upper robe 
drawn over his head. "This must be some noble monk who is seated 
engaged in meditation," thought he; "I will bring him food." So he 
went home quickly and caused flesh brought the day before to be 
cooked on one brazier, and rice on another. Then, seeing some monks 
going their rounds for alms, he took their bowls also, seated them on 
seats prepared for the purpose, procured food for them, and invited 
them in, saying, "Help yourselves, noble sirs." 

Then he ordered additional food to be brought, placed it in a basket, 
[83] and taking it with him, set out. On the way he plucked various 
kinds of flowers, placed them in a leaf-basket, and went on to the 
place where the Elder sat. "Reverend Sir," said he, "bestow your 
favor upon me." So saying, he took the Elder's bowl, filled it, and 
placed it in his hand. Then honoring the Elder with those flowers, 
he made the following Earnest Wish, "Even as this portion of choice 
food, together with the gift of flowers, has pleased my heart, even so, 
in the various places where I shall be reborn, may my heart rejoice 
over the thousands of presents which I shall receive, and may rain of 
the five kinds of flowers rain upon my head." During the term of 
life allotted to him he performed works of merit, and after his death 
he was reborn in the World of the Gods. In the place where he was 
reborn celestial flowers rained upon him knee-deep. In his present 
existence, both on the day of his birth and on the day when he came 
hither, a rain of flowers rained upon him and presents were offered 
to him and his carts were filled with the seven kinds of jewels. This 
was the result solely of his deed in a former birth. 



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Book 5, Story 15. Dhammapada 75 [N.2.84i- 



V. 15. A SEVEN-YEAR-OLD NOVICE WINS ALL HEARTS ^ 

For one road leads to gain. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher at Jetavana with reference to Elder Vanavasi Tissa. 



15 a. Story of the Past: The poor Brahman 

The incident with which this story begins, however, occurred 
at Rajagaha. Here, we are told, lived the Brahman Mahasena, a 
friend of the Brahman Vanganta, who was the father of Sariputta. 
One day, as the Elder Sariputta went his rounds for alms, he took pity 
on Mahasena and went to the door of his house. Now Mal\asena, 
who was poor and in need, thought to himself, "My son must have 
come to the door of my house for alms. But I am a poor man. Doubt- 
less he does not know this. But I have no alms at all to give him." 
Therefore, not daring to meet him face to face, he went and hid him- 
self. On another day the Elder came again, and the Brahman hid 
himself as before. Said he to himself, "As soon as ever I get anything, 
I will give him something;" but it was some time before this happened. 

One day, at a certain Brahman recitation, he received a bowl of 
rice-porridge and a small piece of cloth, which he took home with 
him. Remembering the Elder, he said to himself, "This alms I ought 
to give to the Elder." At that moment the Elder, who had been 
engaged in ecstatic meditation, rose from his trance, and seeing the 
Brahman, said to himself, "The Brahman has received alms and 
desires me to come to him; therefore I must go to him." So putting 
on his mantle and taking his bowl, he went to the door of the Brahman's 
house and showed himself standing there. When the Brahman saw 
the Elder, his heart was content. He approached him, paid obeisance 
to him, and gave him a friendly welcome; then, having provided 
him with a seat within his house, he took his own bowl of rice-porridge 
and placed the porridge in the Elder's bowl. [85] The Elder accepted 
half of the porridge and then covered his bowl. 

But the Brahman said to him, "Reverend Sir, here is but a single 
portion of rice-porridge; grant me happiness in the next life, not in 
this; I desire to give you all without reserve." So saying, he poured 
all of the porridge into the Elder's bowl. The Elder ate the porridge 
then and there. When he had finished his meal, the Brahman gave 
him the cloth, bowing and saying, "Reverend Sir, may I also obtain 

1 Parallel: Rogers's BuMhagkosha's Parables, vii, pp. 72-77. Text: N ii. 84-103. 



-N. 2.8614] A seven-year-old novice wins all hearts 



151 



the same Truth you have seen." "So be it, Brahman," replied the 
Elder, returning thanks to him. Then, rising from his seat, he set 
out on his journey and in due course arrived at Jetavana. There is 
a saying, "Alms given in time of poverty rejoice the heart above 
measure;" and so it was with the Brahman. After he had made this 
offering his mind was at peace and his heart was filled with joy. 
And he conceived warm affection for the Elder. 



15 b. Story of the Present: The novice Tissa 

When he died, he was conceived, solely because of his affection 
for the Elder, in the womb of the wife of a supporter of the Elder 
living at Savatthi. As soon as the mother knew that a child was 
conceived in her womb she told her husband, and he saw to it that 
she received the treatment necessary for the protection of the embryo. 
Avoiding foods that were excessively hot or cold or sour, enfolding 
the child in her womb happily, the longing of pregnancy arose within 
her. "Oh," she said, "that I might invite the five hundred monks 
led by the Elder Sariputta to my house, provide seats for them, and 
offer them porridge of milk and rice unceasingly! Oh, that I myself 
might put on yellow robes, take my golden vessel, sit in the outer 
circle of the seats, and partake of the porridge left uneaten by so many 
monks!" (We are told that this longing of hers to put on yellow robes 
was a sign that her unborn child should one day become a monk 
under the dispensation of the Buddha.) [86] 

"This is a pious longing which our daughter has expressed," said 
her kinsfolk, and offered porridge of milk and rice unceasingly to the 
five hundred monks led by the Elder Sariputta. She herself put on 
yellow robes, both under and upper garments, took her golden vessel, 
sat down in the outer circle of the seats, and partook of the porridge 
left by the monks; whereupon her longing subsided. On the expira- 
tion of ten lunar months she gave birth to a son. From time to time, 
both before her delivery and thereafter, she gave festivals at which she 
provided the five hundred monks led by Sariputta with rich porridge 
of honey, milk, and rice. (This, it is said, was because the boy in 
his former existence as a Brahman gave rice-porridge.) 

Now at the festival held on the day of the child's birth, they bathed 
the child very early in the morning, dressed him in beautiful garments, 
and laid him on a bed of royal splendor in a blanket worth a hundred 
thousand pieces of money. Even as he lay there, he looked at the 



152 



Booh 5, Story 15. Dhammapada 75 [N.2.8614- 



Elder and said, "This is my former teacher, through whom I have 
attained this splendor. I ought to make an offering to him." So 
when they carried him that he might receive the moral precepts, he 
wrapped that blanket about his little finger and lifted it up with him. 

His kinsfolk cried out, "His finger has caught in the blanket,'* 
and sought to disengage it; whereupon he burst into tears. Then 
said they, "Leave the child alone; do not make him cry," and carried 
him along, blanket and all. When it was time for him to make his 
bow to the Elder, he removed his finger from the blanket and cast the 
blanket at the Elder's feet. His kinsfolk, instead of saying, "The 
young boy did this without knowing what he was doing," said to the 
Elder, "Reverend Sir, pray accept the offering the boy has presented 
to you; confer the moral precepts on your servant who has honored 
you with a blanket worth a hundred thousand pieces of money." [87] 

"What is the name of this boy.f*" "Reverend Sir, he is to be 
named after you." "Tissa shall be his name." Upatissa, as we know, 
was the name of the Elder in his younger days as a layman. His 
mother thought to herself, "I shall not interfere with the desire of 
my son." Accordingly she presented the five hundred monks led by 
Sariputta with rich porridge made of honey, milk, and rice, both at 
the festival of the naming of the child, and at the succeeding festivals 
of the partaking of food, the piercing of the ears, the reception of the 
cloth, and the conferring of tonsure. 

As the boy grew up and reached the age of seven years, he said to 
his mother, "Mother, I desire to become a monk under the Elder." 
"Very well, my dear son; long ago I decided not to interfere with the 
inclination of my son; become a monk, my son." So she invited 
the Elder to the house. When he arrived, she presented him with 
alms and said, "Reverend Sir, your servant says that he wishes to 
become a monk. I will come to the monastery this evening and bring 
him with me." Having dismissed the Elder, she waited until evening, 
and then, taking her son with her and bearing rich gifts and offerings, 
she went to the monastery and committed him into the Elder's 
hands. 

The Elder talked with him as follows, "Tissa, the life of a monk 
is a hard life; when he would like what is warm he gets what is cold, 
and when he would like what is cold he gets what is warm; those who 
become monks live a wearisome life, and you are delicate." "Rever- 
end Sir, I shall be able to do all that you enjoin upon me." "Very 
well," said the Elder. So he taught him the Formula of Meditation 



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153 



on the first five of the constituent parts of the body, by way of fixing 
in his mind the thought of the impurity of the body, [88] and then 
made him a monk. 

(The entire Formula involves the recitation of all of the thirty-two 
constituent parts of the body, but those who are unable to recite 
all may recite the first five. The Formula in full is that invariably 
employed by all the Buddhas, but there is no limit to the number of 
monks and nuns and lay disciples both male and female who have 
attained Arahatship by meditating upon the hair and other parts 
singly. Inexperienced monks frequently make it impossible for their 
candidates to attain Arahatship. For this reason the Elder taught the 
boy only a part of the Formula before receiving him into the Order, 
and then established him in the ten moral precepts.) 

In honor of their son's admission to the Order his mother and father 
remained at the monastery for seven days and presented the assembly 
presided over by the Buddha with naught but rich porridge made of 
honey, milk, and rice. The monks murmured thereat, saying, "We 
cannot always eat rich porridge made of honey, milk, and rice." On 
the evening of the seventh day the boy's mother and father went home, 
and on the eighth day the novice accompanied the monks to the city 
for alms. 

The residents of Savatthi said to each other, "They say that the 
novice will come to the city to-day for alms; we will therefore do him 
honor." So with five hundred cloths they made cushions for alms- 
bowls, and taking five hundred bowls with portions of alms, they 
met the novice on the road and presented them to him. On the follow- 
ing day they went to the monastery park and repeated the offering. 
Thus in two days the novice received a thousand bowls of alms and 
a thousand cloths, all of which he presented to the assembly of monks. 
(This was the result of his presentation of the small piece of cloth to 
the Elder in his former existence as a Brahman.) So the monks gave 
him the name Tissa the Almsgiver, Pindapatadayaka Tissa. [89] 

Again one day when it was cold, the novice, as he went the rounds 
of the monastery, noticed monks warming themselves here and there, 
both in rooms where fire was kept and in other places. Said he, 
"Reverend Sirs, why do you sit warming yourselves .f^" "Novice, we 
are cold." "Reverend Sirs, when it is cold, one should wrap himself 
in a blanket; that will keep off the cold." "Novice, you have acquired 
great merit and may be able to get a blanket, but where can we get 
any.^" "Well then. Reverend Sirs," said the novice, "let those who 



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Book 5, Story 15. Dhammapada 75 [N .2.896- 



need blankets come with me," and caused proclamation to be made 
to that effect throughout the monastery. Said the monks, "Let us 
go with the novice and procure blankets." So all because of a novice 
seven years old, monks to the number of a thousand went forth. 
Not for a moment did he think, "Where can I get blankets for so many 
monks .^" but just took them with him and started out for the city. 
(Such is the wonder-working power of alms generously bestowed.) 

Going from house to house without the city, he received five 
hundred blankets. And when he entered the city, men brought him 
blankets from all quarters. Now as a certain shop-keeper sat in his 
shop with five hundred blankets spread out before him, a certain 
man passed by the door and seeing him, said to him, "Sir, there is a 
certain novice coming this way collecting blankets; you had better 
hide yours." "Is he taking them as gifts or otherwise?" "He receives 
them as gifts." "That being the case, if I wish to, I will give him 
blankets; if not, I will not. Go on yoiu* way," and with these words 
he dismissed him. (Thus do doting niggards begrudge people the 
gifts that others give them, even as did Kala on beholding the incom- 
parable gift of the king of Kosala;^ and therefore are they reborn 
in Hell.) 

The shop-keeper thought to himself, "This man who came along, 
in accordance with his nature, said to me, ' You had better hide your 
blankets,' and I replied to him, [90] 'In case the novice is receiving 
them as gifts, I will give him what is my own, if I wish; if not, I will 
not.' Now a man feels ashamed not to give what is in plain sight, 
but cannot be blamed for hiding what is his own. And since among 
these five hundred blankets there are two each of which is worth a 
hundred thousand pieces of money, it will be entirely proper for me to 
hide them." So he folded the two blankets border to border and hid 
them by inserting them in the pile. 

Just then the novice, accompanied by the thousand monks, came 
to that very place. When the shop-keeper saw the novice, he was 
filled with love for the boy; in fact his whole body was suffused with 
love. He thought to himself, "On seeing a boy like this, I should be 
willing to give my heart's flesh, let alone blankets!" Straightway he 
removed those two blankets from the pile, placed them at the novice's 
feet, paid obeisance to him, and said, "Reverend Sir, may I have a 
share in the Truth you have seen." "So be it," said the novice. 



* See Book xiii, story 10; Text, iii. 186. 



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155 



returning thants to him. So the novice, who had received five hundred 
blankets without the city, received another five hundred within the 
city. Thus on one day alone he received a total of one thousand 
blankets, all of which he gave to the congregation of monks. Therefore 
the monks gave him the name Tissa the Blanket-Giver, Kambala- 
dayaka Tissa. 

(Thus his gift of a blanket to the Elder on the day he was given his 
name when he was seven years old resulted in his receiving one thou- 
sand blankets. In no dispensation other than that of the Buddha 
is the gift of a little productive of so much fruit, and a large gift pro- 
ductive of more abundant fruit. Therefore said the Exalted One,^ 
"Monks, this congregation of monks is of such sort that a little gift 
bestowed thereon produces much fruit, and a large gift yet more 
abundant fruit." [91] Thus, as the result of giving a single blanket, 
the novice, although he was only seven years old, received one thousand 
blankets.) 

While the novice was in residence at Jetavana, his boy-relatives 
came to see him frequently and talked and conversed with him. He 
thought to himself, "So long as I reside here, my boy-relatives will 
come to see me and will talk with me, and it will not be possible for 
me, whether they talk or not, to work out my own salvation; suppose 
I were to obtain a Formula of Meditation from the Teacher and go 
into the forest?" Accordingly he approached the Teacher, paid 
obeisance to him, and obtained a Formula of Meditation leading to 
Arahatship. Then, paying obeisance to his preceptor, he took bowl 
and robe and departed from the monastery. "If I take up my 
residence in the neighborhood," thought he, "my kinsmen will send 
for me." Therefore he went a distance of twenty leagues. 

As he proceeded on his way he saw an old man at the gate of a 
certain village. The novice asked the old man, "Lay disciple, is there 
a forest hermitage in this neighborhood wherein monks may reside.f^" 
"Yes, Reverend Sir, there is." "Well then, show me how to get 
there." As soon as the old lay disciple saw the boy he took a liking 
to him. So instead of merely pointing out the way he remained 
standing where he was and said to him, "Come, Reverend Sir, [92] 
I will show you the way." So saying, the old man took him with him 
and started off. As the novice went with him he noticed along the 
way five or six places abounding in various kinds of flowers and fruits. 



Majjhimat iii. 80""**. 



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Book 5, Story 15, Dhammapada 75 [N .2.924- 



The novice asked him the names of these places, and the lay disciple 
told him the name of each one. 

On reaching the forest hermitage the lay disciple said to him, 
"Here, Reverend Sir, is a pleasant place; take up your residence 
here." Continuing, he asked the novice his name and then said to 
him, "Reverend Sir, be sure to come to our village for alms to-morrow." 
Then turning back, he returned to his own village and proclaimed 
to the inhabitants, "Elder Tissa the Forest-dweller, Vanavasika 
Tissa, has taken up his residence in the monastery; prepare broth, 
rice, and so forth for him." So the novice, who at first bore the name 
Tissa, and after that the three names Pindapatadayaka Tissa, Kam- 
baladayaka Tissa, and Vanavasi Tissa, received within seven years 
four names in all. 

Very early on the morning of the following day the novice entered 
that village for alms. When the people brought him alms and paid 
obeisance, he said, "May you be happy; may you obtain release from 
suffering." One man even, on presenting alms to him, was unable 
to bring himseK to return home. All, without exception, must needs 
stand and gaze at him. Thus he easily obtained sufficient food to 
support him. All the inhabitants of the village prostrated themselves 
on their breasts before his feet and said to him, "Reverend Sir, if you 
will reside here during these three months, we will receive the Three 
Refuges, abide steadfast in the five moral precepts, [93] and perform 
the eight fast-day duties. Promise us to reside here." 

Perceiving that assistance was to be had there, he gave them his 
promise and regularly went there only for alms. Whenever the vil- 
lagers paid obeisance to him, he recited the couplet, "I wish you 
happiness and release from suffering," and then went his way. After 
spending the first and the second month there, in the course of the 
third month he attained Arahatship, together with the Supernatural 
Faculties. 

Now his preceptor Sariputta, having kept residence during the 
rainy season and celebrated the terminal festival, approached the 
Teacher and having paid obeisance to him, said, "Reverend Sir, I am 
going to visit the novice Tissa." "Go, Sariputta," said he. As 
Sariputta set out with his own retinue of five hundred monks he 
said to Moggallana, "Brother Moggallana, I am going to see the 
novice Tissa." Said the Elder Moggallana, "I will go too, brother," 
and set out with his retinue of five hundred monks. Likewise all the 
Chief Disciples, the Elder Maha Kassapa, the Elder Anuruddha, the 



-N.2.959] A seven-year-old novice wins all hearts 157 

Elder Upali, the Elder Punna, and the rest, set out each with his 
retinue of five hundred monks, the total retinue of all the Chief 
Disciples amounting to forty thousand monks. 

When they had gone a distance of twenty leagues, they came to 
the village which was the novice's resort for alms. The novice's regular 
personal attendant saw them, [94] came to meet them at the village 
gate, and paid obeisance to them. The Elder Sariputta asked him, 
"Lay disciple, is there a forest hermitage in this neighborhood.^" 
"Yes, Reverend Sir, there is." "Is there a monk residing there.?" 
"There is, Reverend Sir." "Has he monks with him, or has he none.?" 
"He has. Reverend Sir." "What is his name.?" "The Elder Vanavasi, 
Reverend Sir." "Very well, show us the way there." "Who are you. 
Reverend Sir.?" "I have come to see my novice." 

The lay disciple looked at them and recognized in them quite all 
the Chief Disciples, beginning with the Captain of the Faith. His 
whole body suffused with joy, he said, "Wait a moment. Reverend 
Sirs." So saying, he quickly entered the village and proclaimed, 
"Here are the eighty noble Chief Disciples beginning with the Elder 
Sariputta. They have come here, each with his own retinue of five 
hundred monks, to see the novice. Take beds, chairs, coverlets, 
lamps, and oil, and go out quickly." The inhabitants straightway 
took beds and so forth as they were bidden, and falHng in behind the 
Elders, entered the monastery with them. The novice recognized 
the congregation of monks, took the bowls and robes of a few of the 
Chief Elders and performed the customary duties for them. 

Even as he was arranging places for the Elders to reside and putting 
away their bowls and robes, the darkness of night came on. The 
Elder Sariputta said to the lay disciples, "Retire, lay disciples, the 
darkness of night is come upon you." They repHed, "Reverend Sir, 
we expected to hear the Law to-day; we will not retire; we will hear 
the Law; we have not hitherto heard the Law." "Well then, lay 
disciple, light the lamp and announce that it is time to hear the Law." 
When he had done so the Elder said to him, "Tissa, your supporters 
say that they wish to hear the Law; [95] preach the Law to them." 
The lay disciples arose with one accord and said, "Reverend Sir, our 
revered novice knows no discourse on the Law except these two 
sentences, 'May you be happy; may you obtain release from suffering.' 
Let some one else preach the Law to us." Then his preceptor said to 
him, "Novice, but how may one be happy.? How may one obtain 
release from suffering.? Tell us the meaning of these two sentences." 



158 



Book 5, Story 15. Dhammapada 75 [N .2.959- 



"Very well, Reverend Sir," said he. So taking a variegated fan 
and mounting the Seat of the Law, he preached the Law to the pinnacle 
of Arahatship, even as a thunderstorm rains incessantly upon the 
four great continents, drawing the meaning and the matter from the 
five Nikayas, and analyzing the attributes of being as set forth by 
the Buddha; namely, the Aggregates of Being, the Elements of Being, 
and the Organs and Objects of Sense. "Reverend Sirs," said he, 
"thus does one who has become ^n Arahat obtain happiness, thus 
does one who has become an Arahat obtain release from suffering; 
other folk obtain not release from the suffering connected with birth 
and the rest, and from the pains of Hell and the rest." "Well done, 
novice! you have interpreted the sacred texts well; now intone them." 
Then the novice also intoned them. 

At sunrise the supporters of the novice were divided into two 
parties. Some were offended and said, "Indeed we have never seen 
anyone so crude. How is it that, able as he is to preach such a sermon 
on the Law, and having remained for so long a time as he has with 
his mother and father, he failed to recite a single Sentence of the Law 
to those present.^" But others were pleased and said, "It is fortunate 
for us who know not even the difference between good and evil that 
we have ministered to one so saintly, [96] and that we have just now 
been able to hear the Law from him." 

He that is Supremely Enlightened surveyed the world early in the 
morning of that day. Observing that the supporters of the Elder 
VanavasI Tissa had entered the Net of his Knowledge, he considered 
within himself what would be the result. And he came to the following 
conclusion, "Some of the supporters of the Elder Vanavasi Tissa 
are offended, while others are pleased. Those who are offended at a 
novice like my son will go to Hell. I must go to him, for if I go, all will 
be reconciled with my son and will obtain release from suffering." 

The villagers, having invited the congregation of monks, went to 
the village, erected a pavilion, prepared broth, rice, and so forth, 
provided seats and sat down waiting for the congregation of monks to 
come. The monks, having attended to their bodily needs, entered 
the village at the customary time for going the rounds, and asked 
the novice, "Tissa, will you go with us, or will you wait until later.?" 
"When it is time for me to go, I will go; you go on ahead. Reverend 
Sirs." The monks took bowl and robe and went on. The Teacher 
put on his robe at Jetavana, took his bowl, went in the twinkling of 
an eye, and showed himself in front of the company of monks. There 



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159 



was one universal shout, "He that is Supremely Enlightened is come." 
The whole village was agitated. With jubilant hearts men [97] pro- 
vided seats for the congregation of monks with the Buddha at their 
head and presented them with broth and hard food. 

Even before the meal was over, the novice entered the village. 
Thereupon the villagers brought food and presented it to him with 
due reverence. Taking as much as he required, he went to the Teacher 
and held out the bowl. "Bring it to me, Tissa," said the Teacher. 
Extending his hand, he took the bowl and showed it to the Elder, 
saying, "See, Sariputta, here is the bowl of your novice." The Elder 
took the bowl from the Teacher's hands and returned it to the novice, 
saying, "Go sit down where you are accustomed to sit down with 
your bowl and eat your meal." 

The villagers, after waiting upon the congregation of monks pre- 
sided over by the Buddha, requested the Teacher to return thanks. 
In returning thanks he spoke as follows, "It is fortunate for you, lay 
disciples, that on account of the novice who has come to your homes 
you have been privileged to see Sariputta, Moggallana, Kassapa, and 
the rest of the eighty Chief Disciples. Indeed it was solely on account 
of this novice that I myself came here. It is fortunate for you that 
you have thus been privileged, solely on account of this novice, to 
behold the Buddha. It is your good fortune; yes, your very good 
fortune!" 

The villagers thought to themselves, "Indeed we were fortunate 
to be privileged to behold a novice who is able to win the favor of 
Buddhas and monks alike, and to give him alms." So those who 
had been offended at the novice were pleased, while those who were 
satisfied were satisfied the more. At the conclusion of the words of 
thanksgiving many obtained the Fruit of Conversion and the Fruits 
of the Second and Third Paths. Then the Teacher arose from his seat 
and departed. The villagers accompanied him a little way and then 
turned back. 

As the Teacher walked side by side with the novice, [98] he asked 
the novice the names of various places previously pointed out to him 
by the lay disciple, and the novice told him their names. When they 
reached the place where the novice reisided, the Teacher climbed to 
the top of a mountain. From the top of this mountain the Great 
Ocean is visible. The Teacher asked the novice, "Tissa, as you stand 
on the top of the mountain and look this way and that, what do you 
see.^^" "The Great Ocean, Reverend Sir." "What thought comes into 



160 



Booh 5, Story 15, Dhammapada 75 [N. 2.989- 



your mind as you look upon the Great Ocean?" "Reverend Sir, 
this is the thought that comes into my mind, 'At times when I have 
wept over my sufferings, I must have shed tears more abundant than 
the waters contained in the four oceans.'" "Well said, well said, 
Tissa! it is even so; in the times that you have suffered, you have 
indeed shed tears more abundant than the waters contained in the 
four great oceans." So saying, the Teacher pronounced the following 
Stanza, 

But little water do the oceans four contain, 
Compared with all the tears that man hath shed. 
By sorrow stricken and by suffering distraught; 
Wherefore, O friend, still heedless dost remain? 

Again he asked him, "Tissa, where do you reside .f^" "In this 
mountain cave. Reverend Sir." "What thought comes into your 
mind as you reside here.'^" "Reverend Sir, this is the thought that 
comes into my mind, 'There is no limit to the mmaber of times I have 
died and my body been laid upon this ground.' " " Well said, well said, 
Tissa! It is even so. [99] There is no spot where these living beings 
we know have not lain down on the earth and died." So saying, he 
recited the UpasaUiaka Jataka,^ found in the Second Book, as follows. 

Fourteen thousand Upasalhakas were burned in this place. 
There is no place where men have not died. 

Where truth is, and righteousness, where no injury is done to living beings, 
Where self-restraint and self-command exist. 
Thither resort holy men, there death is not. 

(While, as a general rule, it is true that of all beings who have 
died and whose bodies have been laid upon the earth, there are none 
who die where men have not died before, nevertheless men like the 
Elder Ananda do die where men have not died before. For example, 
we are told that when the Elder Ananda was a hundred and twenty 
years old, he surveyed his allotted term of life, and perceiving that 
the time of his dissolution was near at hand, made the announce- 
ment, "I shall die seven days hence." This announcement was heard 
by dwellers on both sides of the river Rohini. Thereupon those who 
dwelt on the near side said, "We have been of great service to the 
Elder; he will die on our side." But those who dwelt on the far side 
said, "We have been of great service to the Elder; he will die on our 
side." The Elder heard their remarks and thought to himself, "Those 

1 Jataka 166: ii. 54-56. 



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161 



who dwell on both sides have helped me equally. I cannot say, * These 
men have not helped me.' Now if I die on the near side, those who 
dwell on the far side will quarrel with their brethren over the question 
who are to have my relics. If, on the other hand, I die on the far 
side, those who dwell on the near side will do the same thing. There- 
fore, if a quarrel arises, it will arise solely because of me; and likewise 
if it ceases, it will cease solely because of me." [100] So he said, 
"Not only those who dwell on the near side are helpers of mine, but 
also those who dwell on the far side are helpers of mine. There are 
none who are not my helpers. Let those that dwell on the near side 
assemble on the near side, and let those that dwell on the far side 
assemble on the far side.") 

(Seven days later, sitting cross-legged in the air over the middle 
of the river at the height of seven palm-trees, he preached the Law to 
the multitude. When he had finished his discourse, he commanded, 
"Let my body split in two; and let one portion fall on the near side 
and the other on the far side." And sitting there, he entered into 
ecstatic meditation on the element of fire. Thereupon flames of fire 
burst from his body, his body split in two, and one portion fell on the 
near side and the other on the far side. The populace wept and 
wailed. Like the sound of the earth splitting open, was the sound of 
their lamentation; yet more pitiful even than was the sound of 
lamentation at the death of the Teacher. For four months men went 
about wailing and lamenting, saying, "So long as he who held the 
Teacher's bowl and robe remained, it was as if the Teacher himself 
yet remained among us. But now the Teacher is dead.") 

Again the Teacher asked the novice, "Tissa, when you hear the 
noise of panthers and other wild beasts in this forest, are you afraid 
or not.'^" "I am not afraid. Exalted One. On the contrary, when I 
hear the noise of these animals, a feeling of love for the forest arises 
within me." And he recited sixty Stanzas descriptive of the forest. 
Then said the Teacher to him, "Tissa!" "What is it. Reverend Sir.?" 
"I am going. Will you go with me, or will you turn back.?" "If my 
preceptor wishes to go and will take me with him, I will go; if he 
wishes to turn back, I will turn back. Reverend Sir." [101] The 
Teacher set out with the congregation of monks. Now it was the 
novice's wish to turn back. The Elder knowing this, said to him, 
"Tissa, turn back if you wish to do so." Accordingly the novice 
paid obeisance to the Teacher and the congregation of monks and 
turned back; the Teacher went back to Jetavana. 



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A discussion arose in the Hall of Truth, "Truly it is a diflScult task 
which the novice Tissa is performing! From the day he was reborn, 
his kinsfolk held seven festivals and provided ^ve hundred monks 
with naught but rich porridge made of honey, milk, and rice. When 
he became a monk, they remained at the monastery for seven days and 
again provided the congregation of five hundred monks presided over 
by the Buddha with naught but rich porridge made of honey, milk, 
and rice. On the eighth day after he had become a monk he entered 
the village and in only two days received a thousand bowls of food and 
a thousand cushions for alms-bowls. Again another day he received 
a thousand blankets. So abundant were the gain and honor he received 
during his residence here. But he has now renounced all of this gain 
and honor, entered the forest, and is living on whatever food is brought 
him. It is truly a difficult task the novice Tissa is performing!" 

The Teacher came in and asked them, "Monks, what is it that you 
are sitting here now talking about?" They told him. "Yes, monks," 
he replied, "there is one road which leads to gain, another which leads 
to Nibbana. The doors of the four states of punishment stand open 
to the monk, who, thinking to acquire gain, takes upon himself the 
forest life and the other Pure Practices and clings to that which brings 
him gain. But he who walks upon the road that leads to Nibbana, 
rejects the gain and honor he might have, enters the forest, and by 
struggling and striving wins Arahatship." [102] And joining the con- 
nection, he instructed them in the Law by pronouncing the following 
Stanza, 

75. For one road leads to gain, the other to Nibbana. 

Understanding this, the monk, the disciple of the Buddha, 

Should not delight in worldly gain, but should devote himself to solitude. 



BOOK VI. THE WISE MAN, PANDITA VAGGA 

VI. 1. A POOR MAN WINS SPIRITUAL TREASURE ' 

Should one see, as it were, a revealer of hidden treasures. This 
religious instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence 
at Jetavana with reference to Venerable Radha. [104] 

We are told that before Radha became a monk he was a poor 
Brahman living at Savatthi. Deciding to live with the monks, he 
went to the monastery and took up his residence there, performing 
various duties such as cutting the grass, sweeping the cells, and pre- 
paring water for bathing the face. The monks treated him kindly, 
but were not willing to admit him to the Order. The result of this 
was that he began to lose flesh. 

Now one day, early in the morning, the Teacher surveyed the 
world and seeing the Brahman, considered within himself what would 
become of him. Perceiving that he would become an Arahat, he went 
in the evening, feigning that he was making a tour of the monastery, 
to the Brahman's quarters and said to him, "Brahman, what are you 
doing here.^" "Performing the major and minor duties for the monks. 
Reverend Sir." [105] "Do they treat you kindly.^" "Yes, Reverend 
Sir, I receive sufficient food, but they are not willing to admit me to 
the Order." Accordingly the Teacher convoked an assembly of the 
monks and questioned them about the matter, saying, "Monks, is 
there anyone who remembers any act of this Brahman.'^" 

Said the Elder Sariputta, "Reverend Sir, I remember something. 
When I was making my round in Rajagaha, he brought me a ladleful 
of his own food and gave it to me. I remember this good office of 
his." Said the Teacher, "Sariputta, is it not proper to release from 
suffering one who has performed such a service.^" "Very well. Rever- 
end Sir, I will receive him into the Order." Sariputta accordingly 
received him into the Order. He received a seat in the refectory in 
the outer circle of the seats. Even with rice-porridge and other kinds 
of food, he grew weary. 

1 TextiNii. 104-108. 



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Book 6, Story 1. Dhammapada 76 [N. 2.10512- 



The Elder took him with him on his rounds and constantly ad- 
monished and instructed him, saying, "You must do this; you must 
not do that." The monk was amenable to discipline and respectful, 
and followed his preceptor's instructions so faithfully that in but a 
few days he attained Arahatship. The Elder went with him to the 
Teacher, paid obeisance to the Teacher, and sat down. The Teacher 
gave him a friendly welcome and said to him, "Sariputta, is your 
pupil amenable to discipline .f*" "Yes, Reverend Sir, he is thoroughly 
amenable to discipline; no matter what fault I mention, he never 
shows resentment." [106] "Sariputta, if you could have pupils 
like this monk, how many would you take?" "I would take all I 
could get. Reverend Sir." 

Now one day the monks began a discussion in the Hall of Truth: 
"They say the Elder Sariputta is grateful and thankful. When a 
poor Brahman gave him but a ladleful of food, he remembered his 
kindness and made a monk of him. Moreover the Elder Radha, 
patient of admonition, received a patient teacher." The Teacher, 
hearing their talk, said, "Monks, this is not the first time Sariputta 
has shown himself grateful and thankful. He showed the same dis- 
position in a previous state of existence also." And to illustrate his 
meaning, he related the Alinacitta Jataka,^ found in the Second Book, 
as follows: 

Because of Alinacitta, a mighty host was defeated; 

Alinacitta captured ahve the king of Kosala, dissatisfied with his army. 

Even so a monk alert of will, directed aright. 

By cultivating good qualities, by the attainment of Nibbana, 

Will in due time bring about the destruction of all Attachments. 

Said the Teacher, "The Elder Sariputta was at that time the 
solitary elephant which presented the pure white elephant his son to 
the carpenters, in recognition of the service they did him in healing 
his foot." Having thus related the Jataka about the Elder Sariputta, 
he said with reference to the Elder Radha, "Monks, when a fault 
is pointed out to a monk, he ought to be amenable to discipline like 
Radha; and when he is admonished, he should not take offense. 
Indeed he who gives admonition should be looked upon as one who 
points out where treasures are to be found." So saying, [107] he 
joined the connection and, instructing them in the Law, pronounced 
the following Stanza, 

1 Jataka 156: a. 17-23. 



-N.2.11014] 



A poor man wins spiritual treasure 



165 



76. Should one see, as it were, a revealer of hidden treasures, one who points out 

what should be avoided, 
Who administers reproof where there is occasion for reproof, a man of intelligence, 

one should follow so wise a man; 
It will be better, not worse, for one to follow so wise a man. 



VI. 2. THE INSOLENT MONKS ^ 

Let a man admonish and instruct. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to the Assajipunabbasuka monks. [109] But the story 
begins at Kitagiri. 

These monks, we are told, were two pupils of the Chief Disciples, 
but in spite of that fact were shameless and wicked. While they 
were in residence at Kitagiri with their retinues of five hundred 
monks, they planted and caused to be planted flowering trees and 
were guilty of all manner of misconduct besides. They violated 
homes and procured thence the monastic requisites on which they 
lived. They rendered that monastery uninhabitable for the amiable 
monks. 

Hearing of their doings, the Teacher determined to expel them from 
the Order. For this purpose he summoned the two Chief Disciples, 
together with their retinues, and said to them, "Expel those who will 
not obey your commands, but admonish and instruct those who will 
obey. He who admonishes and instructs is hated by those that lack 
wisdom, but is loved and cherished by the wise." And joining the 
connection and instructing them in the Law, he pronounced the fol- 
lowing Stanza, 

77. Let a man admonish and instruct, and forbid what is improper; 

For if he do so, he will be loved by the good, but hated by the wicked. [110] 

Sariputta and Moggallana went there and admonished and in- 
structed those monks. Some of them received the admonitions of 
the Elders and corrected their behavior, others returned to the house- 
life, while still others were expelled from the Order. 

1 Derived from the Vinaya, Culla Vagga, i. 13: ii. 9"-1322. Text: N ii. 108-110. 



166 



Book 6, Story 3, Dhammapada 78 [N.2.11016- 



VI. 3. CHANNA, ELDERS 

One should not cultivate the friendship of evildoers. This religious 
instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at 
Jetavana with reference to the Elder Channa. 

The story goes that the Elder Channa once reviled the two Chief 
Disciples, saying, "Ever since I went forth with our Noble Master 
and made the Great Renunciation, I have looked at no one else; [111] 
but now these two Elders go about saying, *I am Sariputta, I am 
Moggallana; we are the Chief Disciples.'" Learning from the monks 
what the Elder Channa was doing, the Teacher sent for him and 
admonished him. For a moment he was silent, but immediately after- 
wards went out and resumed his abuse of the Elders. The Teacher 
sent for him and admonished him the second time and again the 
third time, saying, "Channa, in the two Chief Disciples you have 
friends who are good men, the best of men; make friends of such good 
men and follow only such." So saying, he preached the Law by 
pronouncing the following Stanza, 

78. One should not cultivate the friendship of evildoers; one should not cultivate 
fellows of the baser sort. 
Cultivate the friendship of men that are good, cultivate the best of men. 

But the Elder Channa, even after he had heard the Teacher's 
admonition, went out and reviled and abused the Elders precisely 
as before. The monks reported the matter to the Teacher. [112] 
The Teacher said, "Monks, so long as I remain alive, you will not be 
able to teach Channa. After my decease, however, you will succeed." 
When the Great Decease was at hand, the Venerable Ananda asked 
the Teacher, "Reverend Sir,_how shall we deal with the Elder Channa.?^" 
Then the Teacher directed Ananda to inflict upon Channa the punish- 
ment known as "brahmadanda." After the decease of the Teacher 
Channa was summoned. Ananda pronounced sentence. Hearing the 
sentence, Channa was overwhelmed with sorrow and sadness at the 
thought of having fallen after being freed three times. He cried out, 
"Do not ruin me. Reverend Sir," and thereafter performed his duties 
faithfully, in no long time becoming an Arahat endowed with the 
Supernatural Faculties. 

1 Derived from the Vinayay Culla Vagga, xi. i. 12-16: ii. 290^-29229. Cf. Dighay 
ii. 154"-22. See also Thera-Gdihd Commentary, Ixix. Text: N ii. 110-112. 



-N.2.11315] 



Elder Kappina the Great 



167 



VI. 4. KAPPINA THE GREAT, ELDER ^ 

He that drinks the Law sleeps happily. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to the Elder Kappina the Great. The story from beginning 
to end is as follows: 



4 a. Story of the Past: Weavers and householders 

In times past, they say, Venerable Kappina the Great made his 
Earnest Wish at the feet of the Buddha Padumuttara, and after passing 
through successive births and rebirths was at length reborn as the 
senior weaver in a certain weavers' village not far from Benares. At 
this time a thousand Private Buddhas, who had resided eight months 
in the Himalaya, were spending the four months of the rainy season 
in the country; and on a certain occasion they came down into the 
vicinity of Benares and sent eight Private Buddhas to the king, 
asking to be given work in return for lodging. [113] 

Now just at this time the king was occupied with preparations 
for the plowing festival. When he heard that Private Buddhas had 
arrived, he came out and inquired their errand. Then he said to them, 
"Reverend Sirs, I have no time to-day to attend to your needs, for 
on the morrow we are to celebrate the plowing festival. But if you 
will come back again on the third day, I will do as you ask." And 
without so much as inviting them to a meal, he turned and reentered 
his palace. The Private Buddhas remarked, " We will go to some other 
village," and departed. 

Just then the wife of the senior weaver, who was on her way to 
Benares on some errand or other, saw the Private Buddhas, and 
saluting them, asked, "Reverend Sirs, how is it that you have come here 
at such an unsuitable time.?" When she had learned all the facts, 
this woman, richly endowed with faith and intelligence, invited them 
to a meal, saying, "Reverend Sirs, take your meal with us to-morrow." 
"But there are a great many of us, sister." "How many are there 
of you. Reverend Sirs.?" "A thousand." "Reverend Sirs, there are 
just a thousand artisans in this village; each will give food to one 

* Parallels: Thera-Gdthd Commentary yCcxxxv; Anguttara Commentary on Etadagga 
Vaggay Story of Mahd Kappina; Rogers, Buddhaghoskd's Parables, viii, pp. 78-86. 
Text: N ii. 112-127. 



168 



Book 6, Story ^. Dhammapada 79 [N.2.ii3i6- 



guest; pray accept food from us; I will see to it that you are provided 
with quarters." 

The Private Buddhas accepted the invitation, and the woman 
entered the village and made proclamation, "I saw a thousand Private 
Buddhas and invited them to a meal; arrange seats for these noble 
persons [114] and likewise prepare broth, rice, and so forth." She 
then had a pavilion erected in the center of the village, caused seats to 
be arranged, and on the following day provided the Private Buddhas 
with seats and served them with choice food. At the end of the 
meal, accompanied by all the women in that village, she saluted the 
Private Buddhas and said, "Reverend Sirs, promise us to remain 
here during these three months." 

Having obtained their promise, she returned to the village and 
made proclamation once more, "Men and women, let one man from 
each household among you go to the forest with axes and hatchets, 
fetch hither building materials, and erect quarters for our honored 
guests." The villagers obeyed her injunction and built a thousand 
huts of leaves and grass with night-quarters and day-quarters, each 
man building one hut. And when the Private Buddhas entered upon 
residence in their respective huts, the villagers offered to minister 
faithfully to their needs, and faithfully did they minister to them. 
At the conclusion of the rainy season the woman persuaded each 
villager to prepare a set of robes for the particular Private Buddha 
who had passed the rainy season in his hut, and saw to it that each of 
her guests was provided with a set of robes worth a thousand pieces 
of money. At the conclusion of their residence the Private Buddhas 
returned thanks and departed. 

Having performed this work of merit, the villagers passed from 
that state of existence and were reborn as a troop of deities in the 
World of the Thirty-three. After enjoying celestial glory in that state 
of existence, [115] they were reborn in the dispensation of the Buddha 
Kassapa as householders of Benares. The senior weaver was the 
son of the senior householder, and the wife of the senior weaver was 
the daughter of the senior householder. All of those women also, on 
reaching marriageable age, married their former husbands. 

Now one day those householders heard the announcement that 
the Teacher was to preach the Law at the monastery; therefore all 
of them, accompanied by their wives, went to the monastery to hear 
the Law. Scarcely had they entered the inclosure of the monastery 
when it began to rain. Persons who had intimate friends or kinsmen 



-N.2. 11621] 



Elder Kappina the Great 



169 



among the novices or monks found shelter in their cells; but the com- 
pany of householders, having no friends or relatives at the monastery, 
were unable to gain entrance and were obliged to remain unprotected 
in the monastery inclosure. 

The senior householder said to them, "See what a plight we are in; 
respectable persons ought to be ashamed to be in such a plight." 
"But, sir, what are we to do?" "We have fallen into this plight 
because we are not on terms of intimacy with the monks; let us con- 
tribute money and build a monastery." "Very well, sir." The senior 
householder gave a thousand pieces of money, the other householders 
five hundred apiece, and each of the women two hundred and fifty. 
Having collected the money, [116] they began the erection of what 
is called a Great Monastery, crowned with a thousand pinnacles, to 
serve as a place of residence for the Teacher; and when, by reason of 
the great extent of the work they had undertaken, the money proved 
to be insufficient, each of those who had contributed before gave half 
as much again. When the monastery was completed, they held a 
festival in honor of the opening of the monastery and for seven days 
gave rich gifts to the congregation of monks presided over by the 
Buddha, presenting each of the twenty thousand monks with a set 
of robes. 

But the wife of the senior householder, although she had already 
done the same as the rest had done, determined in her wisdom to do 
yet more. Said she, "I will do honor to the Teacher." Accordingly 
she took a garment of the color of anoja flowers, worth a thousand 
pieces of money, and a casket of anoja flowers, and when it was time 
for the Teacher to return thanks, she honored him with a present of 
the anoja flowers; and then casting the garment at his feet, made 
this Earnest Wish, "Reverend Sir, in my future states of existence 
may my body be of the hue of the anoja flower and may my name 
be 'Anoja.'" "So be it," replied the Teacher, returning thanks. 
Having lived out their allotted term of life, all of them passed from that 
state of existence and were reborn in the World of the Gods. 



4 b. Story of the Present: King Kappina and Queen Anoja 

Passing from the World of the Gods, the senior householder was 
reborn in the royal household of the city Kukkutavati. King Kappina 
the Great was his name. The rest of the company were reborn in the 
households of courtiers. The wife of the senior householder was reborn 



170 



Booh 6, Story Jf. Dhammapada 79 [N.2.11621- 



in the royal household of the kingdom of Madda in the city of Sagala. 
Her body was of the hue of the anoja flower, and "Anoja" was the 
name they gave her. [117] When she reached marriageable age 
she was married to King Kappina and became known as Queen 
Anoja. The rest of the women were reborn in the households of 
courtiers, and when they reached marriageable age were married to 
the sons of those same courtiers. 

All of them enjoyed glory like the glory of the king. Whenever 
the king rode in procession, mounted on his elephant and adorned with 
all his adornments, they also rode in procession in like state; whenever 
the king went about on his horse or in his chariot, they also went about 
in like manner. Thus it was that since as one company they had per- 
formed works of merit, as one company also they enjoyed equal glory. 

Now the king had five horses, Vala, Puppha, Valavahana, Puppha- 
vahana, and Supatta. One of these horses, Supatta, he alone rode; 
the other four he allowed riders to use for carrying messages. Early 
one morning after breakfast he sent out the four riders with this 
command, "Ride forth and scour the country for two or three leagues 
about and if you learn of the appearance of the Buddha or the Law 
or the Order, come back and bring me the good news." The riders 
rode forth from the four gates and scoured the country for two or 
three leagues about, but returned with no news. 

One day the king mounted his horse and accompanied by a retinue 
of courtiers, proceeded to his pleasure-garden. Seeing five hundred 
weary-looking traders entering the city, he said, "These men are 
weary from a journey; perhaps we shall hear some good news from 
them." [118] So he summoned them and asked them, "Whence do 
you come.^" "Your majesty, there is a city called Savatthi a hundred 
and twenty leagues from here; thence do we come." "Is there any 
news from your country .f*" "None other than this, your majesty, 
that the Supremely Enlightened One, the Buddha, has appeared." 

Straightway the king's whole body was thrilled with the five sorts 
of joy; for a moment he hesitated, for he was unable to collect his 
thoughts; then he said, "Friends, what is it that you say.'^" "The 
Buddha has appeared, your majesty." Twice and thrice did the 
king hesitate and speak as before. And again a fourth time he said, 
"Friends, what is it that you say.?" "The Buddha has appeared, 
your majesty." "Friends, I give you a hundred thousand pieces of 
money; is there any other news besides?" "Yes, your majesty, there 
is; the Law has appeared." 



-N.2.11920] 



Elder Kappina the Great 



171 



When he heard this also, the king hesitated and spoke three times 
as before, and when for the fourth time he heard the word "Law," 
he said, "Here, I give you a hundred thousand pieces of money." 
Then he asked them, "Friends, is there any other news besides?" 
"Yes, your majesty, there is; the Order has appeared." When the 
king heard this also, he hesitated and spoke three times as before, 
and when for the fourth time he heard the word "Order," he said, 
"Here, once more do I give you a hundred thousand pieces of money." 

Having so done, he surveyed his thousand courtiers and asked them, 
"Friends, what is your pleasure.?" "Your majesty, what is your 
pleasure.?" "Friends, I have heard the good news, *The Buddha has 
appeared, the Law has appeared, the Order has appeared;' therefore 
I shall not return to my palace again, but for the sake of the Teacher 
I shall go and become a monk under him." "Your majesty, we too 
will become monks with you." 

The king caused a message to be written on a plate of gold and said 
to the merchants, [119] "Queen Anoja will give you three hundred 
thousand pieces of money so soon as you give her this message, ^The 
King's dominion is given into your hands; enjoy the glory thereof 
at your good pleasure.'" And he added, "Should she ask you, how- 
ever, where the King is, tell her that for the sake of the Teacher he 
has departed to become a monk under him." The king's courtiers 
also sent similar messages to their wives. And as soon as the king 
had dismissed the traders, he departed with his retinue of a thousand 
courtiers. 

Early in the morning of that day the Teacher surveyed the world, 
and seeing King Kappina the Great with his retinue, became aware 
of the following, "Yonder Kappina the Great has heard from the 
traders of the appearance of the Three Jewels, has rewarded them 
with three hundred thousand pieces of money for bringing him word, 
has renounced his kingdom, and purposes on the morrow, accom- 
panied by his retinue of a thousand courtiers, to retire from the world 
for my sake and become a monk; he and his retinue will attain Arahat- 
ship together with the Supernatural Faculties; it behooves me to go 
to meet him." Accordingly on the following day, like a Universal 
Monarch going forth to meet the headman of a little village, he took 
bowl and robe and went forth, and having traveled two hundred leagues 
he sat down on the bank of the river Candabhaga under a banyan- 
tree, and there he remained, diffusing rays of six colors. 

As the king proceeded on his way he came to a certain river. 



172 



Book 6, Story 4- Dhammapada 79 [N. 2. 11920- 



" What river is this ?" he asked. "The river Aravaccha, your majesty. " 
"How deep is it and how wide is it, friends?" [120] "It is one league 
deep and two leagues wide, your majesty." "Is there a boat here, or 
a raft?" "There is not, your majesty." "While we are looking for 
boats and rafts, birth is bringing us to old age and old age is bringing 
us to death. Free from doubt, I have renounced the world for the 
sake of the Three Jewels; by their supernatural power may this 
water be to me unlike water." Having thus considered the virtues 
of the Three Jewels, the king meditated upon the Buddha, saying, 
"He is the Exalted One, the Holy One, the Supremely Enlightened, 
Endowed with Knowledge and Righteousness." While thus engaged 
in meditation the king and his retinue dashed over the surface of the 
river on their thousand horses, the Sindh horses springing upon the 
surface of the river as on a flat rock, without so much as wetting the 
tips of their hoofs. 

Having crossed the river Aravaccha, the king proceeded until 
he came to yet another river. "What is the name of this river .f*" he 
asked. "The river Nllavahana, your majesty." "How deep is it 
and how wide is it.^" "Half a league deep and half a league wide, 
your majesty." The rest exactly as before, except that when the 
king saw this river he said, "Well has the Law been preached by 
the Exalted One," and crossed by meditating on the Law. Having 
crossed the river Nilavahana, the king proceeded until he came to 
yet a third river. "What is the name of this river.?" he asked. "The 
river Candabhaga, your majesty." "How deep is it and how wide is 
it.f^" "A league deep and a league wide, your majesty." The rest 
exactly as before, except that when the king saw this river he said, 
[121] "Devoted to righteousness is the Order of Disciples of the 
Exalted One," and crossed by meditating on the Order. 

After crossing the third river as the king continued his journey, 
he saw the rays of light of six colors which issued from the body of the 
Teacher; the branches and forks and leaves of the banyan- tree ap- 
peared as though made of pure gold. The king thought to himself, 
"This radiance is not that of the moon or sun, nor yet that of any 
mighty Naga or Garuda; it must be that, setting out as I have for the 
sake of the Teacher, I have been seen by the great Gotama Buddha." 
Accordingly he dismounted at once from his horse and inclining his 
body to the direction of the rays, approached the Teacher; and 
penetrating the circle of the Buddha's rays as one might plunge into 
a sea of vermilion, he paid obeisance to the Teacher and with his 



-N.2.1232I 



Elder Kappina the Great 



173 



retinue of a thousand courtiers seated himself respectfully on one 
side. 

The Teacher preached the Law in orderly sequence, and at the 
conclusion of his discourse the king and his company of courtiers 
were established in the Fruit of Conversion, whereupon all of them 
arose with one accord and requested to be admitted to the Order. 
The Teacher considered within himself, "Will these noblemen receive 
bowls and robes created by magic?" and became aware of the follow- 
ing, "These noblemen gave a thousand robes to a thousand Private 
Buddhas, and in the dispensation of the Buddha Kassapa also gave 
twenty thousand robes to twenty thousand monks; it is not wonderful 
that they should receive bowls and robes created by magic." There- 
fore he extended his right hand and said, [122] "Come, monks, take 
up the religious life, that you may utterly extinguish suffering." 
Straightway they were provided with the eight monastic requisites, be- 
coming as it were Elders a century old, and first soaring into the air, 
they returned to earth, paid obeisance to the Teacher, and sat down. 

The traders went to the royal palace, announced that they had been 
sent by the king, and upon being invited to enter by the queen, entered, 
made obeisance, and stood respectfully on one side. The queen asked 
them, "Sirs, on what errand have you come.^" "Your majesty, we 
were sent to you by the king, who gave us three hundred thousand 
pieces of money." "Sirs, it is a large sum of money you mention; 
what did you do for the king that pleased him so greatly that he gave 
you that amount of money.?" "Nothing much, your majesty; all 
we did was to bring the king a certain piece of news." "Are you 
permitted to tell me also what it was.?" "Yes, your majesty." "Well 
then, sirs, tell me." "Your majesty, *The Buddha has appeared in 
the world.'" 

When the queen heard this, she was affected precisely as the 
king had been; her body was suffused with joy, and three times she 
failed to grasp the meaning of what she heard. When she heard the 
word "Buddha" the fourth time, she inquired, "What did the 
king give you when he heard this word.?" "A hundred thousand 
pieces of money, your majesty." "Sirs, the king did not reward 
you suitably when he gave you only a hundred thousand pieces of 
money for bringing him such a message; it is a poor present I give 
you in presenting you with three hundred thousand pieces of money. 
Did you bring the king any other message.?" [123] "Such and such," 
said they, repeating the two other messages. As before, the queen's 



174 



Book 6, Story 4- Dhammapada 79 [N. 2. 1232- 



body was suffused with joy at each of the messages she heard; three 
times she failed to grasp the meaning of what she heard, but the 
fourth time she heard each message she presented them with three 
hundred thousand pieces of money. Thus in all they received twelve 
hundred thousand pieces of money. 

Then the queen asked them, "Sirs, where is the king.^" "Your 
majesty, he has departed, saying, *For the sake of the Teacher I will 
become a monk.' " "Did he send me any message .f^" "All his kingly 
power is given into your hands; enjoy the glory thereof at your own 
good pleasure." "And where are his courtiers, sirs.^" "Your majesty, 
they also went away, saying, *We will become monks with the king.'" 
Thereupon the queen summoned the wives of the courtiers and said 
to them, "Friends, your husbands have departed, saying, *We will 
become monks with the king;' what will you do.?" "But what 
message did they send to us, your majesty .f^" "They have given 
the glory they possess into your hands to enjoy according to your own 
good pleasure." "But, your majesty, what do you intend to do?" 

"Friends, he who but now was king made ready for the journey, 
and having honored the Three Jewels with three hundred thousand 
pieces of money and having cast off his glory as he would eject a 
mass of saliva, departed to become a monk. I also have learned of 
the appearance of the Three Jewels and have honored the Three 
Jewels with hundreds of thousands more. The glory which spells 
suffering to the king spells suffering to me also. Who would get down 
on his knees and take into his mouth a mass of saliva ejected by 
the king.? I have no need of real glory; I also will go forth for the 
sake of the Teacher and become a nun." "Your majesty, then we 
also will become nuns with you." "Well and good, friends, if you are 
able." "We are able, your majesty." [124] 

"Well then, come," said the queen. So she caused a thousand 
chariots to be harnessed, mounted her chariot and departed, accom- 
panied by her retinue. Coming to the first river on the journey, she 
asked the same questions the king had asked and received the same 
answers, whereupon she said to her companions, "Look for the way 
taken by the king." They replied, "Your majesty, we see no foot- 
prints of Sindh horses." Said the queen, "The king must have 
pronounced an Act of Truth,^ saying, *For the sake of the Three 

^ For a discussion of this charm, see my paper, The Act of Truth (Saccakiriya) ; 
a Hindu Spell and its Employment as a Psychic Motif in Hindu Fiction, JRAS., July, 
1917. For other occurrences of the charm, see stories i. 3 a, xiii. 6 and xvii. 3 b. 



-N. 2. 12517] Elder Kappina the Great 175 

Jewels I have renounced the world/ and so crossed. I also have 
renounced the world for the sake of the Three Jewels; by their super- 
natural power may this water be to me unlike water." And meditating 
thus on the power of the Three Jewels, she ordered her thousand 
chariots to go forward. The water was like a flat rock, insomuch that 
not even the outer rims of the wheels were wetted. In like manner 
also she crossed the remaining two rivers. 

When the Teacher became aware of her approach, he rendered 
the monks invisible that they might not be seen sitting with him. 
As she drew nearer and nearer and saw the rays of light issuing from 
the body of the Teacher, the same thought came to her as had pre- 
viously come to the king. Having approached the Teacher, she paid 
obeisance to him, stood respectfully on one side, and asked him, 
"Reverend Sir, methinks Kappina the Great has come to you and 
told you that he has renounced the world for your sake. Where is 
he.'^ Show him to us." "Just sit down; you will presently see him 
even here." [125] The hearts of all those women were filled with 
joy at the thought that while seated even there they should see their 
husbands. So they sat down. 

The Teacher preached the Law in orderly sequence. At the con- 
clusion of his discourse the queen and her retinue were established in 
the Fruit of Conversion. The Elder Kappina the Great and his 
retinue, who heard the Teacher preach the Law to the women, attained 
Arahatship together with the Supernatural Faculties. At that moment 
the Teacher showed the monks to the women. We are told that the 
reason why the Teacher did not show the monks to the women at 
the very moment when they arrived, was for fear that should they 
see their husbands with yellow robes and shaven heads, their minds 
would be disturbed and they would therefore be unable to attain 
the Path and the Fruits. Hence it was that he waited until the women 
were firmly grounded in faith to show them the monks in their state 
as Arahats. 

When the women saw the monks, they paid obeisance to them 
with the Five Rests, and said, "Reverend Sirs, now have you reached 
the goal of your religious life." Having so said, they paid obeisance 
to the Teacher, stood respectfully on one side, and requested to be 
admitted to the Order. We are told that when they made this request, 
some of the monks said, "The Teacher thought of the coming of 
Uppalavanna." But the Teacher said to those female lay disciples, 
"Go to Savatthi and enter the religious life in the Convent of Nuns." 



176 



Book 6, Story 4. Dhammapada 79 [N.2.i25i7- 



So those female lay disciples started out on foot and journeyed from 
place to place, the populace everywhere offering them hospitality 
and bestowing honor upon them, and after a journey of a hundred 
and twenty leagues they reached the Convent of Nuns, were admitted 
to the Order, and attained Arahatship. The Teacher taking the 
thousand monks with him, flew through the air to Jetavana. 

At Jetavana Venerable Kappina the Great went about the night- 
quarters and the day-quarters [126] breathing forth the solemn 
utterance, "Oh happiness! oh happiness!" The monks reported the 
matter to the Exalted One, saying, "Reverend Sir, Venerable Kappina 
the Great is going about saying, *0h happiness! oh happiness!' Pre- 
sumably he is talking about the happiness of his own rule as king." 
The Teacher sent for him and said to him, "Kappina, is it true, as 
they say, that you are breathing forth utterances regarding the 
happiness of love and the happiness of rule?" "Reverend Sir, the 
Exalted One himself knows whether or not I am breathing forth 
utterances regarding happiness of that kind." 

The Teacher said to the monks, "Monks, it is not with reference 
to the happiness of ruling that my son is breathing forth solemn 
utterances. He that drinks the Law delights in the Law. It is with 
reference to Nibbana the Deathless that he is breathing forth these 
solemn utterances of joy." And having so spoken, the Teacher 
joined the connection and instructed them in the Law by pronouncing 
the following Stanza, 

79. He that drinks the Law sleeps happily, with mind serene; 

The wise man ever delights in the Law as taught by holy men. 



VI. 5. PANDITA THE NOVICE ^ 

Ditch-diggers lead the water. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference 
to the novice Pandita. [127] 

5 a. Story of the Past: Sakka and the poor man 

In times past, they say, Kassapa the Supremely Enlightened, 
accompanied by a retinue of twenty thousand monks freed from the 



^ Parallel: Rogers, BuddhaghosMs Parables, ix, pp. 87-97. Cf. Story x. 11. Text: 
N ii. 127-147. 



-N.2. 12941 Pandita the novice 177 

Depravities, paid a visit to Benares. Thereupon the residents, mind- 
ful of the fame they should acquire thereby, united in bands of eight 
or ten and presented the visiting monks with the customary offerings. 
Now it happened one day that the Teacher, in returning thanks at 
the end of the meal, spoke as follows: 

"Lay disciples, here in this world one man says to himself, *It is 
my bounden duty to give only that which is my own. Why should 
I urge others to give.?' So he himself gives alms, but does not urge 
others to give. [128] That man, in his future states of existence 
receives the blessing of wealth, but not the blessing of a retinue. 
Another man urges others to give, but does not himself give. That 
man receives in his future states of existence the blessing of a retinue, 
but not the blessing of wealth. Another man neither himself gives 
nor urges others to give. That man in his future states of existence 
receives neither the blessing of wealth nor the blessing of a retinue, 
but lives as an eater of remnants. Yet another man not only himself 
gives, but also urges others to give. That man, in his future states 
of existence, receives both the blessing of wealth and the blessing 
of a retinue." 

Now a certain wise man who stood near heard this and thought 
to himself, "I will straightway so act as to obtain both blessings for 
myself." Accordingly he paid obeisance to the Teacher and said, 
"Reverend Sir, to-morrow receive alms from me." "How many 
monks do you wish me to bring?" "How many monks are there in 
your retinue. Reverend Sir?" "Twenty thousand monks." "Rever- 
end Sir, to-morrow bring all your monks and receive alms from me." 
The Teacher accepted his invitation. 

The man entered the village and announced, "Men and women, 
I have invited the congregation of monks presided over by the Buddha 
to take a meal here to-morrow; each and all of you give to as many 
monks as you are able." Then he went about inquiring how many 
each could provide for. "We will supply ten," "We will supply 
twenty," "We will supply a hundred," "We will supply five hundred," 
they replied, each giving in proportion to his means. All of the pledges 
he wrote down in order on a leaf. 

Now at that time there lived in this city a certain man who was 
so poor that he was known as Prince of Paupers, Mahaduggata. [129] 
The solicitor meeting him face to face, said also to him, "Sir Maha- 
duggata, I have invited the congregation of monks presided over by 
the Buddha for to-morrow; to-morrow the residents of the city will 



178 



Booh 6, Story 5. Dhammapada 80 [N. 2. 1294- 



give alms; how many monks will you provide for?" "Sir, what 
have I to do with monks? Monks need rich men to provide for them. 
But as for me, I possess not so much as a small measure of rice where- 
with to make porridge to-morrow; what have I to do with monks?" 

Now it behooves a man who urges others to give to be circumspect; 
therefore when the solicitor heard the poor man plead his poverty 
as an excuse, instead of remaining silent, he spoke to him as follows, 
"Sir Mahaduggata, there are many people in this city who live in 
luxury, eating rich food, wearing soft clothes, adorned with all manner 
of adornments, and sleeping on beds of royal splendor. But as for 
you, you work for your living and yet get scarcely enough to fill your 
belly. That being the case, does it not seem to you likely that the 
reason why you yourself get nothing is that you have never done 
anything for others?" "I think so, sir." "Well, why do you not do 
a work of merit right now? You are young, you have plenty of 
strength; is it not your bounden duty while you are earning a living 
to give alms according to your ability?" Even as the solicitor spoke, 
the poor man was overcome with emotion and said, " Write my name 
on the leaf for one monk; no matter how little I may earn, I will 
provide food for one monk." The solicitor said to himself, "What is 
the use of writing one monk on the leaf?" and omitted to write down 
the name. [130] 

Mahaduggata went home and said to his wife, "Wife, to-morrow 
the residents of the village will provide food for the congregation of 
monks. I also was requested by the solicitor to provide food for one 
monk; therefore we also will provide food for one monk to-morrow." 
His wife, instead of saying to him, "We are poor; why did you promise 
to do so?" said, "Husband, what you did was quite right; we are 
poor now because we have never given anything; we will both work 
for hire and give food to one monk." So both of them went out to 
look for work. 

A rich merchant saw Mahaduggata and said to him, "Sir Maha- 
duggata, do you wish to work for hire?" "Yes, your honor." "What 
kind of work can you do?" "Whatever you would like to have done." 
"Well then, we are going to entertain three hundred monks; come, 
split wood," and he brought an axe and a hatchet and gave them 
to him. Mahaduggata put on a stout girdle and exerting himself to 
the utmost, began to split wood, first tossing the axe aside and taking 
the hatchet, and then tossing the hatchet aside and taking the axe. 
The merchant said to him, "Sir, to-day you work with unusual energy; 



-N. 2. 1327] P audita the novice 179 

what is the reason for it?" "Master, I expect to provide food for 
one monk." The merchant was pleased at heart and thought to 
himself, "It is a diflScult task this man has undertaken; instead of 
remaining silent and refusing to give because of his poverty, he says, 
*I will work for hire and provide food for one monk.' " 

The merchant's wife also saw the poor man's wife and said to her, 
"Woman, what kind of work can you do?" [131] "Whatever you 
wish to have done." So she took her into the room where the mortar 
was kept, gave her a winnowing-fan, a pestle, and so on, and set her 
at work. The woman pounded the rice and sifted it with as much 
joy and pleasure as if she were dancing. The merchant's wife said to 
her, "Woman, you appear to take unusual joy and pleasure in doing 
your work; what is the reason for it?" "Lady, with the wages we 
earn at this work we expect to provide food for one monk." When the 
merchant's wife heard this she was pleased and said to herself, "What 
a difficult task it is that this woman is doing!" 

When Mahaduggata had finished splitting the wood, the merchant 
gave him four measures of rice as pay for his work and four more 
as an expression of good will. The poor man went home and said 
to his wife, "The rice I have received for my work will serve as a 
supply of provisions for us. With the pay you have earned procure 
curds, oil, wood, relishes, and utensils." The merchant's wife gave 
the woman a cup of ghee, a vessel of curds, an assortment of relishes, 
and a measure of clean rice. The husband and wife between them 
therefore received five measures of rice. 

Filled with joy and satisfaction at the thought that they had 
received food to bestow in alms, they rose very early in the morning. 
Mahaduggata's wife said to him, "Husband, go seek leaves for curry 
and fetch them home." Seeing no leaves in the shop, he went to the 
bank of the river. And there he went about picking up leaves, singing 
for joy at the thought, "To-day I shall have the privilege of giving food 
to the noble monks." [132] 

A fisherman who had just thrown his big net into the water and 
was standing close by thought to himself, "That must be the voice 
of Mahaduggata." So he called him and asked, "You sing as though 
you were overjoyed at heart; what is the reason?" "I am picking 
up leaves, friend." "What are you going to do?" "I am going to 
provide food for one monk." "Happy indeed the monk who shall 
eat your leaves!" "What else can I do, master? I intend to provide 
for him with the leaves I have myself gathered." "Well then, come 



180 



Book 6, Story 5. Dhammapada 80 [N .2. 1327- 



here." "What do you wish me to do, master?" "Take these fish 
and tie them up in bundles to sell for a pada, a half-pada, and a penny." 

Mahaduggata did as he was told, and the residents of the city 
bought them for the monks they had invited. He was still engaged 
in tying up bundles of fish when the time came for the monks to go 
on their rounds for alms, whereupon he said to the fisherman, "I 
must go now, friend; it is time for the monks to come." "Are there 
any bundles of fish left.'^" "No, friend, they are all gone." "Well 
then, here are four redfish which I buried in the sand for my own 
use. If you intend to provide food for the monks, take them with 
you." So saying, he gave him the redfish. 

Now as the Teacher surveyed the world on the morning of that 
day, he observed that Mahaduggata had entered the Net of his 
Knowledge. And he considered within himself, "What is going to 
happen.^ Yesterday Mahaduggata and his wife worked for hire that 
they might provide food for one monk. Which monk will he obtain.f^" 
[133] And he came to the following conclusion, "The residents will 
obtain monks to entertain in their houses according to the names 
written on the leaf; none other monk will Mahaduggata obtain, 
save only me." Now the Buddhas are said to show particular tender- 
ness to poor men. So when the Teacher, very early in the morning, 
had attended to his bodily needs, he said to himself, "I will bestow 
my favor on Mahaduggata." And he went into the Perfumed Chamber 
and sat down. 

When Mahaduggata went into his house with the fish, the Yellow- 
stone Throne of Sakka showed signs of heat. Sakka looked about 
and said to himself, "What can be the reason for this?" And he 
considered within himself, "Yesterday Mahaduggata and his wife 
worked for hire that they might provide food for one monk; which 
monk will he obtain?" Finally he came to the following conclusion, 
"Mahaduggata will obtain none other monk than the Buddha, who 
is sitting in the Perfumed Chamber with this thought in his mind, 
*I will bestow my favor on Mahaduggata.' Now it is Mahaduggata's 
intention to offer the Tathagata a meal of his own making, consisting 
of porridge and rice and leaf-curry. Suppose I were to go to Maha- 
duggata's house and offer to act as cook?" 

Accordingly Sakka disguised himself, went to the vicinity of his 
house and asked, "Would anyone like to hire a man to work for him?" 
Mahaduggata saw him and said to him, "Sir, what kind of work 
can you do?" "Master, I am a man-of -all- work; there is nothing 



-N.2.135io] 



Pandita the novice 



181 



I do not know how to do; among other things I know how to cook 
porridge and boil rice." "Sir, we need your services, but we have 
no money to pay you." "What work is it you have to do?" [134] 
"I wish to provide food for one monk and I should like to have some 
one prepare the porridge and rice." "If you intend to provide 
food for a monk, it will not be necessary for you to pay me; is it not 
proper that I should perform a work of merit?" "If that is the case, 
very well, sir; come in." So Sakka entered the poor man's house, 
had him bring the rice and other articles of food, and then dismissed 
him, saying, "Go fetch the monk allotted to you." 

Now the solicitor of alms had sent to the houses of the residents 
the monks according to the names on the leaf. Mahaduggata met 
him and said to him, "Give me the monk allotted to me." The 
solicitor immediately recollected what he had done and replied, "I 
forgot to allot you a monk." Mahaduggata felt as if a sharp dagger 
had been thrust into his belly. Said he, "Sir, why are you ruining 
me? Yesterday you urged me to give alms. So my wife and I worked 
all day for hire, and to-day I got up early in the morning to gather 
leaves, went to the bank of the river, and spent the day picking up 
leaves; give me one monk!" And he wrung his arms and burst into 
tears. 

People gathered about and asked, "What is the matter, Mahadug- 
gata?" He told them the facts, whereupon they asked the solicitor, 
"Is it true, as this man alleges, that you urged him to hire himself 
out for service to provide food for a monk?" "Yes, noble sirs." 
"You have done a grave wrong in that, while making arrangements 
for so many monks, you failed to allot this man a single monk." The 
solicitor was troubled by what they said and said to him, "Mahadug- 
gata, do not ruin me. [135] You are putting me to great incon- 
venience. The residents have taken to their several houses the monks 
allotted to them according to the names written on the leaf, and there 
is no monk in my own house whom I can take away and give to you. 
But the Teacher is even now sitting in the Perfumed Chamber, having 
just bathed his face; and without are seated kings, royal princes, 
commanders-in-chief, and others, waiting for him to come forth, 
that they may take his bowl and accompany him on his way. Now 
the Buddhas are wont to show particular tenderness to a poor man. 
Therefore go to the monastery, pay obeisance to the Teacher, and 
say to him, *I am a poor man. Reverend Sir; bestow your favor on 
me.' If you have merit, you will undoubtedly obtain what you seek." 



182 



Booh 6, Story 5. Dhammapada 80 [N.2.i35io- 



So Mahaduggata went to the monastery. Now on previous 
occasions he had been seen at the monastery as an eater of remnants 
of food. Therefore the kings, royal princes, and others said to him, 
"Mahaduggata, this is not meal-time; why do you come here.'^" 
"Sirs," he replied, "I know it is not meal-time; but I have come to 
pay obeisance to the Teacher." Then he went to the Perfumed 
Chamber, laid his head on the threshold, paid obeisance to the Teacher 
with the Five Rests, and said, "Reverend Sir, in this city there is no 
man poorer than I. Be my refuge; bestow favor on me." 

The Teacher opened the door of the Perfumed Chamber, took down 
his bowl, and placed it in the poor man's hands. It was as though 
Mahaduggata had received the glory of a Universal Monarch. Kings, 
royal princes, and others gasped at each other. [136] Now when 
the Teacher presents his bowl to a man, no one dares take it from 
him by force. But they spoke thus, "Sir Mahaduggata, give us the 
Teacher's bowl; we will give you all this money for it. You are a 
poor man; take the money. What need have you of the bowl.^" 
Mahaduggata said, "I will give it to no one; I have no need of money; 
all that I desire is to provide food for the Teacher." All without 
exception begged him to give them the bowl, but failing to get it, 
desisted. 

The king thought to himself, "Money will not tempt Mahadug- 
gata to give up the bowl, and no one can take from him the bowl which 
the Teacher has given him of his own free will. But how much will 
this man's alms amount to? When the time comes for him to present 
his alms, I will take the Teacher aside, conduct him to my house, 
and give him the food I have made ready." This was the thought 
in his mind even as he accompanied the Teacher. 

Now Sakka king of gods prepared porridge, rice, leaf-curry, and 
other kinds of food, made ready a seat worthy of the Teacher, and 
sat down awaiting the arrival of the Teacher. Mahaduggata con- 
ducted the Teacher to his house and invited him to enter. Now the 
house in which he lived was so low that it was impossible to enter 
without bowing the head. But the Buddhas never bow their heads 
in entering a house. When they enter a house, the earth sinks or the 
house rises. This is the fruit of the generous alms they have given. 
And when they have departed and gone, all becomes as before. There- 
fore the Teacher entered the house standing quite erect, [137] and 
having entered, sat down on the seat prepared by Sakka. When the 
Teacher had seated himself, the king said to Mahaduggata, "Sir 



-N. 2. 1389] Pandita the novice 183 

Mahaduggata, when we begged you to give us the Teacher's bowl, 
you refused to do so. Now let us see what sort of alms you have 
prepared for the Teacher." 

At that moment Sakka uncovered the dishes and showed the 
porridge, rice, and other kinds of food. The perfume and fragrance 
thereof enveloped the whole city. The king surveyed the porridge, 
rice, and other foods, and said to the Exalted One, "Reverend Sir, 
when I came here, I thought to myself, 'How much will Maha- 
duggata's alms amount to? When he presents his alms, I will take 
the Teacher aside, conduct him to my house, and give him the food 
I have myself prepared.' But as a matter of fact, I have never yet 
seen such provisions as these. If I remain here, Mahaduggata will 
be annoyed; therefore I will depart." And having paid obeisance to 
the Teacher, he departed. Sakka presented the porridge and other 
food to the Teacher and faithfully ministered to his needs. After 
the Teacher had eaten his meal, he returned thanks, rose from 
his seat and departed. Sakka made a sign to Mahaduggata, who 
thereupon took the Teacher's bowl and accompanied him. 

Sakka turned back, stopped at the door of Mahaduggata's house, 
and looked up at the sky. Thereupon there came down from the sky 
a rain of the seven kinds of jewels. The jewels filled all the vessels 
in his house and the very house itself. When there was no room left 
in the house, they took the children in their arms, carried them outside, 
and stood there. When Mahaduggata returned from accompanying 
the Teacher and saw the children standing outside the house, he asked, 
"What does this mean.^^" "Our whole house is filled with the seven 
kinds of jewels, insomuch that there is no room to go in." Mahadug- 
gata thought to himself, "To-day have I received the reward of the 
alms I have given." Thereupon he went to the king, [138] made 
obeisance to him, and when the king asked him why he had come, 
said, "Your majesty, my house is filled with the seven kinds of 
jewels; accept this wealth." The king thought, "This very day have 
the alms given to the Buddhas reached their consummation." And 
he said to the man, "What must you have to remove the jewels?" 
"Your majesty, it will require a thousand carts to remove all of this 
wealth." The king sent out a thousand carts and had the wealth 
removed and dumped in the palace court. It made a heap as high 
as a palm-tree. 

The king assembled the citizens and asked them, "Is there any 
one in this city who possesses so much wealth as this?" "There is 



184 



Book 6, Story 5. Dhammapada 80 [N. 2.1389- 



not, your majesty." "What ought to be done for a man possessed 
of so much wealth as this?" " He should be given the post of treasurer, 
your majesty." The king bestowed high honor upon him and gave 
him the post of treasurer. Then he pointed out the site of a house 
occupied by a former treasurer, and said to him, "Have the bushes 
that are growing there removed, build a house, and reside in it." 

As the ground was being cleared and leveled, urns of treasure 
came to light with their brims touching each other. When Mahadug- 
gata reported this to the king, the latter said, "It is through your 
merit that these urns have come to light; you alone shall have them." 
When Mahaduggata had completed the house, he gave alms for seven 
days to the congregation of monks presided over by the Buddha. 
Thereafter, having lived out his allotted term of life in the perform- 
ance of works of merit, Mahaduggata was reborn at the end of his 
life in the World of the Gods. After enjoying celestial glory for the 
space of the interval between the appearances of two Buddhas, he 
passed from that state of existence in the dispensation of the present 
Buddha, [139] and was conceived in the womb of the daughter of a 
rich merchant of Savatthi, a retainer of the Elder Sariputta. 



5 b. Story of the Present : Pandita, the seven-year-old novice 

When the mother and father of the merchant's daughter learned 
that she had conceived a child in her womb, they saw to it that she 
received the treatment necessary for the protection of the embryo. 
After a time the longing of pregnancy came upon her and she thought 
to herself, "Oh that I might make offerings of the choicest portions 
of redfish to the five hundred monks headed by the Captain of the 
Faith; oh that I might put on yellow robes, sit down in the outer 
circle of the seats, and partake of the food left uneaten by these 
monks!" She expressed her longing to her mother and father and 
fulfilled her longing, whereupon it subsided. Thereafter she held seven 
festivals more, and provided the five hundred monks headed by 
the Captain of the Faith with the choicest portions of redfish. (All is 
to be understood precisely as in the Story of the Youth Tissa.) ^ This 
was the fruit of his offering of the choicest portions of redfish in his 
former existence as the poor man, Mahaduggata. 

Now on the day appointed for the naming of the child the mother 
said to the Elder, "Reverend Sir, confer the moral precepts on your 

* Story V. 15. 



-N.2.141sl 



Pandita the novice 



185 



servant." Said the Elder, "What is the name of this child?" "Rever- 
end Sir, from the day this child came into existence in my womb, 
those of this household who were stupid and deaf and dumb became 
wise; therefore the name of my child shall be Youth Wiseman, Pandita 
Daraka." The Elder then conferred the moral precepts on the child. 

Now from the day of his birth his mother resolved, "I will not 
interfere with the desire of my son." When he was seven years 
old, [140] he said to his mother, "I desire to become a monk under 
the Elder." She replied, "Very well, dear child; long ago I made up 
my mind not to interfere with your desire." So she invited the Elder 
to her house, provided him with food, and said to him, "Reverend 
Sir, your servant desires to become a monk; I will bring him to the 
monastery this evening." Having dismissed the Elder, she gathered 
her kinsfolk together and said to them, "This very day I shall render 
the honors appropriate to the occasion of my son's leaving the life 
of a layman." So she prepared rich gifts and taking the child to the 
monastery, committed him to the hands of the Elder, saying, "Rever- 
end Sir, admit this child to the Order." 

The Elder spoke to him of the diflSculties of the religious life. 
The boy replied, "I will carry out your admonitions. Reverend Sir." 
"Well then," said the Elder, "come!" So saying, he wetted his 
hair, taught him the Formula of Meditation on the first five of the 
constituent parts of the body, and received him into the Order. His 
mother and father remained at the monastery for seven days, making 
offerings consisting wholly of the choicest portions of redfish to the 
congregation of monks headed by the Buddha. Having so done, 
they returned home. 

On the eighth day the Elder took the novice with him to the 
village. He did not, however, accompany the monks. Why was this? 
Not yet had the novice acquired a pleasing manner of taking his bowl 
and robe; not yet had he acquired a pleasing manner of walking, 
standing, sitting, and lying. Besides, the Elder had duties to perform 
at the monastery. So when the congregation of monks had entered 
the village for alms, the Elder went the rounds of the entire monastery, 
swept the places that had not been swept, filled the empty vessels 
with water for drinking and refreshment, and restored to their proper 
places the beds, chairs, and other articles of furniture that had been 
tossed about in disorder. Having so done, he entered the village. [141] 
It was because he did not wish to give the heretics who might enter 
the empty monastery a chance to say, "Behold the habitations of 



186 Book 6, Story 5. Dhammapada 80 [N.2.1413- 

the disciples of the hermit Gotama!" that he set the entire monastery 
to rights before entering the village. Therefore on that particular day, 
having instructed the novice how to take his bowl and robe, he entered 
the village somewhat later than usual. 

As the novice proceeded with his preceptor he saw a ditch by the 
roadside. "What is that, Reverend Sir.'^" he asked. "That is called 
a ditch, novice." "What do they use it for.?" "They use it to lead 
the water this way and that, for irrigating their grain fields." "But, 
Reverend Sir, has the water reason or bile.?" "It has not, brother." 
"Reverend Sir, can they lead anything like this, which lacks reason, 
to whatever place they desire.?" "Yes, brother." The novice thought 
to himself, "If they can lead even such a thing as this, which lacks 
reason, to whatever place they wish, why cannot also they that have 
reason bring their own reason under control of their own will and 
strive for the attainment of Arahatship.?" 

Proceeding farther, he saw arrow-makers heating reeds and sticks 
over the fire and straightening them by sighting with them out of 
the corner of their eye. "What are these men. Reverend Sir.?" he 
asked. "They are arrow-makers, brother." "What are they doing?" 
"They are heating reeds and sticks over the fire and straightening 
them." "Have these reeds the power of reason. Reverend Sir?" 
"They are without the power of reason, [142] brother." The novice 
thought to himself, "If they can take these reeds, which are without 
the power of reason, and straighten them by heating them over the 
fire, why cannot also creatures who have reason bring their own reason 
under control and strive for the attainment of Arahatship?" 

Proceeding yet farther, he saw carpenters fashioning spokes, rims, 
naves, and other parts of wheels. "Reverend Sir, what are these 
men?" he asked. "These men are carpenters, brother." "What are 
they doing?" "Out of pieces of wood they make wheels and other 
parts of carts and other vehicles, brother." "But do these objects 
possess reason. Reverend Sir?" "No, brother, they are without the 
power of reason." Then this thought occurred to the novice, "If 
they can take these senseless logs of wood and make wheels and so 
forth out of them, why cannot also creatures who have the power 
of reason bring their own reason under control and strive for the attain- 
ment of Arahatship?" 

Having seen all these things, the novice said to the Elder, "Reverend 
Sir, if you will be so good as to take your bowl and robe, I should 
like to turn back." The Elder, not allowing himself to think, "This 



-N.2.1444] 



Pandita the novice 



187 



young novice who has but just been received into the Order addresses 
me as if I were a lesser Buddha," said, "Bring them, novice," and 
took his own bowl and robe. The novice paid obeisance to the Elder 
and turned back, saying, "Reverend Sir, when you bring me food, 
be kind enough to bring me only the choicest portions of redfish." 
"Where shall we get them, brother?" "Reverend Sir, if you cannot 
obtain them through your own merit, you will succeed in obtaining 
them through my merit." 

The Elder thought to himself, "Should this young novice sleep out 
of doors some danger may befall him." [143] Therefore he gave him 
a key and said to him, "Open the door of the cell where I reside, 
go in, and remain there." The novice did so. Sitting down, he strove 
to gain a knowledge of his own body and to master the thought of 
his own personality. Through the power of his virtue Sakka's seat 
showed signs of heat. Sakka considered within himself, "What can 
be the cause of this.?" and came to the following conclusion, "The 
novice Pandita has given his preceptor his bowl and robe and turned 
back, saying, 'I will strive for the attainment of Arahatship;' there- 
fore I also ought to go there." 

So Sakka addressed the Four Great Kings, saying, "Drive away 
the birds that make their homes in the monastery park and guard the 
approaches from all quarters." And he said to the moon-deity, 
"Hold back the disk of the moon;" and to the sun-deity, "Hold 
back the disk of the sun." Having so said, he went in person to the 
place where hung the rope for opening and closing the door and stood 
on guard. There was not so much as the sound of a withered leaf in 
the monastery. The novice's mind was tranquil, and in the course of 
his meal he mastered the thought of his own personality and ob- 
tained the Three Fruits. 

The Elder thought, "The novice is seated in the monastery, and I 
can obtain food in such and such a house to assist him in his prepara- 
tion." So he went to the house of a certain supporter, whose love and 
respect for him he well knew. Now the members of this household had 
obtained some redfish that very day and were seated, watching for 
the Elder to come. When they saw him coming, [144] they said to 
him, "Reverend Sir, those who came here have done you a good turn." 
And they invited him in, gave him broth and hard food, and presented 
him with alms consisting of the choicest portions of redfish. The 
Elder allowed the purpose of his visit to be known, whereupon the 
members of the household said to him, "Eat your meal. Reverend 



188 



Booh 6, Story 5. Dhammapada 80 [N. 2. 1444- 



Sir, and you shall also receive food to take with you." So when the 
Elder had finished his meal, they filled his bowl with food consisting 
of the choicest portions of redfish and gave it to him. The Elder, 
thinking to himself, "The novice must be hungry," hastened back t( 
the monastery with all speed. 

Very early on the morning of that day the Teacher ate his break- 
fast and went to the monastery. And he considered within himself, 
"The novice Pandita has given his preceptor his bowl and robe an( 
turned back, saying, *I will strive for the attainment of Arahatship. 
Will he reach the goal of his religious life.^^" Perceiving that he h{ 
attained the Three Fruits, he considered, " Is he or is he not predestined 
to attain Arahatship.^" Perceiving that he was, he considered, "Will 
he or will he not be able to attain Arahatship even before he has 
finished his breakfast .^^ " And straightway he perceived that he would. 
Then the following thought occurred to him, "Sariputta is hastening 
to the monastery with food for the novice and may perhaps inter- 
fere with his meditations. I will therefore sit down in the battlemented 
chamber on guard. When Sariputta arrives, I will ask him four ques- 
tions. While these questions are being answered, the novice will 
attain Arahatship, together with the Supernatural Faculties." 

So he went and took his stand in the battlemented chamber, and 
when the Elder arrived, the Teacher asked him four questions, each 
of which the Elder answered correctly. These were the questions 
and answers. [145] The Teacher asked Sariputta, "Sariputta, what 
have you brought.?" "Food, Reverend Sir." "What does food pro- 
duce, Sariputta.?" "Sensation, Reverend Sir." "What does sensa- 
tion produce, Sariputta.?" "Material form. Reverend Sir." "What 
does material form produce, Sariputta.?" "Contact, Reverend Sir." 

This is the meaning of these questions : When a hungry man eats 
food, the food banishes his hunger and brings a pleasurable sensation. 
As a result of the pleasurable sensation which comes to a man who is 
satisfied by the eating of food, his body takes on a beautiful color; 
and for this reason it is said that sensation produces material form. 
Now the man who is satisfied by the material form which is the prod- 
uct of the food he has eaten, that man is filled with joy and delight; 
and with the thought in his mind, "Now I have attained happiness," 
whether he lies down or sits down obtains pleasurable contact. 

While these four questions were being answered, the novice attained 
Arahatship, together with the Supernatural Faculties. Then the 
Teacher said to the Elder, "Go, Sariputta, give the food to your nov- 



-N.2.1482] 



Pandita the novice 



189 



ice." The Elder went and knocked at the door. The novice came 
out, took the bowl from the Elder's hands, set it aside, and began to 
fan the Elder with a palm-leaf fan. The Elder said to him, "Novice, 
eat your breakfast." "But you, Reverend Sir.?" "I have eaten 
my breakfast; you eat yours." Thus did a child seven years old, 
already a monk, on the eighth day, like a freshly blossomed water- 
lily, reflecting upon the subjects of self-examination, [146] sit down 
and eat his breakfast. 

When he had washed his bowl and put it away, the moon-deity 
released the moon and the sun-deity the sun; the Four Great Kings 
abandoned their watch over the four quarters; Sakka the king of the 
gods gave up his post at the rope of the door; and the sun vanished 
from mid-heaven and disappeared. 

The monks were annoyed and said, "Unwonted darkness has come 
on; the sun has disappeared from mid-heaven, and the novice has 
only just eaten his breakfast; what does this mean.?" The Teacher, 
aware of what they were saying, came and asked, "Monks, what are 
you saying.?" They told him. He repHed, "Yes, monks, while this 
novice, fruitful in good works, was striving for the attainment of 
Arahatship, the moon-deity held back the disk of the moon and the 
sun-deity the disk of the sun; the Four Great Kings stood on guard 
over the four quarters in the monastery park; Sakka king of the 
gods kept watch over the rope of the door, and I myself, although a 
Buddha, was unable to remain in an attitude of repose, but went to 
the battlemented chamber and stood guard over my son. Wise men 
who observe ditch-diggers leading the water, arrow-makers straight- 
ening their arrows, and carpenters fashioning wood meditate on these 
things, obtain the mastery over themselves, and attain Arahatship." 
[147] And joining the connection, he instructed them in the Law by 
pronouncing the following Stanza, 

80. Ditch-diggers lead the water, arrow-makers straighten their shafts. 
Carpenters straighten the wood; wise men control themselves. 



VI. 6. UNSHAKEN AS A ROCK ^ 

Even as a solid rock. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to the 
Elder Lakuntaka Bhaddiya. [148] 

1 Text: N ii. 148-149. 



190 Book 6, Story 7. Dhammapada 82 IN.2.1483- 

The story goes that certain novices and others yet unconverted, 
on seeing the Elder, used to pull his hair and tweak his ears and nose, 
saying, "Uncle, you tire not of Religion? You take delight in it?" 
But the Elder showed no resentment, took no offense. The monks 
discussed the matter in the Hall of Truth, saying, "Behold, brethren, 
when novices and others, seeing Elder Lakuntaka Bhaddiya, plague 
him thus and so, he shows no resentment, takes no offense." The 
Teacher came in and asked, "Monks, what are you talking about?" 
They told him. He replied, " Yes, monks, they that have rid themselves 
of the Depravities show no anger or resentment, but are unmoved, 
unshaken, like solid rock." So saying, he joined the connection, and 
instructing them in the Law, pronounced the following Stanza, 

81. Even as a solid rock is not moved by the wind. 
So wise men are not stirred by blame or praise. 



VI. 7. AFTER THE STORM, CALM ^ 

Even as a lake. This religious instruction was given by the Teacher 
while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to the Mother 
of Kana. The story is found in the Vinaya.^ [149] 

For at that time the Mother of Kana was forced to send her daughter 
to her husband's house empty-handed because on four different occa- 
sions she gave cakes she had fried to -four monks; and in accordance 
with the precept laid down by the Teacher in such cases, Kana's 
husband had taken to himseff another wife. When Kana learned the 
circumstances, she said to herself, "These monks have ruined my 
married life." And from that time on she reviled and abused every 
monk she saw. Indeed the monks did not dare to go into the street 
where she lived. 

The Teacher, knowing what had happened, went there. The Mother 
of Kana caused the Teacher to sit down in a seat already provided 
and gave him rice-porridge and hard food. After the Teacher had 
eaten his breakfast, he asked, "Where is Kana?" "Reverend Sir, 
when she saw you, she was troubled and is now weeping." "For what 
reason?" "Reverend Sir, [150] she has been reviling and abusing 

1 Derived from Jdtaka 137: i. 477-480. Text: N ii. 149-153. 

2 Vinaya, Pdcittiyay xxxiv. 1: iv. 78-79. By "the story" is meant so much of the 
story as is outlined in the sentence following. 



-N.2.1517] After the storm, calm 191 

the monks. Therefore when she saw you, she was troubled and is 
now weeping." 

The Teacher caused her to be summoned and said to her, "Kana, 
why was it that when you saw me you were troubled and hid yourself 
and wept.?" Then her mother told the Teacher what she had done. 
Said the Teacher to her, "But, Mother of Kana, did you give my 
disciples what they took, or did you not.?" "I gave them what they 
took, Reverend Sir." "If my disciples came to the door of your house 
while going their rounds for alms and accepted the alms which you 
gave them, what blame rests upon my disciples for so doing.? " "Their 
reverences are in no wise to blame, Reverend Sir; she alone is to 
blame." 

Turning to the daughter, the Teacher said, "Kana, I learn that my 
disciples came to the door of your house while they were going their 
rounds for alms and that your mother gave them some cakes; what 
blame rests upon my disciples for so doing.?" "Their reverences are 
in no wise to blame. Reverend Sir; she alone is to blame." Then 
Kana paid obeisance to the Teacher and begged him to forgive her. 
The Teacher preached the Law to her in orderly sequence, and she 
obtained the Fruit of Conversion. The Teacher then rose from his 
seat and set out for the monastery. 

On his way to the monastery he passed through the palace court. 
The king saw him and said to one of his courtiers, "That is the Teacher, 
is it not.?" "Yes, your majesty." So the king sent the courtier out, 
saying to him, "Go tell the Teacher that I am on my way to pay my 
respects to him." As the Teacher stood in the palace court, the king 
approached him, paid obeisance to him, and said, "Reverend Sir, 
where have you been.?" "I have been to the house of the Mother of 
Kana, your majesty." "Why did you go there, Reverend Sir.?" 
"I was informed that Kana was reviling the monks; it was for that 
reason that I went." "Did you put a stop to her abuse. Reverend 
Sir.?" "Yes, your majesty, she has ceased her abuse and has become 
mistress of wealth that transcends the world." [151] "Very well. 
Reverend Sir, you have made her mistress of wealth that transcends 
the world; I will make her mistress of the wealth that is in the world." 

So the king paid obeisance to the Teacher, returned to his palace, 
sent a great covered carriage for Kana, adorned her with all the adorn- 
ments, made her as his own oldest daughter, and proclaimed, "Let 
those who are able to support my daughter take her." Now a cer- 
tain great noble who was concerned with everything, replied, "Your 



192 



Booh 6, Story 7. Dhammapada 82 [N.2.1517- 



majesty, I am able to support the king's daughter." So saying, he 
took her to his home, endowed her with all his lordly power and wealth, 
and said to her, "Do works of merit according to your own good 
pleasure." 

Thenceforth, having posted men at the four doors, Kana ministered 
to all the monks and nuns who came to her house, seeking yet more, 
but failing to find them. Abundant supplies of food, both hard and 
soft, were always ready in Kana's house and flowed through her 
door like a great flood. 

The monks began a discussion in the Hall of Truth: "Long ago, 
brethren, four aged Elders offended Kana. But Kana, offended though 
she was, received the blessing of faith at the hands of the Teacher. 
The Teacher again made the door of her house worthy for the monks 
to approach. Now she cannot find as many monks and nuns as she 
would like to provide for. Oh, how wonderful is the power of the 
Buddhas!" The Teacher came in and asked them, "Monks, what is 
it you are sitting here now talking about.'^" [152] They told him. 
He replied, "Monks, this is not the first time those four aged Elders 
offended Kana; the same thing happened in a previous state of exist- 
ence also. This is not the first time I have persuaded Kana to obey 
my words; I did the same thing in a previous state of existence also." 
The monks desired to hear more about the matter. So at their request, 
the Teacher related the Babbu Jataka, as follows; 

Where one cat is found, there a second appears. 

And a third, and a fourth; this is the hole those cats sought. 

Having related the Jataka in detail, the Teacher identified the 
characters as follows, "At that time the four aged Elders were the 
four cats, the mouse was Kana, and the gem-cutter was I myself. 
Thus, monks, in times past also Kana, whose heart was sad and whose 
mind was turbid, became through my words possessed of a mind limpid 
as a lake of still water." And joining the connection, he instructed 
them in the Law by pronouncing the following Stanza, 

82. Even as a lake, deep, limpid, clear, 

So do wise men become calm after listening to the laws. 



-N. 2. 1552] 



A pack of vagabonds 



193 



VI. 8. A PACK OF VAGABONDS ^ 

Everywhere good men practice renunciation. This religious in- 
struction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at 
Jetavana with reference to five hundred monks. The story begins at 
Veranja. [153] 

For in the First Period of Enlightenment the Exalted One paid 
a visit to Veranja, and, at the invitation of the Brahman Veranja, 
went into residence there for the rainy season with five hundred 
monks. Now the Brahman Veranja came under the spell of Mara 
to such an extent that not for a single day did he give a thought to 
the Teacher. Moreover there was a famine in Veranja. The monks 
[154] went throughout and about Veranja for alms, but, receiving 
none, became exhausted. Thereupon horse-dealers provided them 
with steamed grain in pattha measures. Elder Moggallana the Great, 
seeing that they were exhausted, desired to feed them sap of the 
earth and sought permission for them to enter Uttarakuru for alms, 
but the Teacher refused his request. Not for a single day were the 
monks anxious about food, but continued to live entirely free from 
desire. 

After the Teacher had resided there for three months, he notified 
the Brahman Veranja of his intention to leave and the Brahman did 
him honor and reverence. The Teacher established him in the Refuges, 
and departed. After journeying from place to place, the Teacher 
reached Savatthi in due course at a certain time, and took up his 
residence at Jetavana. The residents of Savatthi presented food 
to the Teacher in honor of his arrival. 

Now at that time, by the kindness of the monks, five hundred 
eaters of refuse lived within the monastery inclosure. After eating 
remnants of choice food left by the monks, they would lie down to 
sleep. When they arose, they would go to the bank of the river and 
shout and jump and wrestle and play. Both within and without the 
monastery, they did nothing but misbehave. 

The monks discussed their actions in the Hall of Truth: [155] 
"Brethren, only look at those eaters of refuse! When there was a 
famine in Veranja, they were guilty of no impropriety. But now, 

^ Derived from Jdtaka 183 : ii. 95-97. The Jdtaka in turn is derived from the Vinaya, 
Pdrdjika, i. 1-4: iii. 1-11. Text: N ii. 153-157. 



194 



Book 6, Story 8, Dhammapada 83 [N.2.1552- 



after eating all sorts of choice food, they go about indulging in all 
manner of improprieties. But at Veraiija the monks lived peacefully 
and at the present time also they are living in peace and quiet." 

The Teacher entered the Hall of Truth and asked the monks what 
they were discussing. When they told him, he said, "In former times 
also these men were guilty of the same conduct. In former times, 
reborn as five hundred asses, they took leavings of liquor made of 
the moist juices of the grape, drunk by five hundred thoroughbreds of 
Sindh, and kneading the leavings with water and straining them 
through towels, they drank this juiceless, vile drink, called "strained 
water. " And straightway becoming as drunk as though they had drunk 
wine, they went about shouting. 

From drinking "strained water," a juiceless, vile drink, the asses became drunk. 
But the Sindh horses, which drank the choice liquor, did not become drunk. [156] 

O King, a low fellow who drinks but little, no sooner touches his drink than he is 

drunk. 
But a man who is well-bom and patient does not become drunk by drinking the 

finest liquor. 

Having related this Valodaka Jataka^ in detail, the Teacher said, 
"Thus, monks, good men, renouncing the evil principle of desire, are 
not subject to change in times of happiness or of sorrow." And join- 
ing the connection, he instructed them in the Law by pronouncing 
the following Stanza, 

83. Everywhere good men practice renunciation; good men talk not as if given to 
sensual pleasure; 
Wise men, touched either by happiness or by sorrow, show no change. [157] 



VI. 9. HUSBAND AND WIFE ^ 

Not for his own sake. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to 
the Elder Dhammika. 

In Savatthi, we are told, a certain lay disciple lived the life of 
a householder righteously and justly. Desiring to become a monk, 
he said to his wife one day as he sat chatting with her pleasantly, 
"Dear wife, I desire to become a monk." She replied, "Husband, 
wait [158] until I give birth to the child that is in my womb." He 



1 Jataka ISS: ii. 95-97. 



2 Cf. story xxiv. 4 a. Text: N ii. 157-159. 



-N. 2. 1603] Husband and wife 195 

waited until the child was old enough to walk and then asked her 
again. She replied, "Husband, wait until this child comes of age." 
So he said to himself, "What difference does it make to me whether 
she gives me her permission or not? I will secure Release from Suffer- 
ing for myself." 

Accordingly he retired from the world and became a monk. 
Having obtained a Subject of Meditation, by striving and struggling, 
he reached the consummation of his own religious life. Then he 
returned once more to Savatthi to see his family and preached the 
Law to his son. Thereupon his son retired from the world, became 
a monk, and in no long time attained Arahatship. His former wife 
thought to herself, "Both of those for whom I desired to live the 
household life, have become monks; what interest has this life for 
me any longer.^ I will become a nun." Accordingly she went forth 
and became a nun, and in no long time she also became an Arahat. 

One day the monks began a discussion in the Hall of Truth: "Our 
brother disciple Dhammika, because he was firmly established in 
the Law, after he had retired from the world, became a monk, and, 
attaining Arahatship, set an example for his son." The Teacher came 
in and asked, "Monks, what are you sitting here now talking about.^*" 
They told him. Said he, "Monks, a wise man should desire success 
neither for his own sake nor for the sake of another. [159] A righteous 
man should seek refuge only in the Law." And joining the connection 
and instructing them in the Law, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

84. Not for his own sake, not for the sake of another, should a man desire son or wealth 
or kingdom; 
He should not seek to gain success for himself by unjust means; so will he be 
upright, wise, and righteous. 



VI. 10. "FEW THERE BE THAT FIND IT"i 

Of all men there are few. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference 
to the subject of hearing the Law. 

We are told that the residents of a certain street in Savatthi 
banded themselves together, [160] gave alms in common, and deter- 
mined to spend the entire night in hearing the Law. But they were 
unable to listen to the Law all night long. Some were overcome with 

1 Text: N ii. 159-161. 



196 



Book 6, Story 11, Dhammapada 87-89 [N.2.I6O3- 



sexual passion and returned home again; others were overcome with 
hatred; others, falHng prey to sloth and torpor, sat down in their 
places, nodded, and failed to hear the Law. 

On the following day the monks heard of the incident and discussed 
it in the Hall of Truth. The Teacher came in and asked them, "Monks, 
what are you sitting here now talking about.?" They told him. 
"Monks, creatures here in this world are for the most part attached 
to existence, and live clinging to the three modes of existence. Those 
that go to the other shore are few in number." And joining the 
connection and instructing them in the Law, he pronounced the 
following Stanzas, 

85. Of all men there are few that go to the other shore; 
The rest of mankind merely run up and down the bank. 

86. But those who conform to the Law, when the Law is rightly preached, 

Those men will cross to the farther shore of the Kingdom of Death, hard to cross 
though it be. 



VI. n. ABANDON THE DARK STATE ^ 

Abandoning the dark state. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference 
to fifty visiting monks. [161] 

Fifty monks who had passed the rainy season in the kingdom of 
Kosala came to Jetavana at the close of the rainy season for the pur- 
pose of seeing the Teacher; and having paid obeisance to the Teacher, 
sat down respectfully on one side. The Teacher, after Hstening to 
the story of their experiences, instructed them in the Law by pro- 
nouncing the following Stanzas, 

87. Abandoning the dark state, the wise man should adopt the bright state. 
Leaving home, he should go forth to the homeless life. In solitude, where enjoy- 
ment is hard to find, [162] 

88. There he should seek enjoyment, by forsaking the lusts of the flesh, with nothing 

he may call his own; 
The wise man should rid himself of the impurities of the heart. 

89. Those whose minds have been well trained in the Seven Elements of Knowledge, 
Those who have freed themselves from Attachment, and rejoice in that freedom. 
Those who have rid themselves of the Contaminations, and are full of light, they 

have passed into Nibbana, even in this world. 

1 Text: N ii. 161-163. 



BOOK VII. THE ARAHAT, ARAHANTA VAGGA 

VII. I. THE TATHAGATA SUFFERS NOT ^ 

For him who has completed his journey. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jivaka's Mango- 
grove with reference to a question asked by Jivaka. The Story of 
Jivaka is related in detail in the Khandhaka.^ [164] 

Now on a certain occasion Devadatta joined forces with Ajatasattu, 
climbed Vulture Peak, and out of the wickedness of his heart, saying 
to himself, "I will kill the Teacher," hurled down a rock. Two 
mountain crags caught the rock and splintered it; but one of the 
flying pieces struck the foot of the Exalted One and caused blood to 
flow. The Teacher suffered intense pains and was removed by the 
monks to Maddakucchi. Desiring to go on to Jivaka's Mango-grove, 
the Teacher said to the monks, "Carry me thither." So the monks 
took the Teacher and carried him to Jivaka's Mango-grove. 

When Jivaka heard the news, he immediately went to the Teacher 
and to heal the wound [165] applied an astringent. Then he bound 
up the wound and said to the Teacher, "Reverend Sir, I have a patient 
in the city. As soon as I have visited him, I will return. Let this 
dressing remain exactly as it is until I return." So saying, Jivaka 
went and treated his patient. But the gate was closed when he 
returned, and he was therefore unable to enter. Thereupon the 
following thought occurred to him, "I have committed a grievous 
fault. I applied an astringent to the foot of the Tathagata and bound 
up his wound, just as I should have bound up the wound of any other 
man. It is now time to remove the bandage. For if the bandage 
remains unbound all night long, the Exalted One will suffer intense 
pain." 

At that moment the Teacher addressed the Elder Ananda, 
"Ananda, Jivaka returned late in the evening and was unable to enter 
the gate. This was the thought in his mind, *Now it is time to remove 

1 Text: N ii. 164-166. 

2 Vinaya, Mahd Vagga^ viii. 1: i. 268-281. 



198 Booh 7, Story 2, Dhammapada 91 [N.2.i65i3- 

the bandage.' Therefore remove the bandage." The Elder removed 
the bandage, whereupon the scar disappeared like bark from a tree. 
At early dawn Jivaka hastened to the Teacher's side and asked, 
"Reverend Sir, did you suffer intense pain.?" Said the Teacher, 
"Jivaka, all suffering is extinguished for the Tathagata, even as when 
he sat on the Throne of Enlightenment." And joining the connection 
and preaching the Law, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

90. For him who has completed his journey, for him who is free from sorrow. 
For him who has freed himself from the bonds which beset him on all sides. 
For him who has shaken off all the fetters, for such a one, no suffering is possible. 



VII. 2. FREE FROM ATTACHMENT ^ 

They that are mindful, exert themselves. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Veluvana with 
reference to the Elder Kassapa the Great. [167] 

For on a certain occasion, after keeping residence during the 
season of the rains at Rajagaha, the Teacher caused the following 
announcement to be made to the monks, "At the expiration of a 
fortnight the Teacher will go forth on a pilgrimage for alms." We 
are told that this is a practice of the Buddhas when they desire 
to go forth on an alms-pilgrimage with the monks. The following 
consideration presents itself to their minds, "Under these circum- 
stances the monks will scald their bowls and dye their robes and will 
make the pilgrimage pleasantly." This, then, was the reason why 
the Teacher caused the announcement to be made to the monks, 
"At the expiration of a fortnight I will go forth on a pilgrimage for 
alms." 

But while the monks were scalding their bowls and dyeing their 
robes, the Elder Kassapa the Great washed his robes. The monks 
were offended at this and said, "Why does the Elder wash his robes.? 
Within and without this city dwell a hundred and eighty million 
people. So many of these as are not the Elder's kinsfolk are his 
supporters; and so many as are not his supporters are his kinsfolk. 
All these people show honor and reverence to the Elder by providing 
him with the Four Requisites. If he rejects all their good offices, 
where will he go? Even were he to go, he would not go farther than 

1 Text: N ii. 167-170. 



■N.2.1699] 



Free from attachment 



199 



Mapamada Cave." (Mapamada Cave, by the way, acquired its 
name in the following way: Whenever the Teacher reached this 
cave, he would say to the monks who were to return, "Now you may 
return; be not heedless, ma pamajjittha." Thus this cave came to 
be called Mapamada Cave.) 

Likewise the Teacher thought as he set out on his pilgrimage, [168] 
"Within and without this city dwell a hundred and eighty million 
people, and on occasions of public festivals or disasters, there the 
monks must go. It is therefore out of the question to leave the 
monastery empty. But shall I direct all of them to return.?" Then 
the following thought occurred to him, "These people are either kins- 
folk or retainers of Kassapa; therefore it is Kassapa whom I should 
direct to return." Accordingly he said to the Elder, "Kassapa, it is 
out of the question to leave the monastery empty, for there is need of 
monks on occasions of public festivals or disasters; therefore take 
your own retinue with you and return." "Very well. Reverend 
Sir," replied the Elder and taking his own retinue with him, he 
returned. 

The monks were offended at this and said, "Did you observe, 
brethren .f^ Did we not just say, *Why is Kassapa the Great washing 
his robes.? He will not accompany the Teacher.' Everything has 
happened just as we said it would." When the Teacher heard the 
talk of the monks, he turned around, stood still, and said, "Monks, 
what is this you are saying.?" "We are talking about Elder Kassapa 
the Great, Reverend Sir," replied the monks, and then repeated their 
conversation word for word. The Teacher listened to what they had 
to say and then replied, "Monks, you say, * Kassapa is attached to 
his households and his requisites.' As a matter of fact, he turned 
back because it was his desire to obey my command. For in a previous 
state of existence he made an Earnest Wish and became, like the 
moon, free from attachment. He made the Earnest Wish, *May I 
be able to approach the households of supporters.' [169] Kassapa 
has no attachment for a household or a requisite. Beginning with 
Kassapa, I preached to all a Path like that of the moon, the Path of 
the Stock of the Elect." 

The monks asked the Teacher, "Reverend Sir, when did the Elder 
make his Earnest Wish.?" "Monks, do you wish to hear.?" "Yes, 
Reverend Sir." Said the Teacher to them, "Monks, a hundred thou- 
sand cycles of time in the past, the Buddha Padumuttara appeared in 
the world." Beginning with these words, the Teacher related the 



200 



Book 7, Story 3. Dhammapada 92 IN.2.1699- 



whole story of the Elder's deed in a previous state of existence, begin- 
ning with his Earnest Wish in the dispensation of the Buddha Padu- 
muttara. (The story is related in detail in the Sacred Text of the 
Elders.)^ When the Teacher had related in detail this deed of the 
Elder in a previous state of existence, he said, "Thus, monks, begin- 
ning with my son Kassapa, I preached to all a Path like that of the 
moon, the Path of the Stock of the Elect. My son has no attachment 
for requisites or households or monasteries or cells. My son has no 
attachment anywhere, but is like a royal goose which goes down into 
a lake and swims therein and abides therein." And joining the con- 
nection and preaching the Law, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

91. They that are mindful, exert themselves, they take not pleasure in an abode; 
As geese leave a lake, so also do they leave house and home. 



VII. 3. A MONK STORES FOOD ^ 

They that possess not stores of food. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to Venerable Belatthisisa. [171] 

The story goes that this Venerable Elder, finding it annoying to 
seek alms regularly, made a round for alms through one street in a 
village, and after eating his breakfast, made another round through 
a second street, taking boiled rice without sauce or curry, carrying it 
to the monastery and storing it away. After spending a few days in 
the bliss of Ecstatic Meditation, he had need of the food and therefore 
ate it. When the monks found out what he had done, they were 
offended and reported the matter to the Exalted One. On this occa- 
sion the Teacher promulgated the rule forbidding monks to store 
away food for future use. But since the Elder committed the fault 
before the rule had been promulgated, and because he was satisfied 
with but little, the Teacher declared him to be free from guilt. And 
joining the connection and preaching the Law, he pronounced the 
following Stanza, 

92. They that possess not stores of food, they that know their food aright. 
They whose resort is the Void, the Uncaused, Deliverance, 
Their going is hard to follow, like the flight of birds through the air. 

^ Cf. Thera-Gdthd Commentary^ cclxi, and Ahguttara Comm£ntary on Etadagga 
Vagga, Story of Mahd Kassapa, p. 100. 

2 Derived from the Vinayay Padttiya, xxxviii. 1: iv. 86-87. Text: N ii. 170-173. 



-N.2. 17417] 



The monk and the goddess 



201 



VII. 4. THE MONK AND THE GODDESS ^ 

Ee who has rid himself of the Contaminations. This religious 
instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at 
Veluvana with reference to the Elder Anuruddha. [173] 

For one day, the Elder, whose robes were worn out, was seeking 
fresh robes on refuse-heaps and in other similar places. Now in the 
Elder's third previous existence he had a wife who had been reborn 
in the World of the Thirty-three as the goddess Jalini. When the 
goddess Jalini saw the Elder seeking cloths for robes, she resolved to 
aid him. So taking three celestial cloths thirteen cubits long and four 
cubits wide, and thinking to herself, "If I display these cloths in this 
manner, the Elder will not take them," she went to a certain refuse- 
heap in front of the heap where the Elder was seeking cloths and laid 
them down in such a way that only the hems were visible. [174] 

As the Elder proceeded on his way seeking cloths, he saw the hems 
of the celestial garments, whereupon he took hold of them and pulled 
them out. When he saw that they possessed the dimensions above 
described, he said to himself, "This indeed is a most remarkable refuse- 
heap!" And taking them with him, he went his way. On the day 
he was to make his robes, the Teacher, accompanied by his retinue of 
^we hundred monks, went to the monastery and sat down; likewise 
did the eighty Chief Elders sit down there also. For the purpose of 
sewing the robes. Elder Kassapa the Great sat at the foot. Elder 
Sariputta in the midst, and Elder Ananda at the head. The company 
of monks spun out the thread, the Teacher threaded the needle, and 
Elder Moggallana the Great went hither and thither supplying what- 
ever else might be needed. 

The goddess entered the village and incited the inhabitants to 
give alms, saying, "They are making robes for my noble Elder Anu- 
ruddha. The Teacher, surrounded by the eighty Chief Disciples, 
and accompanied by his retinue of five hundred monks, has gone to 
the monastery and sat down therein. Take rice-porridge and other 
provisions and go to the monastery." During the meal Elder Mog- 
gallana the Great brought large pieces of rose-apple, but the five hun- 
dred monks were unable to eat it. Sakka drew a circle about the 
place where they were making the robes; the earth was as if dyed with 

* Text: N ii. 173-175. 



202 Book 7, Story 4- Dhammapada 93 [N.2.17417- 

lac; there was a great heap of food both soft and hard remaining over 
and above to the monks who had eaten. 

The monks were offended, and said, [175] "Why should such a 
quantity of food be provided for so few monks? Judging by the quan- 
tity, Anuruddha's kinsfolk and retainers must have been told, 'Bring 
this quantity.' Elder Anuruddha doubtless wishes to show how many 
relatives and supporters he has." The Teacher asked the monks 
what they were talking about. When they told him, he said, "But, 
monks, you do not think that this was brought by any orders of 
Anuruddha, do you.^^" "Yes, Reverend Sir; we do." "Monks, my 
son Anuruddha does not talk thus. They that have rid themselves 
of the Depravities do not spend their time talking about Requisites; 
nay, these provisions were produced by the supernatural power of a 
goddess." And joining the connection and preaching the Law, he 
pronounced the following Stanza, 

93. He who has rid himself of the Contaminations, he who relies not upon food. 
He whose resort is the Void, the Uncaused, Deliverance, 
His going is hard to follow, like the flight of birds through the air. 



VII. 5. SAKKA HONORS A MONK ^ 

If a marCs senses. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Pubbarama with reference to 
Elder Kaccayana the Great. [176] 

For once upon a time, on the occasion of the terminal festival, the 
Exalted One sat on the ground floor of the mansion of the Mother of 
Migara, surrounded by a company of eminent lay disciples. At this 
time Elder Kaccayana the Great resided in the Avanti country. 
Now this Venerable Elder, although obliged to come from a great 
distance, regularly attended the preaching of the Law. Therefore, 
when the Chief Elders sat down, they always left a seat for Elder 
Kaccayana the Great. 

Sakka king of gods drew near with his celestial retinue from the 
two Worlds of Gods, and honored the Teacher with celestial perfumes 
and garlands. Not seeing Elder Kaccayana the Great, he thought to 
himself, "Why is my noble Elder nowhere seen.^^ It would be well if 
he were to draw near." At that very moment the Elder drew near, 

1 Text: N ii. 176-177. 



-N .2.17810] Sakka honors a monk 203 

and showed himself sitting in his proper seat. When Sakka saw the 
Elder, he grasped him firmly by the ankles and said, "It is indeed 
well that my noble Elder has come; that my noble Elder should come, 
was the very thing I wished for." So saying, he rubbed the Elder's 
feet with both hands, honored him with perfumes and garlands, 
and having paid obeisance to him, stood respectfully on one side. 

The monks were offended and said, [177] "Sakka shows respect 
of persons in rendering honor. Such honor as this, he has not rendered 
to the rest of the Chief Disciples. The moment he saw Kaccayana 
the Great, he grasped him by the ankles and said, *It is indeed well 
that my noble Elder has come; that my noble Elder should come, 
was the very thing I wished for.' So saying, he rubbed the Elder's 
feet with both hands, honored him with perfumes and garlands, and 
having paid obeisance to him, stood respectfully on one side." The 
Teacher, hearing their talk, said, "Monks, those monks who, like my 
son Kaccayana the Great, keep the doors of their senses guarded, are 
beloved both of gods and men." So saying, he joined the connection, 
and preaching the Law, pronounced the following Stanza, 

94. If a man's senses have been brought to a state of tranquillity. 
Like horses well broken in by a charioteer. 
If he has put away pride, if he is free from the Contaminations, 
For such a man the gods cherish deep affection. 



VII. 6. A FANCIED SLIGHT ^ 

Like the earth, he is not troubled. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to Elder Sariputta. [178] 

For once upon a time, at the conclusion of the rains. Elder Sari- 
putta, desiring to go forth on an alms-pilgrimage, took leave of the 
Teacher, paid obeisance to him, and departed with his own retinue. 
Many other monks took leave of the Elder. In dismissing the monks 
the Elder mentioned the personal and family name of all of the monks 
who were known by personal and family names. A certain monk 
who was not known by a personal and family name said, "Oh, that 
the Elder would greet me by a personal and family name in dis- 
missing me." But in the great throng of monks the Elder did not 

1 This story is derived from Anguttaray iv. 37314-3785. Text: N ii. 178-182. 



204 



Booh 7, Story 6, Dhammapada 95 [N.2.l78ii- 



notice him. Thereupon the monk said to himself, "He does not greet 
me as he does the other monks," and straightway conceived a grudge 
against the Elder. 

Besides that, the hem of the Elder's garment brushed against the 
monk, and this also served to intensify the hatred the monk felt 
towards the Elder. So soon as he knew that the Elder had passed 
beyond the entrance to the monastery, he approached the Teacher 
and said to him, "Reverend Sir, Venerable Sariputta, doubtless think- 
ing to himself, *I am your Chief Disciple,' struck me a blow that al- 
most broke the chain of my ear. Having so done, without so much as 
begging my pardon, he set out on his alms-pilgrimage." The Teacher 
caused the Elder to be summoned. Thereupon Elder Moggallana 
the Great and Elder Ananda thought to themselves, "The Teacher 
does not know that our oldest brother did not really strike this monk; 
the Elder will of course roar a lion's roar." [179] Accordingly they 
decided to convoke an assembly. With key in hand, they opened the 
doors of the cells, saying, "Approach, Venerable Sirs! Approach, 
Venerable Sirs! So soon as Venerable Sariputta is face to face with 
the Exalted One, he will roar the roar of a lion." So saying, they con- 
voked a full assembly of the monks. 

Elder Sariputta came with the rest, saluted the Teacher, and sat 
down respectfully on one side. When the Teacher questioned him 
about the incident, the Elder, instead of saying, "I did not strike that 
monk," recited his own virtues. Said he, "Reverend Sir, in case any 
monk has not meditated on the body, he should here find a com- 
panion-monk and forsaking him not, go forth on pilgrimage." Then 
he said, "Reverend Sir, it is as when they cast on the earth what is 
clean and then cast on the earth what is unclean." He compared 
his own tranquillity of mind to that of the earth, to that of the severed 
horns of a bull, to that of a Candala youth, to water, fire, wind, 
removal of impurity; he compared the oppression he suffered through 
his own body to the oppression of snakes and corpses; he compared 
the maintenance of his own body to that of protuberances of fat. As 
the Elder described his own virtues in terms of these nine similes, the 
great earth shook, nine times in succession, to its ocean boundary. 
As he employed the similes of the removal of impurity, the Candala 
youth, and the protuberances of fat, those monks who had not yet 
attained the Fruit of Conversion were unable to restrain their tears; 
while those who had attained Arahatship were filled with religious 
emotion. 



■N.2. 18216 



A fancied slight 



205 



As the Elder recited his own virtues, [180] remorse pervaded the 
whole body of the monk who had unjustly slandered him. And 
straightway he fell at the feet of the Exalted One, admitted that he 
was guilty of slander, and confessed his fault. The Teacher address- 
ing the Elder, said, "Sariputta, pardon this deluded man, lest his head 
split into seven pieces." Thereupon the Elder crouched before the 
monk, and extending his clasped hands in an attitude of reverence, 
said to him, "Reverend Sir, I freely pardon this Venerable monk. 
Let this Venerable monk also pardon me if I have in any way offended 
against him." Thereupon the monks said, "Behold, brethren, the 
surpassing goodness of the Elder! He cherishes neither anger nor 
hatred against this lying, slanderous monk. Instead, he crouches 
before him, extends his hands in an attitude of reverence, and asks 
his pardon." When the Teacher heard the talk of the monks, he said, 
"Monks, what are you talking about.?" When they told him, he 
said, "Monks, it is impossible for Sariputta and his like to cherish 
anger or hatred. Sariputta's mind is like the great earth, like a 
threshold, like a pool of still water." So saying, [181] he joined 
the connection, and preaching the Law, pronounced the following 
Stanza, 

95. Like the earth, he is not troubled; like a threshold, such is the virtuous; 

He is like a pool of water free from mud. The rounds of existence do not exist 
for such a man. 



VIL7. THE LOSS OF AN EYE ^ 

His thoughts are calm. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to a 
novice of the Elder Tissa. [182] 

The story goes that a certain youth of station, residing at Kosambi, 
retired from the world and became a monk in the Religion of the 
Teacher. After making his full profession, he was known as Elder 
Kosambivasi Tissa. After he had kept residence during the season 
of the rains at Kosambi, his supporter brought a set of three robes 
and offerings of ghee and jagghery and laid them at his feet. Said 
the Elder to him, "What are these, lay disciple.?" "Reverend Sir, 
have you not kept residence with me during the season of the rains? 



1 Text: N ii. 182-186. 



206 Book 7, Story 7 Dhammapada 96 [N.2.i82i6- 

Those who keep residence in our monastery always receive these 
offerings; pray accept them, Reverend Sir." "Never mind, lay dis- 
ciple, I have no need of them." "Why is that. Reverend Sir.?" "I 
have no novice to perform the usual offices for me, brother." "Rev- 
erend Sir, if it be true that you have no novice to minister to your 
needs, my son will become your novice." The Elder graciously ac- 
cepted the offer. The lay disciple brought his own son, but seven 
years old, to the Elder, and committed him into the Elder's hands, 
saying, "Pray receive him into the Order, Reverend Sir." The Elder 
moistened the boy's hair, taught him the Formula of Meditation on 
the first five of the Constituent Parts of the Body, [183] and received 
him into the Order. The instant the razor touched his hair, he at- 
tained Arahatship, together with the Supernatural Faculties. 

The Elder, having received the youth into the Order, remained 
there for a fortnight. Then, deciding to visit the Teacher, he directed 
the novice to take the requisites, and set out on his journey. On the 
way he entered a certain monastery. The novice obtained lodging for 
the Elder and looked after it for him. While he was thus engaged, 
it grew dark and he was therefore unable to provide a lodging for 
himself. When the time came for the novice to wait upon the Elder, 
the novice approached the Elder and sat down. The Elder asked the 
novice, "Novice, have you not neglected to provide yourself with 
lodging.'^" "Reverend Sir, I have had no opportunity to look after a 
lodging for myself." "Well then, remain with me. It will inconven- 
ience you to lodge outside in the place reserved for visitors." So say- 
ing, the Elder taking him with him, entered his own lodging. Now 
the Elder had not yet attained the Fruit of Conversion, and as soon 
as he lay^down, fell asleep. Thereupon the novice thought to himself, 
"To-day is the third day during which I have occupied the same 
lodging with my preceptor. If I lie down to sleep the Elder will 
commit the offense of sleeping in common. Therefore I will spend the 
night sitting up." So assuming a cross-legged posture near the bed of 
his preceptor, he spent the night sitting up. 

The Elder rose at dawn and said to himself, "I must cause the 
novice to go out." So he took a fan which was placed at the side of 
the bed, struck the mat of the novice with the tip of the palm-leaf, 
and then, tossing the fan into the air, said, [184] "Novice, go out." 
The handle of the fan struck the novice in the eye and straightway 
put out his eye. "What did you say. Reverend Sir.?" said the novice. 
"Rise and go out," was the reply. The novice, instead of saying. 



-N.2. 18516] The loss of an eye 207 

"Reverend Sir, my eye has been put out," covered his eye with one 
hand and went out. Moreover, when it was time for him to perform 
his duties as novice, he did not say, "My eye has been put out," nor 
did he remain seated, but covering his eye with one hand and taking 
a hand-broom in the other hand, he swept out the privy and the 
wash-room, after which, setting out water for washing the face, he 
swept out the Elder's cell. 

When he advanced to present the toothstick to the Elder, he pre- 
sented it to him with only one hand. His preceptor said to him, "This 
novice is not properly trained. Is it proper for a novice to present a 
toothstick to teachers and preceptors with one hand.^^" "Reverend 
Sir, I know perfectly well what is the proper form, but one of my hands 
is not disengaged." "What is the matter, novice.f*" Then the novice 
told him the whole story, beginning at the beginning. When the 
Elder heard his story, he was deeply moved and said to himself, "Oh, 
what a grievous thing I have done!" Then he said to the novice, 
"Pardon me, most excellent youth; I did not know this. Be my refuge." 
And extending his clasped hands in an attitude of reverent salutation, 
he crouched on the ground before the feet of a seven-year-old novice. 
Then said the novice to him, "It was not for this purpose, Reverend 
Sir, that I spoke. [185] I said this for the purpose of sparing your 
feelings. You are not to blame in this matter and neither am I. 
The round of existences alone is to blame for this.^ It was because 
I wished to spare you remorse that I did not tell you the real facts." 

The novice tried to comfort the Elder, but he would not be com- 
forted. Overcome with remorse, he took the novice's requisites and 
proceeded to the Teacher. As the Teacher sat, he observed him 
approaching. The Elder went to the Teacher, saluted him, and 
exchanged friendly greetings with him. The Teacher asked him, 
"Monk, is everything well with you.^ I trust that you have suffered 
no excessive discomfort." The Elder replied, "All is well with me. 
Reverend Sir. I have suffered no excessive discomfort. But here is 
a young novice whose good qualities surpass anything I have ever 
seen." "Why, what has he done, monk.^" Thereupon the Elder told 
him the whole story, beginning at the beginning and concluding as 
follows, "Reverend Sir, when I asked him to pardon me, he said this 
to me, *You are not to blame in this matter and neither am I. The 
round of existences alone is to blame for this. Be not disturbed*' 

1 Cf . Story ix. 10. 



208 Book 7, Story 8, Dhammapada 97 [N.2.i85i6- 

Thus he tried to comfort me, appearing to cherish neither anger nor 
hatred towards me. His good quaHties surpass anything I have ever 
seen." Said the Teacher to the Elder, "Monk, those who have rid 
themselves of the Depravities cherish neither anger nor hatred towards 
anyone. On the contrary, their senses are in a state of calm and their 
thoughts are in a state of calm." So saying, he joined the connection 
and preaching the Law, pronounced the following Stanza, 

96. His thoughts are calm, his speech is calm, his deeds are calm; 

Such is the calm of one who has obtained Deliverance by Right Knowledge. 



VII. 8. NOT BY THE FAITH OF ANOTHER ' 

That man who is free from credulity. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to Elder Sariputta. [186] 

For one day thirty forest-dwellers approached the Teacher, paid 
obeisance to him, and sat down. The Teacher, seeing that they pos- 
sessed the requisite faculties for attaining Arahatship, addressed Elder 
Sariputta as follows, "Sariputta, do you believe that the quality of 
faith, when it has been developed and enlarged, is connected with 
the Deathless and terminates in the Deathless .f^" In this manner the 
Teacher questioned the Elder with reference to the Five Moral 
Qualities. 

Said the Elder, "Reverend Sir, I do not go by the faith of the Ex- 
alted One in this matter, that the quality of faith, when it has been 
developed and enlarged, is connected with the Deathless and terminates 
in the Deathless. But of course, Reverend Sir, those who have not 
known the Deathless or seen or perceived or realized or grasped the 
Deathless by the power of reason, such persons [187] must of necessity 
go by the faith of others in this matter; namely, that the faculty of 
faith, when it has been developed and enlarged, is connected with the 
Deathless and terminates in the Deathless." Thus did the Elder 
answer his question. 

When the monks heard this, they began a discussion: "Elder 
Sariputta has never really given up false views. Even to-day he 
refused to believe even the Supremely Enlightened One." When the 
Teacher heard this, he said, "Monks, why do you say this.f^ For I 

1 Text: N ii. 186-188. 



-N.2. 18817] 



Not by the faith of another 



209 



asked Sariputta the following question, *Sariputta, do you believe 
that without developing the Five Moral Qualities, without develop- 
ing Tranquillity and Spiritual Insight, it is possible for a man to realize 
the Paths and the Fruits?' And he answered me as follows, * There 
is no one who can thus reahze the Paths and the Fruits.' Then I 
asked him, *Do you not beHeve that there is such a thing as the ripen- 
ing of the fruit of almsgiving and good works? Do you not believe 
in the virtues of the Buddhas and the rest?' But as a matter of fact, 
Sariputta walks not by the faith of others, for the reason that he has, 
in and by hhnself , attained states of mind to which the Paths and the 
Fruits lead, by the power of Spiritual Insight induced by Ecstatic 
Meditation. Therefore he is not open to censure." So saying, he 
joined the connection, and preaching the Law, pronounced the follow- 
ing Stanza, 

97. That man who is free from creduhty, who knows the Uncreate, who has brought 
rebirth to an end. 
Who has put an end to every occasion of good and evil, who has renounced all 
desires, that man is the greatest of men. 



VII. 9. ELDER REVATA OF THE ACACIA FOREST ^ 

In a village. This religious instruction was given by the Teacher 
while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to the Elder 
Khadiravaniya Revata. [188] 



9 a. Revata becomes a monk 

When the Venerable Sariputta renounced eighty-seven crores of 
treasure and became a monk, three sisters of his, Cala, Upacala, and 
Sisupacala, and two brothers, Cauda and Upasena, entered the 
Religious Life and the youth Revata alone remained at home. His 

^ This story is made up of three independent stories, with a fourth story implied. 
In 9 a (text: ii. 188^^-192^) Revata becomes a monk and retires to the forest. Parallels: 
Thera-Gdthd Commentary, xlii; Anguttara Commentary on Etadagga Vagga, Story of 
Revata. In 9 b (text: ii. 192^-195^3) ^j^^ Buddha visits Revata, and the monks are 
entertained by forest-spirits through Sivali's merit. Parallels: Thera-Gdthd Com- 
mentary, Ix; Anguttara Commentary on Etadagga Vagga, Story of Slvali. 9 c (text: ii. 
196-200) is the story of Sivali's past deeds. Parallels: Jdtaka 100: i. 409; Anguttara 
Commentary on Etadagga Vagga, Story of Slvali. For the story of Sivali's birth, see 
Dhammapada Commentary, xxvi. 31; Uddna, ii. 8: 15-18; Jdtaka 100: i. 407-408; 
Thera-Gdthd Commentary, Ix; Anguttara Commentary on Etadagga Vagga, Story of 
Sivali. Text: N ii. 188-200. 



210 Book 7, Story 9, Dhammapada 98 [N.2.I8817- 

mother thought to herself, [189] "My son Upatissa has renounced 
all this wealth and become a monk; three sisters of his and two 
brothers of his have entered the Religious Life; Revata alone remains 
at home. Should he make a monk of Revata also, all this wealth will 
be lost and the family stock will be uprooted. I will get him married 
while he is yet a mere boy." 

On his return the Elder Sariputta addressed the monks as follows, 
"Brethren, should Revata come here desiring to become a monk, you 
are to make a monk of him the moment he arrives; my mother and 
father hold false views; why should their permission be asked .^^ I 
myself am Revata's mother and father." 

When the boy Revata was only seven years old, his mother made 
preparations for his marriage. She selected a girl of good family, 
appointed a day for the wedding, adorned the boy with handsome 
garments and costly ornaments, and accompanied by a large retinue, 
accompanied him to the house of the girl's parents. The kinsfolk of 
both parties were present at the festivities, and placing their hands 
in a bowl of water, pronounced blessings and wished them prosperity, 
saying to the bride, "May you behold the Truth your grandmother 
beheld; may you live long, even as your grandmother." 

The youth Revata thought to himself, "What do they mean by 
'the Truth her grandmother beheld'.^" And he asked them, "Which 
woman is her grandmother.^^" They said to him, "Sir, do you not 
see that woman a hundred and twenty years old with broken teeth 
and gray hair, [190] full of wrinkles, her body marked with moles, 
crooked as a A-shaped rafter .^^ That is her grandmother." "But 
will my wife look like that some day.?" "Sir, she will if she lives." 
Revata thought to himself, "Can it be that even so beautiful a body 
as that of my wife will so change for the worse through old age.^^ This 
must be what my brother Upatissa saw. This very day it behooves 
me to run away and become a monk." 

Kinsmen assisted the youth and his bride to enter a carriage, and 
they started out all together. When they had gone a little way, Revata 
informed them that he wished to relieve himself and said, "Just stop 
the carriage and I will step out and return immediately." He stepped 
out of the carriage, went into a certain thicket, remained there a 
little while, and then returned. A second and a third time he made 
the same excuse, stepped down from the carriage, and climbed back 
again. His kinsmen made up their minds, "Doubtless these calls of 
nature are habitual with him," and therefore did not keep close watch 



-N.2.1927] 



Elder Revata of the acacia forest 



211 



of him. When they had gone a httle way farther, he made the same 
excuse, stepped down out of the carriage, and saying, "You drive on 
ahead; I will follow after you slowly," disappeared in the direction 
of a thicket. When his kinsmen heard him say, "I will follow after 
you," they drove on ahead. [191] 

Now in this region lived thirty monks; and when Revata had 
made good his escape, he went to them, paid obeisance to them, and 
said, "Reverend Sirs, receive me into the Order." "Brother, you are 
adorned with all the adornments; we know not whether you are a 
king's son or a courtier's son; how can we receive you into the Order? " 
"Don't you recognize me. Reverend Sirs.?" "We do not, brother." 
"I am the youngest brother of Upatissa." "Who is this 'Upatissa'.?" 
"It is just as I say. Reverend Sirs; the reverend monks call my 
brother *Sariputta,' and therefore do not know who is meant when 
the name * Upatissa' is mentioned." "Why, are you the youngest 
brother of Sariputta.?" "Yes, Reverend Su-." "Well then, come! 
This is the very thing your brother enjoined upon us." So they re- 
moved his jewels, received him into the Order, and sent word to the 
Elder. 

When the Elder received the message, he said to the Exalted One, 
"Reverend Sir, since the forest-monks have sent me word, * Revata 
has been received into the Order,' I should like to go and see him and 
then return." The Teacher withheld his permission, saying to him, 
"Remain here for the present, Sariputta." But after a few days the 
Elder made the same request, and the Teacher withheld his per- 
mission as before, saying, "Remain here for the present, Sariputta; 
we will go there together later." 

The novice said to himself, "If I continue to reside here, [192] 
my kinsmen will follow me and summon me to return home." There- 
fore he obtained from the monks a Formula of Meditation as far as 
Arahatship, took bowl and robe, and set out on his alms-pilgrimage. 
After journeying a distance of thirty leagues he came to an acacia 
forest, and there he took up his residence for the season of the rains. 
Before the three months of the rainy season had passed, he attained 
Arahatship together with the Supernatural Faculties. 



9 b. The Buddha visits Revata 

After the terminal festival the Elder Sariputta again requested 
the Teacher to permit him to go to his brother. The Teacher said. 



212 Book 7, Story 9. Dhammapada 98 [N.2.1927- 

"We too will go, Sariputta," and set out with five hundred monks. 
When they had gone a little way, the Elder Ananda, standing at a 
fork in the road, said to the Teacher, "Reverend Sir, there are two 
roads to the place where Revata resides: one is protected and is 
sixty leagues long and men live thereon; the other is a direct route, 
thirty leagues long, infested by evil spirits; which one shall we take?" 
"Well, Ananda, did Sivali accompany us?" "Yes, Reverend Sir." 
"If Sivali is with us, take the direct route by all means." We are told 
that the Teacher did not say, "I will see to it that you are provided 
with broth and rice; take the short route," because he knew within 
himself, "This is the place where each of these monks will receive 
gifts that are the fruit of a work of merit;" therefore he said, "If 
Sivali is with us, take the direct route." 

As soon as the Teacher set foot on that road, the forest-deities, 
thinking to themselves, "We will do honor to the noble Elder Sivali," 
erected rest-houses a league apart, all along the route; and permitting 
the monks to go no farther than a league, they rose early in the morn- 
ing, [193] and taking heavenly broth, rice, and other provisions, they 
went about asking, "Where is the noble Elder Sivali seated?" The 
Elder presented to the Congregation of Monks presided over by the 
Buddha the alms they brought him. Thus the Teacher, together 
with his retinue, went a long and difficult journey of thirty leagues, 
enjoying the fruit of the merit acquired by one Elder, Sivali. 

As soon as the Elder Revata learned that the Teacher was approach- 
ing, he created by magic a Perfumed Chamber for the Exalted One, 
and likewise for the monks five hundred pinnacled residences, five 
hundred covered walks, and five hundred night-quarters and day- 
quarters. The Teacher spent an entire month there as his guest, 
enjoying during his stay the fruit of the merit of a single Elder, 
Sivali. 

But there were two old monks living there who, when the Teacher 
entered the acacia forest, said to themselves, "How will this monk 
be able to perform his meditations while engaged in all this new work? 
The Teacher shows favoritism to one who is the youngest brother 
of Sariputta in coming to live with the builder of all this new work." 

As the Teacher surveyed the world on the morning of that day, 
he saw those two monks and became aware of their disposition of 
mind. So when he had resided there for a month and the day came for 
him to depart, he resolved that those monks should forget to take 
with them their measure of oil and their water- vessel and their sandals. 



-N .2. 1959] Elder Revata of the acacia forest 213 

Accordingly when he came to depart, withdrawing just beyond the 
entrance to the monastery, he sent forth his magical power. [194] 

Straightway those monks exclaimed, "I have forgotten this and 
that;" "I have forgotten it too;" and both turned to retrace their 
steps. But they were unable to find the place where they had left 
their belongings, and as they wandered about, the thorns of the 
acacia-trees pierced their feet. Finally they saw their belongings 
hanging on the branch of an acacia- tree and taking them with them, 
departed. 

The Teacher with the Congregation of Monks remained for yet 
another month, enjoying the fruit of the merit of the Elder Sivali, 
and then went into residence at Pubbarama. Those two old monks 
bathed their faces early in the morning and said, "Let us go to the 
house of Visakha the giver of alms to pilgrims and drink broth." 
So they went there and sat down, drinking broth and eating hard 
food. Visakha asked them, "Reverend Sirs, did you accompany the 
Teacher to the place where the Elder Sivali resides?" "Yes, lay 
disciple." "A charming place. Reverend Sirs, where the Elder resides." 
"Where does its charm come in.? It's a jungle of acacia- trees full of 
white thorns, lay disciple, fit only for ascetics to live in." 

Shortly afterwards two young monks came to the door. The lay 
disciple provided them with broth and hard food and asked them the 
same question. They replied, "Lay disciple, it is impossible to describe 
in words the Elder's place of residence; it is like the heavenly palace 
Sudhamma, formed by magical power." The lay disciple thought to 
herself, "The visiting monks who came first said one thing and these 
monks say quite another. It must be that when the Teacher sent 
forth his magical power, the visiting monks who came first forgot 
something and had to go back again; on the other hand these monks 
[195] must have gone there at the time when it was fashioned and 
perfected by magical power. Knowing the true explanation by her 
own wisdom, she waited, saying, "I will ask the Teacher when he 
comes." 

At that very moment the Teacher, surrounded by the Congrega- 
tion of Monks, came to the house of Visakha and sat down in the 
seats prepared for them. Visakha reverently ministered to the 
Congregation of Monks presided over by the Buddha and at the end 
of the meal paid obeisance to the Teacher and asked him the follow- 
ing question, "Reverend Sir, some of the monks who accompanied 
you say, *The place where the Elder Revata resides is a forest, a 



214 



Book 7, Story 9, Dhammapada 98 [N. 2. 1959- 



jungle of acacias;' others say that it is a charming place; what is the 
explanation of this?" The Teacher replied, "Lay disciple, whether 
it be in a village or in a forest, or in what place soever Arahats reside, 
that place is full of delight." And joining the connection, he preached 
the Law by pronouncing the following Stanza, 

98. In a village it may be, or in a forest, on the sea, or on dry land; 

No matter where the Arahats reside, that spot is full of delight. [196] 

At another time the monks began a discussion. "Brethren, why 
was it that the Elder Sivali remained for seven days and seven months 
and seven years in his mother's womb.? Why was it that he was tor- 
mented in Hell.'^ How did he come to reach the pinnacle of gain and 
honor .f^" The Teacher heard the discussion, asked them what it was 
about, and when they told him, related the story of the Venerable 
Elder's deed in a former existence. 

9 c. Story of the Past : The offering of honey and the siege of a city 

Monks, ninety-one cycles of time ago the Exalted Vipassi appeared 
in the world, and on a certain occasion making an alms-pilgrimage in 
the country, returned to the city of his father. The king prepared 
hospitable offerings for the Congregation of Monks presided over by 
the Buddha and sent word to the citizens, "Come and share in my 
offerings." Having done so, they made up their minds, "We will give 
offerings yet more abundant than those given by the king." So they 
invited the Teacher, prepared offerings on the following day, and 
sent an invitation to the king. The king came and seeing their offer- 
ings, invited the Teacher for the following day, saying to himself, "I 
will give offerings yet more abundant than these." But the king could 
not outdo the citizens, nor the citizens the king; the sixth time the 
citizens resolved, "To-morrow we will give such offerings that it will 
be impossible for the king to say that this or that is lacking in our 
offerings." So on the following day they prepared offerings, and look- 
ing to see what might be lacking, [197] they observed that there 
was plenty of honey in cooked form, but no fresh honey. Therefore 
they sent men out of the four gates of the city to seek fresh honey, 
providing each man with a thousand pieces of money. 

Now it happened that a certain countryman, going to see the vil- 
lage headman, caught sight of a honeycomb on the branch of a tree 
by the side of the road. Driving the flies away, he cut off the branch 
and taking honeycomb, branch and stick, he entered the city, intending 



-N. 2. 1997] Elder Revata of the acacia forest 



215 



to give it to the village headman. One of the men who had been sent 
out to seek fresh honey saw him and asked him, "Sir, is that honey 
for sale?" "No, master, it is not for sale." "Never mind, take this 
penny and give me the honey." The countryman thought to himself, 
"This honeycomb is not worth even a farthing, but this man offers me 
a penny for it. I suppose he has a great many pennies; I had best 
raise the price." So he replied, "I will not give it to you for that." 
"Well then, take twopence." "I will not give it to you for so little as 
twopence." The countryman continued to raise the price until 
finally the man offered him a thousand pieces of money, whereupon 
he let him have the honey. 

Then he said to the man, [198] "Are you crazy, or have you no way 
of spending your money.? This honey isn't worth a farthing, but you 
offer me a thousand pieces of money for it; what is the explanation of 
this.?" "That is perfectly true, sir; but I have some use for this 
honey and I will tell you what it is." "What is it, master.?" "We 
have prepared bounteous offerings for the Buddha Vipassi and his 
retinue of sixty-eight thousand monks, but we have no fresh honey; 
that is why I want it." "If that is the case, I will not sell it for a 
price; if I may receive the merit of the offering, I will give it to you." 
When the man returned and related the incident to the citizens, the 
citizens, impressed with the firm faith of the giver, assented, saying, 
"Good! good! let Kim receive the merit of the offering." 

So the citizens provided seats for the Congregation of Monks 
presided over by the Buddha, gave them broth and hard food, and 
then had a great silver vessel brought and strained the honeycomb. 
The same man also brought a pot of curds as a present, poured the 
curds also into the vessel, mixed them with the honey, and offered the 
food to the Buddha and to the Congregation of Monks over which 
he presided. All took as much as they required and there was more 
than enough for all. [199] 

(We must not ask ourselves the question, "How was it that so little 
food sufficed for so many.?" For this was brought about by the super- 
natural power of the Buddha; and the power of a Buddha is incon- 
ceivable. "He who ponders the Four Inconceivables will go mad.") 

Having wrought a good work so slight, the countryman was re- 
born, when the term of life allotted to him had come to an end, in the 
World of the Gods. After passing through the round of existence for 
a very long period of time, he passed at length from the World of the 
Gods and was reborn as the Prince Royal of Benares. On the death 



216 Book 7, Story 9, Dhammapada 98 [N.2.1997- 

of the king his father, he succeeded to the throne. Straightway 
resolving, "I will take a certain city," he invested the city and sent 
word to the citizens, "Give me battle or the kingdom." They replied, 
"We will give neither battle nor the kingdom." So saying, they 
went forth from the lesser gates, procured firewood, water, and so 
forth, and did all that was necessary to maintain a defense. The 
king guarded the four principal gates and besieged the city for seven 
months and seven years. 

Now his mother asked what her son was doing, and on learning 
the facts, said, "My son is a simpleton. Go tell him to close the lesser 
gates and blockade the city completely." When the king received 
his mother's message, he did as she told him to. The citizens were 
unable any longer to leave the city, and on the seventh day killed their 
own king and gave the kingdom to the hostile king. Because he com- 
mitted this act, he was reborn at the end of his life in the Hell of 
Avici. [200] After suffering torment in this Hell until this great earth 
was elevated a league, because he closed the four lesser gates, he passed 
from that existence, was conceived in the womb of his mother, and 
remained in her womb for seven months and seven years, lying across 
the mouth of the womb for seven days. Thus, monks, through the 
demerit acquired by Sivali in besieging the city at that time, he was 
tormented in Hell for so long a period; and because he closed the 
lesser gates, when he was conceived in the womb of his mother, he 
remained in her womb for so long a time; because he gave the fresh 
honey in alms, he reached the pinnacle of gain. 

Again another day the monks began a discussion. "How great 
was the novice's gain! How great was the merit through which one 
man was able to erect for five hundred monks five hundred pinnacled 
residences!" The Teacher came in and asked them, "Monks, what is 
it that you are sitting here now talking about .'^" When they told him, 
he said to them, "Monks, my son is attached neither to good nor to 
evil; he has renounced both." So saying, he pronounced the follow- 
ing Stanza in the Brahmana Vagga, 

412. Whosoever in this world has escaped from the bonds of good and of evil. 

Whosoever is free from sorrow, free from defilement, free from impurity, him I 
call a Brahman. 



-N. 2. 20216 



A courtezan tempts a monk 



217 



VII. 10. A COURTEZAN TEMPTS A MONK ^ 

Delightful are the woods. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to 
a certain woman. [201] 

We are told that a certain monk who lived by his alms-bowl, got a 
Subject of Meditation from the Teacher and retired to a dilapidated 
pleasure garden for the purpose of meditation. Now a certain cour- 
tezan made an assignation with a man, saying, "I will go to such 
and such a place and you meet me there." The woman kept the 
assignation, but the man did not. For some time she watched in 
vain the path by which she expected him to come. Finally, disap- 
pointed at his failure to keep his assignation, she strolled hither and 
thither and went into the pleasure garden. There she saw the monk 
sitting cross-legged. Looking this way and that, and seeing no one 
else about, she said to herself, "Here is a man; I will throw his thoughts 
into confusion." So standing in front of the monk, she took down her 
undergarment several times and put it on again, unloosened her hair 
and bound it up again, and clapped her hands and laughed. The 
Elder became excited; his whole body, in fact, was suffused with 
excitement. "What does this mean.^" thought he. 

The Teacher considered within himself, "A monk obtained a 
Subject of Meditation from me and went forth to perform his medita- 
tions. How is he getting on.^" Seeing that woman, and observing 
her evil conduct, and perceiving that her evil conduct was upsetting 
the Elder, still remaining seated in his Perfumed Chamber, he spoke 
as follows, [202] "Monks, there is no delight where those abide who 
seek after their lusts. But where those abide who are free from passion, 
that place is full of delight." So saying, he sent forth a radiant 
image of himseK, and instructing the Elder in the Law, pronounced 
the following Stanza, 

99. Delightful are the woods; where the man of the world finds no delight, 

There they that are free from passion find delight, not they that seek after their 
lusts. 

At the conclusion of the Stanza that Elder, seated as he was, 
attained Arahatship, together with the Supernatural Faculties. 

1 Cf. Story xxvi. 32. Text: N ii. 201-202. 



BOOK VIII. THOUSANDS, SAHASSA VAGGA 

VIII. 1. A PUBLIC EXECUTIONER ^ 

Though a speech consist of a thousand words. This religious in- 
struction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at 
Veluvana with reference to Copper-tooth, a public executioner. [203] 

We are told that five hundred thieves less one made a living by 
plundering villages and other acts of violence. Now a certain man 
with copper-colored teeth and tawny skin, his body covered with 
scars, came to them and said, "Let me also live with you." They 
took him to the ringleader of the thieves, saying, "This man also 
wishes to live with us." The ringleader of the thieves looked at the 
man and thought to himself, "This man's nature is inordinately 
cruel. He is capable of cutting out the breast of his mother and eating 
it, or of drawing the blood from the throat of his father and drinking 
it." Therefore he refused his request, saying, "It will not do for this 
man to live with us." 

Although he had thus been refused admission to the band of thieves, 
he went and won the favor of a certain pupil of the ringleader by his 
courteous attentions to him. This pupil took the man with him, 
approached the ringleader of the thieves, and said to him, "Master, 
this man is a dutiful servant of ours; bestow your favor on him." 
Having made this request, he turned the man over to the ringleader 
of the thieves. [204] 

One day the citizens joined forces with the king's men, captured 
those thieves, took them to court, and arraigned them before the lords 
of justice. The justices ordered their heads to be chopped off with an 
axe. "Who will put these men to death .J^" said the citizens. After 
a thorough search they were unable to find a single man who was 
willing to put them to death. Finally they said to the ringleader of 
the thieves, "You put these men to death, and we will spare your life 
and give you a rich reward besides. You kill them." But because 

1 Text: N. ii. 203-209. 



-N.2.20517] 



A public executioner 



219 



they had lived with him, he also was unwilling to put them to death. 
In like manner also all of the five hundred less one refused when asked. 
Last of all they asked that scarred, tawny, copper-tooth. "Yes, in- 
deed," said he, consenting. So he put to death all the thieves, and 
in return received his life and rich gifts besides. 

In like manner also they brought in five hundred thieves from the 
country to the south of the city and arraigned them before the jus- 
tices. When the justices ordered their heads to be chopped off, they 
asked each thief, beginning with the ringleader, to put his companions 
to death, but found not a single one willing to act as executioner. 
Then they said, "The other day a certain man put five hundred thieves 
to death. Where is he?'* "We saw him in such and such a place," 
was the reply. So they summoned him and said to him, "Put these 
men to death, and you will receive a rich reward." "Yes, indeed," 
said he, consenting. So he put them all to death and received his 
reward. 

The citizens consulted together and said, "This is a most excellent 
man. We will make him permanent executioner of thieves." So 
saying, they gave him the post. [205] Later on, they brought in 
five hundred thieves also from the west and still later five hundred 
also from the north, and he put them all to death. Thus he put to 
death two thousand thieves brought in from each of the four cardinal 
points. As time went on, and one or two men were brought in each 
day, he put them all to death. For a period of fifty-five years he acted 
as public executioner. 

In old age he could no longer cut off a man's head with a single 
blow, but was obliged to deliver two or three blows, causing much 
unnecessary suffering to the victims. The citizens thought to them- 
selves, "We can get another executioner of thieves. This man sub- 
jects his victims to much unnecessary torture. Of what use is he any 
longer.^ " Accordingly they removed him from his office. During his 
term of oflSce as executioner of thieves, he had been accustomed to 
receive four perquisites: old clothes for him to wear, milk-porridge 
made with fresh ghee for him to drink, jasmine flowers where- 
with to deck himself, and perfumes wherewith to anoint himself. 
But these four perquisites he received no longer. On the day he was 
deposed from office, he gave orders that milk-porridge should be 
cooked for him. And taking with him old clothes and jasmine flowers 
and perfumes, he went to the river and bathed. Having so done, he 
put on the old clothes, decked himself with garlands, anointed his 



^20 Book 8y Story 1, Dhammapada 100 [N.2.20517- 

limbs, and went home and sat down. They set before him milk- 
porridge made with fresh ghee [206] and water for rinsing the hands. 

At that moment Elder Sariputta arose from a state of trance. 
Said he to himself, "Where ought I to go to-day?" Surveying his 
rounds for alms, he saw milk-porridge in the house of the former exe- 
cutioner. Considering within himself, "Will this man receive me 
kindly.?" he became aware of the following, "This excellent man will 
receive me kindly and will thereby gain a rich reward." So the Elder 
put on his robe, took his bowl, and showed himseK at the door of the 
former executioner's house. 

When the man saw the Elder, his heart was filled with joy. Thought 
he to himself, "For a long time I have acted as executioner of thieves, 
and many are the men I have put to death. Now milk-porridge has 
been prepared in my house, and the Elder has come and stands at 
my threshold. Now ought I to present alms to his reverence." So 
he removed the porridge which had been set before him, approached 
the Elder, and paid obeisance to him. And escorting him into his 
house, he provided him with a seat, poured the milk-porridge into 
his bowl, spread fresh ghee thereon, and standing beside him, began to 
fan him. 

Now not for a long time had he tasted milk-porridge, and therefore 
desired greatly to drink thereof. The Elder, knowing his desire, said 
to him, "Lay disciple, drink your own porridge." The man placed 
the fan in the hand of another and d-rank the porridge. The Elder 
said to the man who was fanning him, "Go fan the lay disciple in- 
stead." So while he was being fanned, he filled his belly with porridge, 
and then went and resumed fanning the Elder. When the Elder had 
finished his meal, [207] he took his bowl. 

When the Elder began the words of thanksgiving to his host, the 
man was not able to fix his mind on the Elder's discourse. The Elder, 
observing this, said to him, "Lay disciple, why is it that you are not 
able to fix your mind on my discourse.^^" "Reverend Sir, for a long 
time I have done deeds of cruelty; I have put many men to death. 
It is because I keep recalling my own past deeds, that I am unable 
to fix my mind on your reverence's discourse." The Elder thought to 
himself, "I will play a trick on him." So he said to the man, "But 
did you do this of your own free will, or were you made to do it by 
others?" "The king made me do it. Reverend Sir." "If that is the 
case, lay disciple, what wrong did you do?" The bewildered disciple 
thought, "According to what the Elder says, I have done no wrong." 



-N. 2. 20817] 



A public executioner 



221 



Said he to the Elder, "Very well. Reverend Sir, continue your 
discourse." 

As the Elder pronounced the words of thanksgiving, the man's 
mind became tranquil; and as he listened to the Law, he developed 
the quality of patience, and progressed in the direction of the Path of 
Conversion. When the Elder had completed the words of thanks- 
giving, he departed. The lay disciple accompanied him a little way 
and then turned back. As the lay disciple was returning, an ogress 
came along in the form of a cow, struck him with her shoulder, and 
killed him. So he died and was reborn in the World of the Tusita gods. 

The monks began a discussion in the Hall of Truth: "He who was 
an executioner of thieves, he who for fifty-five years committed acts 
of cruelty, to-day was relieved of his office, to-day gave alms to the 
Elder, to-day met death. Where was he reborn.^ " The Teacher came 
in and asked them, "Monks, what are you sitting here now talking 
about.^" When they told him, [208] he said, "Monks, he has been 
reborn in the World of the Tusita gods." "What say you, Reverend 
Sir? he who killed men for so long a time has been reborn in the 
World of the Tusita gods.^ " " Yes, monks. A great and good spiritual 
counselor did he receive. He heard Sariputta preach the Law, and 
profiting thereby, acquired knowledge. When he departed from this 
existence, he was reborn in the World of the Tusita gods." So saying, 
he pronounced the following Stanza, 

He who was executioner of thieves in the city listened to words well spoken. 
Gained patience accordingly, went to heaven, and is in joy. 

"Reverend Sir, there is no great power in words of thanksgiving, 
and this man had done much wrong. How could he gain Specific 
Attainment with so little.'*" The Teacher replied, "Monks, do not 
measure the Law I have preached as being little or much. One saying 
possessed of meaning is of surpassing merit." So saying, he instructed 
them in the Law by pronouncing the following Stanza, 

100. Though a speech consist of a thousand words, if the sentences lack meaning. 
Better were a single sentence full of meaning, which if a man hear, he is at peace. 



222 



Book 8, Story 2, Dhammapada 101 [N. 2. 20912- 



VIII. 2. CONVERSION OF BAHIYA DARUClRIYA ^ 

Though a Stanza consist of a thousand words. This religious in- 
struction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jeta- 
vana with reference to the Elder Bahiya Daruciriya. 

For once upon a time a party of men put to sea in a boat. When 
they were well out to sea, the boat sprang a leak. [210] Thereupon 
all of the men, with a single exception, became food for fishes and tor- 
toises. Only one man, who seized a plank and struggled with all his 
might, succeeded in reaching land near Supparaka Port. When he 
came to land, he lacked both under and upper garments. So for lack 
of anything better, he wrapped himself with dry twigs and sticks and 
bark, and obtaining a potsherd from the royal household, went to 
Supparaka Port. All who saw him gave him broth, rice-porridge and 
other kinds of food, and did reverence to him, saying, "This is some 
Arahat." 

Thought he, "If I clothe myself in under and upper garments of 
fine texture, I shall no longer receive gain and honor." Therefore he 
avoided such garments, using only the bark of trees to clothe himself 
withal. As many persons greeted him with the salutation "Arahat! 
Arahat!" the following consideration presented itself to his mind, 
"Am I perhaps one of those who are Arahats in this world, or who have 
entered the Path leading to Arahatship.^^" Thereupon a certain 
thought occurred to a deity who was a former blood-relative of his. 



2 a. Digression : Story of the Past 

By "former blood-relative" is meant one who formerly practiced 
meditation with him. It appears that in former times, when the religion 
of Kassapa Possessed of the Ten Forces was disappearing from the 
earth, seven monks, observing with regret a change for the worse in 
the conduct of probationers, novices, and others, said to themselves, 
"So long as our religion has not yet disappeared, we will make our own 
salvation sure." So after reverencing their golden shrine, they en- 
tered the forest, and seeing a certain mountain, [211] they said, 
"Let those who still cherish attachment for the life of this world 
turn back; let those who have rid themselves of attachment ascend 

1 This story is derived from Uddna, i. 10: 6-9. Cf. also Anguttara Commentary on 
Etadagga Vagga, Story of Bahiya Daruciriya. Text: N ii. 209-217. 



-N.2.21211] Conversion of Bdhiya Ddruciriya 



223 



this mountain." Thereupon they set up a ladder, and all of them as- 
cended the mountain, whereupon they kicked the ladder down and 
devoted themselves to meditation. After but a single night had 
passed, one of them, the Elder of the Assembly, attained Arahatship. 

The Elder of the Assembly chewed a toothstick of betel at Lake 
Anotatta, rinsed his mouth, brought food from North Kuru and said 
to those monks, "Brethren, chew this toothstick, rinse your mouths, 
and then eat this food." But this they refused to do, saying, "But, 
Reverend Sir, did we make the following agreement, 'All shall eat the 
food brought by him who first attains Arahatship'.?" "We made no 
such agreement, brethren." "Well then, if, like you, we also develop 
Specific Attainment, we will bring food for ourselves and eat it." 
On the second day the Second Elder attained the Fruit of the Third 
Path, whereupon he likewise brought food to the monks and invited 
them to eat it. But they said, "But, Reverend Sir, did we agree not 
to eat the food brought by the Chief Elder, but to eat that which should 
be brought by a subordinate Elder.? " "We did not so agree, brethren." 
"In that case, if, like you, we also develop Specific Attainment, we 
shall be able by our own unaided efforts to provide ourselves with 
food, and we shall so provide ourselves with food." Thus did they 
refuse to eat the food he had brought. 

Of the seven monks, the Elder of the Assembly who had attained 
Arahatship passed into Nibbana, he who had attained the Fruit of 
the Third Path was reborn in the Brahma world, [212] and the re- 
maining five, unable to develop Specific Attainment, wasted and 
withered away, died on the seventh day, and were reborn in the World 
of the Gods. In the period of this present Buddha they passed from 
that state of existence, and were reborn in various households. One 
of them was King Pukkusati, one was Kumara Kassapa, one was 
Daruciriya, one was Dabba the Malla, and one was the monk Sabhiya. 
The term "former blood-relative" therefore refers to the monk who 
was reborn in the Brahma world. 



2. Conversion of Bahiya Daruciriya, concluded 

To this denizen of the Brahma world, then, occurred the follow- 
ing thought, "This man was associated with me in setting up the ladder 
and in the ascent of the mountain and in the practice of meditation; 
but now he has adopted false views, and by his present course of con- 
duct he is in danger of perdition; I will stir him up." Accordingly 



224 



Book 8, Story 2, Dhammaj)ada 101 [N. 2. 21212- 



he approached him and spoke thus, "Bahiya, you are not an Arahat, 
nor have you entered the Path that leads to Arahatship; moreover 
the course that you have adopted is not such that you will thereby 
attain Arahatship or enter the Path that leads to Arahatship." As 
Maha Brahma, poised in the air, spoke these words, Bahiya looked 
upon him and thought to himself, "Oh, what a plight I am in! I 
thought to myself, *I am an Arahat;' but yonder spirit says to me, 
* You are not an Arahat, nor have you entered the Path that leads to 
Arahatship.' [213] Is there perhaps any other Arahat in the world?" 

Accordingly Bahiya asked the spirit, "Deity, are there perhaps 
now in the world Arahats or those who have entered the Path leading 
to Arahatship.?" Then the deity informed him as follows, "Bahiya, 
there lies to the north a city named Savatthi; and there, at the pres- 
ent time, dwells he that is the Exalted One, the Arahat of Arahats, 
the Supremely Enlightened; and he that is the Exalted One, the 
Arahat of Arahats, preaches the Truth of Arahatship." 

As Bahiya listened in the night time to the speech of the deity, 
he became greatly agitated in mind; and instantly departing from 
Supparaka, in the space of one night he arrived at Savatthi. The entire 
distance of a hundred and twenty leagues he traveled in the space of 
one night; but when he went thus, he went by the supernatural power 
of the deity. (Others would say, "by the supernatural power of the 
Buddha.") At the moment when he arrived, the Teacher had en- 
tered the city for alms. When Bahiya had breakfasted, he observed 
many monks taking their exercise in the open air by walking up and 
down, and he asked them, "Where is the Teacher now.^^" Said the 
monks, "He has just entered Savatthi for alms." Then the monks 
asked Bahiya, "But whence have you come.^^" "I have come from 
Supparaka." "When did you leave Supparaka?" [214] "Yesterday 
evening." "You have come a long way. Just sit down, bathe your 
feet, anoint them with oil, and rest yourself a while. When the Teacher 
returns you will see him." "Reverend Sir, I know not when the 
Teacher may die, or when I may die myself. I came here in the space 
of but a single night, neither stopping nor sitting down anywhere to 
rest. I have come a journey of a hundred and twenty leagues. So 
soon as I have seen the Teacher, I will rest myself." 

When he had thus spoken, his body all of a tremble, he entered 
Savatthi and beheld the Exalted One making his round for alms with 
the incomparable grace of a Buddha. Said he to himself, "It is a 
long time indeed since I have seen Gotama the Supremely Enlight- 



-N. 2. 21511 ] Conversion of Bdhiya Ddruciriya 



225 



ened." And from the point where he had first seen him, he proceeded 
with his body inchned in an attitude of profound reverence; even as 
he stood in the street, he paid obeisance to him with the Five Rests, 
and took him firmly by the ankles, and spoke thus to him, "Let the 
Exalted One teach me the Law; let the Happy One teach me the 
Law, that it may avail for a long time to come to my weKare and 
salvation." 

But the Teacher turned him away, saying, "You come out of due 
season, Bahiya; I have entered among the houses for alms." When 
Bahiya heard these words, he said, "Reverend Sir, as I have passed 
through the round of existences, I have not before received material 
food. I know not the hour when you or I shall die: teach me the 
Law." But the Teacher turned him away the second time as before. 
(This, we are told, was the thought that occurred to him, "From the 
time this man first saw me, his whole body has been suffused with 
joy; from the great shock of joy he has received, though he should 
listen to the Law, he would not be able to comprehend it; [215] let 
him remain for a time in a state of placid equanimity. Moreover, 
by reason of the fact that he has come a journey of a hundred and 
twenty leagues in but a single night, his weariness is great; just let 
this subside.") Therefore did the Teacher turn him away twice. When 
Bahiya put his request the third time, the Teacher, remaining where 
he was in the street, said to him: 

"Therefore, Bahiya, thus you must learn: In the seen, there can 
be only what is seen; in the heard, there can be only what is heard; 
in the thought, there can be only what is thought; in the known, 
there can be only what is known. For, Bahiya, thus you must learn: 
Since, Bahiya, for you, in the seen there can be only what is seen, in 
the heard what is heard, in the thought what is thought, in the 
known what is known, therefore you, Bahiya, are not here. Since 
you, Bahiya, are not here, therefore you, Bahiya, are neither in this 
world, nor in the next world, nor betwixt the two. This alone is the 
end of suffering." 

Even as Bahiya listened to the Teacher's discourse, he threw off all 
the Depravities and obtained Arahatship, together with the Super- 
natural Faculties. Straightway he asked the Teacher to admit him 
to the Order. Upon this the Teacher asked him, "Have you bowl and 
robe complete.^" "I have not bowl and robe complete," replied 
Bahiya. Then said the Teacher to him, "Well then, seek bowl and 
robe." So saying, the Teacher went his way. 



226 



Book 8y Story 2, Dhammapada 101 [N. 2.21511- 



We are told that during the period of twenty thousand years 
during which Bahiya practiced meditation, he never did a single 
monk the favor of presenting him with bowl and robe; but that he 
used to say, "A monk ought to provide himself with his own requi- 
sites without looking to another; he ought through his own unaided 
efforts to provide himself with food;" and that the Teacher, knowing 
this, and knowing that for this reason he would not obtain bowl and 
robe created by supernatural power, did not admit him to the Order 
with the usual formula, "Come, monk!" 

As Bahiya was seeking bowl and robe, a certain ogress in the form 
of a heifer approached, struck him with her left shoulder, and deprived 
him of life. The Teacher, after making his round for alms and after 
eating his breakfast, came forth with a large company of monks, [216] 
and saw the body of Bahiya lying prostrate on the dust-heap. Straight- 
way he commanded the monks as follows, "Monks, bring a litter 
which stands at the door of a certain house, carry the body of this 
man out of the city, bum it, and erect a mound over the remains." 
The monks did so, and having so done, returned to the monastery, 
approached the Teacher, told him what they had done, and inquired 
about the future state of the dead man. 

Thereupon the Teacher announced that he had passed into Nib- 
bana, and assigned him preeminence, saying, "Monks, preeminent 
among my disciples and monks who are quick to learn the truth is 
Bahiya Daruciriya." Then the monks asked him, "Reverend Sir, 
you say, * Bahiya Daruciriya has attained Arahatship;' when did he 
attain Arahatship?" "Monks, it was when he heard me preach the 
Law." "But when did you preach the Law to him.^" "While I was 
making my rounds for alms, standing in the middle of the street." 
"Was not the discourse you delivered standing in the middle of the 
street an extremely short one. Reverend Sir.^^ How was it that he 
developed Specific Attainment after hearing so very little.^" Then 
said the Teacher to them, "Monks, do not measure my Law as being 
* little' or *much.' There is no virtue even in many thousands of 
Stanzas. A single sentence of a Stanza, which contains the truth, 
is better." And when he had thus spoken, he joined the connection, 
and preaching the Law, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

101. Though a Stanza consist of a thousand words, if the sentences lack meaning. 
Better were a single sentence of a Stanza, which if a man hear he is at peace. 



-N.2.2181S] 



The maiden who married a thief 



227 



VIII. 3. THE MAIDEN WHO MARRIED A THIEF ^ 

Though one should recite a hundred Stanzas. This religious instruc- 
tion was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana 
concerning Kundalakesi. [217] 

A rich merchant of Rajagaha, it seems, had an only daughter who 
was about sixteen years of age, and she was exceedingly beautiful and 
fair to see. (When women reach this age, they burn and long for men.) 
Her mother and father lodged her on the topmost floor of a seven- 
storied palace in an apartment of royal splendor, and gave her only 
a single slave-woman to wait upon her.^ 

Now one day a young man of station was caught in the act of rob- 
bery. They bound his hands behind his back and led him to the place 
of execution, scourging him with lashes at every cross-roads. The 
merchant's daughter heard the shouts of the crowd, said to herself, 
"What is that?" looked down from the top of the palace, and saw 
him. [218] 

Straightway she fell in love with him. So great, in fact, was her 
longing for him that she took to her bed and refused to eat. Her 
mother asked her, "What does this mean, my dear daughter.?" 
"If I can have that young man who was caught in the act of commit- 
ting robbery and who was led through the streets, life will be worth 
living; if not, life is not worth living; I shall die here and now." 
"Do not act in this manner, my dear daughter; you shall have some 
one else for your husband, some one who is our equal in birth and 
family and wealth." "I will have no one else; if I cannot have this 
man I shall die." 

The mother, unable to pacify her daughter, told the father; but 
the father likewise was unable to pacify his daughter. "What is to 
be done.?" thought he. He sent a thousand pieces of money to the 
king's officer who had captuced the robber and who was accompanying 
him to the place of execution, saying, "Take this money and send the 
robber to me." "Very well!" said the king's officer. He took the 



* Parallels: Anguttara Commentary 
Commentary, xlvi: 99-102; Jdtaka 318 
Vatthu Commentary, i. 1: 
Text: N ii. 217-227. 

2 Cf. the beginning of stories ii. 3, viii. 12, and ix. 8 



JRAS., 1893, 771-785; Therv-Gatha 

iii. 58-63; Jataka 419; iii. 435-438; Peta- 

3-9; Kathdsaritsagara (Tawney's translation), ii. 493. 



228 Booh 8, Story 3, Dhammapada 102-103 [N.2.21813- 

money, released the robber, had another man put to death, and sent 
word to the king, "The robber has been executed, your majesty." 

The merchant gave his daughter in marriage to the robber. She 
resolved to win the favor of her husband; and from that time on, 
adorned with all her adornments, she prepared her husband's meals 
with her own hand. After a few days the robber thought to himself, 
"When can I kill this woman, take her jewels and sell them, and so 
be able to take my meals in a certain tavern.? This is the way!" 

He took to his bed and refused to eat. She came to him and asked, 
"Are you in pain.^^" "Not at all, wife." "Then perhaps my mother 
and father are angry with you.^^" "They are not angry with me, 
wife." "What is the matter, then.?" "Wife, that day when I was 
bound [219] and led through the streets, I saved my life by vowing 
an offering to the deity that lives on Robbers' Cliff; likewise it was 
through his supernatural power that I gained you for my wife. I 
was wondering how I could fulfill my vow of an offering to the deity." 
"Husband, do not worry; I will see to the offering; tell me what is 
needed." "Rich rice-porridge, flavored with honey; and the five 
kinds of flowers, including the laja flower." "Very well, husband, I 
will make ready the offering." 

Having prepared the whole offering, she said to her husband, 
"Come, husband, let us go." "Very well, wife; let your kinsmen re- 
main behind; put on your costly garments and adorn yourself with 
your precious jewels, and we will go gayly, laughing and disporting 
ourselves." She did as she was told. When they reached the foot of 
the mountain, the robber said to her, "Wife, from this point on let us 
two go alone; we will send back the rest of the company in a convey- 
ance; you take the vessel containing the offering and carry it your- 
self." She did as she was told. 

The robber took her in his arms and climbed the mountain to the 
top of Robbers' Cliff. (One side of this mountain men can climb; 
but the other side is a precipitous cliff, from the top of which robbers 
are flung, being dashed to pieces before they reach the bottom; 
therefore it is called "Robbers' Cliff.") Standing on the top of the 
mountain, she said, "Husband, present the offering." Her husband 
made no reply. Again [220] she spoke, "Husband, why do you re- 
main silent?" Then he said to her, "I have no use for the offering; 
I deceived you in bringing you here with an offering." "Then why 
did you bring me here, husband.?" "To kill you, seize your jewels, 
and escape." Terrified with the fear of death, she said to him, "Hus- 



-N.2.22121] 



The maiden who married a thief 



229 



band, both my jewels and my person belong to you; why do you 
speak thus?" Over and over again she pleaded with him, "Do not 
do this;" but his only reply was, "I will kill you." "After all, what 
will you gain by killing me? Take these jewels and spare my life; 
henceforth regard me as your mother, or else let me be your slave- 
woman and work for you." So saying, she recited the following 
Stanza, 

Take these golden bracelets, all set with beryls. 
Take all, and welcome; call me your slave-woman. 

The robber, hearing this, said to her, "Despite what you say, were 
I to spare your life, you would go and tell your mother and father all. 
I will kill you. That is all. Lament not with vehement lamentation." 
So saying, he recited the following Stanza, 

Lament not overmuch; tie up your possessions quickly. 

You have not long to live; I shall take all your possessions. [221] 

She thought to herself, "Oh, what a wicked deed is this! However, 
wisdom was not made to be cooked and eaten, but rather to make men 
look before they leap. I shall find a way of dealing with him." And 
she said to him, "Husband, when they caught you in the act of com- 
mitting robbery and led you through the streets, I told my mother and 
father, and they spent a thousand pieces of money in ransoming you, 
and they gave you a place in their house, and from that time on I 
have been your benefactress; to-day do me the favor of letting me pay 
obeisance to you." "Very well, wife," said he, granted her the favor 
of paying obeisance to him, and then took his stand near the edge of 
the cliff. 

She walked around him three times, keeping him on her right hand, 
and paid obeisance to him in the four places. Then she said to him, 
"Husband, this is the last time I shall see you. Henceforth you will 
see me no more, neither shall I see you any more." And she em- 
braced him both before and behind. Then, remaining behind him, 
as he stood off his guard near the edge of the cliff, she put one hand to 
his shoulder and the other to the small of his back, and flung him over 
the cliff. Thus was the robber hurled into the abyss of the moun- 
tain, and dashed to pieces when he reached the bottom. The deity 
that dwelt on the top of Robbers' Cliff observed the actions of the 
two, and applauding the woman, uttered the following Stanza, 

Wisdom is not always confined to men; 

A woman, too, is wise, and shows it now and then. [222] 



230 



Booh 8, Story 3. Dhammapada 102-108 [N.2.2221- 



Having thrown the robber over the cHff, the woman thought to 
herself, "If I go home, they will ask me, * Where is your husband?' 
and if, in answer to their question, I say, *I have killed him,' they 
will pierce me with the knives of their tongues, saying, *We ransomed 
the scoundrel with a thousand pieces of money and now you have 
killed him.' If, on the other hand, I say, *He sought to kill me for 
my jewels,' they will not believe me. I'm done with home!" She 
cast off her jewels, went into the forest, and after wandering about 
for a time came to a certain hermitage of nuns. She reverently 
bowed and said, " Sister, receive me into your Order as a nun." So they 
received her as a nun. 

After she had become a nun, she asked, "Sister, what is the goal 
of your Religious Life?" "Sister, the development of spiritual ecstasy 
through the employment of the ten Kasinas, or else the memoriz- 
ing of a thousand articles of faith; this is the highest aim of our 
Religious Life." "Spiritual ecstasy I shall not be able to develop. 
Reverend Sister; but I will master the thousand articles of faith." 
When she had mastered the thousand articles of faith, they said to 
her, "You have acquired proficiency; now go throughout the length 
and breadth of the Land of the Rose-Apple and look for some one able 
to match question and answer with you." 

So, placing a branch of rose-apple in her hands,^ [223] they dis- 
missed her with these words, "Go forth, sister; if any one who is a 
layman is able to match question and answer with you, become his 
slave; if any monk, enter his Order as a nun." Adopting the name 
"Nun of the Rose- Apple," she left the hermitage and went about 
from place to place asking questions of everyone she saw. No one 
was able to match question and answer with her; in fact, such a 
reputation did she acquire that whenever men heard the announce- 
ment, "Here comes the *Nun of the Rose-Apple,' " they would run 
away. 

Before entering a town or village for alms, she would scrape a 
pile of sand together before the village gate and there plant her rose- 
apple branch. Then she would issue her challenge, "Let him that 
is able to match question and answer with me trample this rose-apple 
branch under his feet." So saying, she would enter the village. No 
one dared to pass beyond that spot. When one branch withered, 
she would procure a fresh one. 



^ Cf . the Introduction to Jdtaka 301 : iii. 1-3. 



-N .2.2254] 



The maiden who married a thief 



231 



Traveling about in this way, she arrived at Savatthi, planted the 
branch before the city gate, issued her challenge in the usual way, 
and went in to seek alms. A number of young boys gathered about 
the branch and waited to see what would happen. Just then the 
Elder Sariputta, who had made his round and eaten his breakfast 
and was on his way out of the city, saw those boys standing about 
the branch and asked them, "What does this mean.^^" The boys 
explained matters to the Elder. Said the Elder, "Go ahead, boys, 
trample that branch under your feet." "We are afraid to, Reverend 
Sir." [224] "I will answer the question; you go ahead and trample 
the branch under your feet." The Elder's words supplied the boys 
with the necessary courage. Forthwith they trampled the branch 
under their feet, shouting and kicking up the dust. 

When the nun returned, she rebuked them and said, "I don't 
intend to bandy question and answer with you; how did you come 
to trample the branch under your feet.^^" "Our noble Elder told us 
to." "Reverend Sir, did you tell them to trample my branch under 
their feet.'^" "Yes, sister." "Well then, match question and answer 
with me." "Very well, I will do so." 

As the shades of evening drew on, she went to the Elder's residence 
to put her questions. The entire city was stirred up. The people 
said to each other, "Let us go and hear the talk of the two learned 
persons." Accompanying the nun from the city to the Elder's resi- 
dence, they bowed to the Elder and seated themselves respectfully 
on one side. 

The nun said to the Elder, "Reverend Sir, I wish to ask you a 
question." "Ask it, sister." So she asked him the thousand articles 
of faith. Every question the nun asked, the Elder answered correctly. 
Then he said to her, "You have asked only these few questions; are 
there any others.^" "These are all. Reverend Sir." "You have 
asked many questions; I will ask you just one; will you answer me.?" 
"Ask your question, Reverend Sir." [225] Then the Elder asked her 
the following question, "What is 'One'.?" ^ She said to herself, 
"This is a question I should be able to answer;" but not knowing 
the answer, she inquired of the Elder, "What is it. Reverend Sir.?" 
"That is the Buddha's question, sister." "Tell me also the answer. 
Reverend Sir." "If you will enter our Order, I will tell you the 



1 That is to say : " What is the answer to Question One of the Novice's Questions?* 
See Khuddaka Pdtha, iv. 1. 



232 Book 8, Story 3, Dhammapada 102-103 [N.2.2256- 

answer." "Very well, admit me to the Order." The Elder sent word 
to the nuns and had her admitted. After being admitted to the Order, 
she made her full profession, took the name KundalakesI, and after a 
few days became an Arahat endowed with the Supernatural Faculties. 
In the Hall of Truth the monks began a discussion of the incident. 
"Kundalakesi heard little of the Law and yet she succeeded in being 
admitted to the Order; moreover, she came here after fighting a 
fierce battle with a robber and defeating him." The Teacher came 
in and asked them, "Monks, what is it that you are sitting here dis- 
cussing now.f^" They told him, "Monks, measure not the Law I have 
taught as being * little' or *much.' There is no superior merit in a 
hundred sentences that are meaningless; but one Sentence of the 
Law is better. He that defeats all other robbers wins no victory at 
all, but he who defeats the robbers that are his own Depravities, his 
is victory indeed." Then he joined the connection, and preaching the 
Law, pronounced the following Stanzas, 

102. Though one should recite a hundred Stanzas composed of meaningless sentences. 
Yet one Sentence of the Law were better, which if a man hear he is at peace. [226] 

103. Though one should conquer a thousand times a thousand men in battle, 
Yet would he be the mightiest conqueror who should conquer one, himself. 



VIII. 4. GAIN AND LOSS ^ 

Victory over self is better. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to a 
Brahman who asked about gain and loss. [227] 

The story goes that this Brahman considered within himself, 
"Does the Supremely Enlightened know gain alone or does he know 
loss also.'^ I will ask him." Accordingly he approached the Teacher 
and asked him, "Reverend Sir, tell me, I pray you, do you know gain 
alone, and not loss?" "Brahman, I know both gain and loss." "Well 
then, tell me about loss." At once the Teacher pronounced the follow- 
ing Stanza, 

Unprofitable is sleeping after sunrise, idleness, the moonlight, long-continued pros- 
perity. 

Going on journeys, seeking after other men's wives. 

Seek after these things, Brahman, and you will gain that which will be of no advantage 
to you. 

> Text: N ii. 227-229. 



-N. 2. 23015] Gain and loss 233 

When the Brahman heard this, he applauded the Teacher, saying, 
** Well said, well said, teacher of the multitude, leader of the multitude! 
You know indeed both gain and loss." [228] "Indeed, Brahman, 
there is none other that knows loss so well as I." Then the Teacher 
considered within himself what motive actuated the Brahman, and 
asked him, " Brahman, how do you make your living?" "By gambling, 
SirGotama." "But which wins, you or the other man?" "Sometimes 
I win and sometimes the other man wins." Then said the Teacher, 
"Brahman, a trifling matter is the victory of him who defeats another; 
there is no superior advantage in such a victory. But he who over- 
comes his Depravities and so conquers self, wins a better victory, for 
such a victory no one can turn into defeat." So saying, he joined the 
connection, and preaching the Law, pronounced the following Stanzas, 

104. Victory over self is better than victory over all other folk besides; 
If a man conquer self, and live always under restraint, 

105. Neither god nor gandhabba nor Mara with Brahma united. 
Can turn into defeat the victory of such a man. 



VIII. 5. SARIPUTTA'S UNCLE ^ 

Though a man, month after month. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Veluvana with 
reference to Elder Sariputta's uncle. [230] 

The story goes that Elder Sariputta once went to his uncle and 
said, "Brahman, do you ever do a single good deed?" "I do, Reverend 
Sir." "What do you do?" "Month after month, I give ahns to the 
value of a thousand pieces of money." "To whom do you give this 
money?" "To the Naked Ascetics, Reverend Sir." "And what 
do you hope to gain thereby?" "I hope to gain the World of 
Brahma." "But is this the way to reach the World of Brahma?" 
"Yes, Reverend Sir." "Who told you so?" "My teachers told me 
so. Reverend Sir." "Brahman, neither you nor your teachers know 
the way to the World of Brahma. The Teacher alone knows the way 
thereto. Come with me, and I will ask him to tell you the way to 
the World of Brahma." 

So Elder Sariputta took his uncle with him, went to the Teacher, 
and told him all about it, saying, "Reverend Sir, this Brahman said 

1 Text: N ii. 230-231. 



234 



Booh 8, Story 6, Dhammapada 107 [N.2.23015- 



so and so. Be so good as to tell him the way to the World of Brahma." 
The Teacher asked, "Brahman, are you correctly reported.?" "Yes, 
Sir Gotama." "Brahman, though you should give alms in this way 
for a hundred years, [231] yet were it far more fruitful for a man, 
with believing heart, for but a single instant to look upon my disciple 
or to bestow upon him a mere spoonful of boiled rice." So saying, 
he joined the connection, and preaching the Law, pronounced the 
following Stanza, 

106. Though a man, month after month, for a hundred years, should sacrifice a 

thousand pieces of money, 
Yet, should he honor for even a single instant a man who has trained himself. 
It were better for him so to render honor than to oflFer sacrifice for a hundred 

years. 



VIII. 6. SARIPUTTA'S NEPHEW ^ 

Though a man for a hundred years. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Veluvana with 
reference to Elder Sariputta's nephew. [232] 

For the Elder went to his nephew also and said, "Brahman, do 
you ever do a single good deed.?^" "Yes, Reverend Sir." "What do 
you do.?" "Month after month, I slay a single beast and tend the 
sacrificial fire." "For what purpose do you do that.?^" "That, they 
say, is the way to the World of Brahma." "Who told you so?" 
"My teachers. Reverend Sir." "Neither you nor your teachers know 
the way to the World of Brahma. Come, let us go to the Teacher." 

So Elder Sariputta conducted his nephew to the Teacher, informed 
the Teacher of the incident, and said to him, "Reverend Sir, tell this 
man the way to the World of Brahma." Said the Teacher, "Brahman, 
are you correctly reported.?" "Yes, Sir Gotama." "Brahman, though 
you should thus tend the sacrificial fire for a hundred years, yet 
would the merit of your performance not attain the worth of honor 
done to my disciple for even a single instant." So saying, he joined 
the connection, and preaching the Law, pronounced the following 
Stanza, 

107. Though a man for a hundred years should tend the sacrificial fire in the forest. 
Yet, should he honor for even a single instant a man who has trained himself. 
It were better for him so to render honor than to ofiFer sacrifice for a hundred 



years. 



1 Text: N ii. 232-233. 



-N.2.23511] 



Sdriputtas friend 



235 



VIII. 7. SARIPUTTA'S FRIEND ^ 

Whatsoever a man sacrifice. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Veluvana with reference to 
Elder Sariputta's friend. [233] 

The Elder approached him also and asked him, "Brahman, do 
you ever do a single good deed.?" "Yes, Reverend Sir." "What 
do you do.?" "I offer sacrificial slaughter." (At that time, we are 
told, it was the custom to offer sacrificial slaughter at an expenditure 
of immense sums of money.) The Elder, after questioning his com- 
panion in the manner related above, conducted him to the Teacher, 
informed him of the incident, and said to him, "Reverend Sir, tell 
this man the way to the World of Brahma." The Teacher asked him, 
"Brahman, are you correctly reported.?" "Yes," replied the Brahman. 
"Brahman, though you should offer sacrificial slaughter for a year, yet 
[234] would your act not be worth the fourth part of the act of him 
who, with believing heart, bestows alms on the populace, or of those 
who, with good intention, render homage to my disciples." So saying, 
he joined the connection, and preaching the Law, pronounced the 
following Stanza, 

108. Whatsoever, either by way of sacrificial slaughter or by way of oblation. 
Though it be for a year, a man sacrifice, desiring merit. 
All that comes not to the value of a fourth part; 
Reverence for them that are upright is better. 



VIII. 8. THE LAD WHOSE YEARS INCREASED ^ 

If a man have the habit of reverence. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Arannakutika near 
Dighalambika with reference to the youth Dighayu. [235] 

The story goes that two Brahmans, residents of the city of Digha- 
lambika, retired from the world, became members of an heretical order, 
and for forty-eight years performed religious austerities. Finally 
one of them thought, "My line will perish; I will therefore return to 
the world." Accordingly he sold to others the merit of the austerities 
he had performed, and with a hundred cattle and a hundred pieces of 



1 Text: N ii. 233-235. 



2 Text: N ii. 235- 



236 



Book 8, Story 8. Dhammapada 109 [N.2.235i] 



money procured him a wife and set up a household. After a time 
his wife gave birth to a son. 

Now the other monk, his former companion, after visiting foreign 
parts, returned once more to that city. Hearing that he had returned, 
the layman took son and wife and went to see him. When he met 
him, he placed his son in the arms of the mother, and himself saluted 
the monk. Then the mother placed the child in the arms of the 
father and saluted the monk. "Live long!" said the monk to them. 
[236] But when the son was made to salute him, he held his peace. 

Said the father, "Reverend Sir, why was it that when we saluted 
you, you said, *Live long!' but when this boy saluted you, you said 
not a word.f^" "Some disaster awaits this boy, Brahman." "How 
long will he live. Reverend Sir?" "For seven days. Brahman." "Is 
there any way of averting this. Reverend Sir.^" "I know of no way 
of averting this." "But who might know. Reverend Sir.^" "The 
monk Gotama; go to him and ask him." "Were I to go there, I 
should be afraid because of having abandoned my austerities." "If 
you love your son, think not of having abandoned your austerities, 
but go to him and ask him." 

The Brahman went to the Teacher, and himself straightway saluted 
him. "Live long!" said the Teacher. When the boy's mother saluted 
him, he said the same. But when they made the boy salute him, he 
held his peace. Then the Brahman asked the Teacher the same 
question he had previously asked the monk, and the Teacher made the 
same prediction. We are told that this Brahman, not having attained 
omniscience, united his own wisdom with omniscience, but for all 
that discovered no way of averting his son's fate. The Brahman 
asked the Teacher, "Reverend Sir, is there no way of averting this.^^" 
"There might be, Brahman." "What way might there be, Reverend 
Sir.?" 

"If you erect a pavilion before the door of your house, [237] and 
set a chair in the center of it, and arrange eight or sixteen seats in a 
circle about it, and cause my disciples to sit therein; and if you then 
cause texts to be recited for the purpose of securing protection and 
averting evil consequences for the space of seven days uninterruptedly, 
in that case the danger that threatens him might be averted." "Sir 
Gotama, it is a perfectly easy matter to erect a pavilion and do all 
the rest, but how am I to obtain the services of your disciples.?" "If 
you will do all this, I will send my disciples." " Very well, Sir Gotama." 

So the Brahman completed all of the preparations at the door 



-N. 2. 2393] The lad whose years increased 237 

of his house and then went to the Teacher. The Teacher sent the 
monks, and they went there and sat down, seating the boy also on 
a Httle bench. For seven nights and seven days without interruption, 
the monks recited the usual texts, and on the seventh day the Teacher 
came himself. When the Teacher came, the deities of all the worlds 
assembled. But a certain ogre named Avaruddhaka, who had served 
Vessavana for twelve years and who had received the boon, "Seven 
days hence you shall receive this boy," approached and stood waiting. 
But when the Teacher came there, and the powerful deities gathered 
themselves together, and the weak deities drew back, [238] stepping 
back twelve leagues so as to make room, then Avaruddhaka stepped 
back also. 

The Teacher recited the Protective Texts all night long, with the 
result that when the seven days had elapsed, Avaruddhaka failed to 
get the boy. Indeed, when the dawn of the eighth day rose, they 
brought the boy and caused him to make obeisance to the Teacher. 
Said the Teacher, "Live long!" "Sir Gotama, how long will the boy 
live.^" "For a hundred and twenty years. Brahman." So they gave 
him the name of Lad-whose-years-increased, Ayuvaddhana. When 
the youth grew up, he went about surrounded by five hundred lay 
disciples. 

One day the monks began a discussion in the Hall of Truth: 
"Just think, brethren! The youth Ayuvaddhana would have died on 
the seventh day, but now he is destined to live for a hundred and 
twenty years. There he goes, surrounded by five hundred lay dis- 
ciples. There must therefore be some reason why the term of life of 
living beings here in the world increases." The Teacher approached 
and asked them, "Monks, what are you sitting here now talking 
about.?" When they told him, he said, "Monks, it is not a matter of 
years alone. Living beings here in the world who respect and rever- 
ence the virtuous, increase in four matters, obtain release from danger, 
and abide in safety unto the end of their days." So saying, he joined 
the connection, and preaching the Law, pronounced the following 
Stanza, [239] 

109. If a man have the habit of reverence, if he alway respect the aged. 
Four things increase for him: age, beauty, happiness, power. 



238 



Book 8, Story 9. Dhammapada 110 [N.2.2401- 



VIII. 9. SAMKICCA THE NOVICE ^ 

Though one should live a hundred years. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to the novice Samkicca. [240] 

The story goes that thirty men of respectable families living at 
Savatthi heard the Teacher preach the Law, yielded the breast to his 
teaching, and became monks. Five years after their full profession, 
they approached the Teacher, and listened to his exposition of the 
Two Burdens; namely, the Burden of Study and the Burden of Medi- 
tation. Concluding that because they had become monks in old age, 
it would be impossible for them to fulfil the Burden of Study, but de- 
siring to fulfill the Burden of Meditation, they had the Teacher 
assign them a Formula of Meditation leading to Arahatship, and 
requested his permission to go to a certain retreat in the forest. 
The Teacher asked them to what place they wished to go. When 
they told him, he thought to himseK, "They will be in danger of harm 
there through a certain eater of broken meats. But if the novice 
Sariikicca accompanies them, the danger will be removed, and they 
will reach the goal of their Religious Life." 

The novice Samkicca was the novice of the Elder Sariputta and 
was but seven years old. As for his birth, his mother was the daughter 
of a rich man of Savatthi, and while he yet remained in the womb, his 
mother died suddenly of a certain disease. When her body was burned, 
all of her flesh was burned with it, save only the flesh of her unborn 
child. In taking the unborn child from the pyre, the sticks that they 
used pierced the flesh in two or three places, and the sharp point of one 
stick hit the pupil of the boy's eye. [241] Having thus pierced the flesh 
of the unborn child, they threw his body on the heap of coals, covered 
it entirely with coals, and went their way. The flesh of the child was 
burned away, but on the summit of the heap of coals there appeared, 
sitting as it were in the calyx of a lotus-flower, a little boy who looked 
like a golden image. For he was in his last existence before attaining 
Nibbana, and since he had not yet attained Arahatship, nothing could 
have destroyed him, not even had Mount Sineru fallen upon him to 
crush him. 

^ Dhammapala refers to this story at Thera-Gatha Commentary, ccxl, and quotes 
the Dhammapada Commentary by name. Text: N ii. 240-253. 



-N. 2. 24222] Samkicca the novice 239 

When they went the next day to extinguish the pile, and saw the 
child lying there in such wise, they were filled with wonder and amaze- 
ment. And they said to themselves, "How did it happen that with 
all these sticks of wood aflame, and his whole body on fire, this child 
was not burned to death? What does this portend?" So they carried 
the child into the village and consulted the fortune-tellers. The for- 
tune-tellers said, "If this child lives the life of a householder, his 
kinsfolk will not be poor for seven generations. If he becomes a monk, 
he will go about with a retinue of five hundred monks." Because the 
pupil of his eye had been pierced with a stick (sarfiku), they gave 
him the name Sarakicca; and from that time forth he bore the name 
Samkicca. His kinsfolk reared him with the thought in their minds, 
"Let be! when he has grown up we will have our noble Elder make a 
monk of him." 

When he was seven years old, [242] he heard his boy-companions 
say, "Your mother died while you were still in her womb. Although 
her body was burned on the pile, nevertheless you yourself were not 
burned." Thereupon he said to his kinsfolk, "My companions tell 
me that I was saved from so terrible a danger as that; why should I 
live the life of a householder? I will become a monk." "Very well, 
dear child," said they, and taking the boy to the Elder Sariputta, 
they committed him to his care, saying, "Reverend Sir, receive this 
child into the Order." The Elder taught him the Formula of Medita- 
tion, consisting of the first five of the constituent parts of the body, 
and received him into the Order. The moment the razor touched his 
hair, he attained Arahatship. This was the novice Samkicca. 

The Teacher, knowing within himself, "If this novice goes with 
them, this danger will be removed, and they will reach the goal of their 
Religious Life," said to them, "Monks, see your older brother the 
Elder Sariputta before you go." "Very well," said they, and straight- 
way went to the Elder. "What is it, brethren?" said he. They re- 
plied, "We have received our Formula of Meditation from the Teacher, 
and asked his permission to go to the forest. But he said to us, *See 
your older brother before you go;' therefore we have come here." 
The Elder thought to himself, "The Teacher must have had some rea- 
son for sending these monks here; what can it be?" Having consid- 
ered the matter, he became aware of the reason; whereupon he said 
to them, "Is the novice with you?" "Nay, brother, he is not." "In 
that case get the novice Samkicca and take him with you." "Nay, 
brother, the novice will be a hindrance to us. Of what use will the 



240 



Book 8, Story 9. Dhammapada 110 [N.2.2422«- 



novice be to us during our residence in the forest?" "You are mis- 
taken, [243] brethren. The novice will not be a hindrance to you. 
On the contrary, you will be a hindrance to him. The Teacher sent 
you to me because he wished the novice to accompany you. There- 
fore take him with you when you go." 

"Very well," said they, consenting. So they took the novice with 
them, and, thirty-one in number, they bade farewell to the Elder and 
departed from the monastery. They traveled from place to place, 
and after making a journey of a hundred and twenty leagues, they 
came to a village in which dwelt a thousand families. When the in- 
habitants saw them, their hearts were filled with joy. After minis- 
tering faithfully to their needs, they asked them, "Reverend Sirs, 
where do you intend to go.?" "To a comfortable lodging, brethren," 
said the monks. Thereupon the inhabitants prostrated themselves 
before their feet and begged them to remain, saying, "Reverend Sirs, 
if you will take up your residence near this place for the season of the 
rains, we will take upon ourselves the Five Precepts and perform the 
Past-Day Duties." 

The Elders accepted the invitation. Thereupon the inhabitants 
arranged for them night-quarters and day-quarters, covered walks, 
and huts of leaves and grass. And distributing the duties day by day 
among the several groups, so that each might do his share and none 
be overburdened, they ministered faithfully to their needs. On the 
day when they entered upon residence for the rainy season, the Elders 
came to the following agreement, "Brethren, we have received our 
Formula of Meditation from the living Buddha; and it is impossible 
to win the favor of the Buddhas otherwise than by the faithful per- 
formance of religious duties. Now the doors of the states of suffering 
stand open before us; therefore with the exception of the early morn- 
ing, when we go the round for alms, and of the evening, when we 
wait upon the Elder, [244] at no time other than these two, may two 
of us be together. If any one fall sick, let him strike upon a bell and 
we will go to him and provide him with medicine. From this time 
forth, at whatsoever time of the night or of the day it may be, let us 
apply ourselves diligently to pur Formula of Meditation." Having 
made this agreement, they entered upon residence. 

Now at this time a poor man who had been supported by one of his 
daughters, but who had been obliged to remove from his former place 
of residence on account of lack of food there, set out on a journey to 
obtain support from another daughter. On the same day the Elders, 



-N .2.2465] 



SamJcicca the novice 



241 



after making their round for alms in the village, returning to their 
place of residence, bathed in a certain river by the way, and sat down 
on a bed of sand to eat their meal. 

At that moment the poor man came to that place and stood re- 
spectfully on one side. "Whence do you come.?" the Elders asked 
him. The poor man told his story. The Elders took pity on him and 
said, "Lay disciple, you seem to be very hungry. Go get a leaf, and 
each of us will give you a portion of rice." When he brought the 
leaf, they mixed rice with sauce and curry, and each of them gave him 
a portion of the same kind of food they were themselves eating. For 
it is said, "Should a stranger come at meal-time [245] and a monk 
offer him food, failing the best food, he should give him precisely the 
same kind of food he himself is eating, be it little or much." Therefore 
did these monks also act accordingly. 

When he had finished his meal, he bowed to the Elders and asked, 
"Reverend Sirs, has any one invited you to a meal.?" "We have re- 
ceived no invitation, lay disciple. From day to day men give us just 
this sort of food." The poor man thought to himself, "Even were we 
up and doing every moment of the time, we could never obtain food 
like this. Why should I go elsewhere.? I will live with these monks." 
So he said to them, "I should like to live with you, performing the 
major and minor duties." "Very well, lay disciple." So he accom- 
panied them to their place of residence, and by his faithful perform- 
ance of the major and minor duties won their favor completely. 

When two months had passed, he desired to see his daughter. 
But because he thought that in case he asked permission of the monks 
they would not let him go, he decided to leave even without their 
permission. So he left without so much as asking their permission. 
This was the only gross breach of propriety he committed; namely, in 
leaving without obtaining permission of the monks. 

As he proceeded on his journey, he came to a certain forest. Now 
for seven days there had been living in this forest five hundred thieves, 
who had made the following vow to a spirit, "Whoever enters this 
forest, we will kill him and make an offering to you with his flesh and 
blood." Therefore when the oldest thief climbed a tree on the seventh 
day [246] to look for victims and saw the man coming, he gave a 
sign to the thieves; and as soon as they were sure that he was well 
within the forest, they surrounded him, seized him, and bound him fast. 
Then gathering a quantity of firewood and kindling a fire by attrition, 
they started a great bonfire and cut and sharpened wooden stakes. 



242 



Booh 8, Story 9. Dhammapada 110 [N .2. 2466- 



When he saw what they were doing, he said to the ringleader, 
"Master, I see no pigs right here, nor any other wild animals. Why 
are you making all these preparations?" "We intend to kill you and 
to make an offering to a spirit with your flesh and blood." Terrified 
with the fear of death, he gave not a moment's thought to the kind 
assistance he had received from the monks, but sought only to save 
his own life. Said he, "Master, I am only an eater of broken meats; 
that is to say, I have been brought up to eat only the remnants of food 
eaten by others. I am only an eater of broken meats, the very per- 
sonification of adversity. But in such and such a place reside thirty- 
one monks, men of princely rank, worthy men who have retired from 
the world here and there. Kill them, make an offering with their 
blood, and your spirit will be pleased beyond measure." 

When the thieves heard this, they thought to themselves, "This 
man makes a good suggestion. Of what use to us is this personification 
of adversity .f^ Let us kill these men of princely rank and make an 
offering with their blood." So they said to the man, "Go ahead and 
show us where they reside." And taking him along as guide, they 
arrived at the place he mentioned. Seeing no monks within the 
monastery, they asked him, "Where are the monks.?" The man, 
since he had lived with the monks for two months and knew all about 
the agreement they had made, replied as follows, [247] "They are 
sitting in their night-quarters and in their day-quarters. Let someone 
strike the bell, and at the sound of the bell they will all assemble." 

So the ringleader of the thieves struck the bell. When the monks 
heard the sound of the bell, they thought, "It is an unusual time for the 
bell to be struck. Who can be sick.^^" And coming to the monastery 
court, they sat down in order on the stone seats which had been placed 
there. The Elder of the Assembly looked at the thieves and asked, 
"Lay disciples, who struck this bell.^^" The ringleader of the thieves 
replied, "I did. Reverend Sir." "For what reason.?" "We made a 
vow to the forest-spirit, and wish to take one monk with us for the 
purpose of making an offering." 

When the Chief Elder heard this, he said to the monks, "Brethren, 
when brothers undertake a duty, the final decision rests with the 
senior brother. Therefore I will surrender my life for your sake and 
go with these men." And he added, "Let not death be the portion 
of all; perform your meditations with heedfulness." The Junior Elder 
said, "Reverend Sir, the duty of the senior brother should be borne 
by the junior. I will go. Be heedful." Likewise did all thirty monks 



-N. 2. 24914] 



Samkicca the novice 



rise in order and say, "Let none but me go." Thus did they, although 
not the sons of the same mother or of the same father, because they 
were free from the Attachments, rise in order, and offer to surrender 
their lives for the sake of the rest. Not one was so cowardly as to 
say, "You go." 

When the novice Samkicca heard them speak thus, he said, 
"Reverend Sirs, [248] you remain here; I will surrender my life for 
you and go." "Brother, even if we're all murdered here together, we'll 
not let you go alone." "Why, Reverend Sir.? " "Brother, you are the 
novice of the Elder Sariputta, the Captain of the Faith. If we let you 
go, the Elder will blame us, saying, *They took my novice with them, 
and then went and handed him over to a pack of thieves;' and we 
shall not be able to escape the reproach. For this reason we will not 
let you go." "Reverend Sir, the Supremely Enlightened sent you to 
my preceptor, and my preceptor sent me with you for this very reason. 
You remain here; I alone will go." And bowing to the thirty monks, 
he said, "Reverend Sirs, if I have been guilty of any fault, pray for- 
give me." So saying, he departed. 

The monks were profoundly moved, their eyes filled with tears, 
and their heart's flesh trembled. The Chief Elder said to the thieves, 
"Lay disciples, this boy will be frightened if he sees you building a 
fire, sharpening stakes, and spreading leaves. Therefore, while you 
are making these preparations, let him remain at a distance." 

The thieves took the novice with them, directed him to stand 
aside, and made all the preparations. When everything was in readi- 
ness, the ringleader of the thieves [249] unsheathed his sword and 
approached the novice. The novice sat down, and sitting there, 
entered into a state of trance. The ringleader swung his sword and 
brought it down on the novice's shoulder. But the sword bent double 
and edge struck edge. Thinking to himself, "I did not dehver 
the blow properly," the thief straightened the sword and delivered 
another blow. This time the sword split from hilt to tip like a palm- 
leaf. (No one could have killed the novice at that time, even by piling 
Mount Sineru on top of him; much less with a sword.) 

When the ringleader of the thieves saw the miracle, he thought to 
himself, "Formerly my sword cut a stone pillar or an acacia stump as 
easily as the sprout of a plant. But just now it has once bent and once 
split like a palm-leaf. This sword, though it be insensible metal, 
knows the virtue of this youth; but I, who possess the gift of reason, 
know it not." So saying, he flung his sword upon the ground, pros- 



244 



Book 8, Story 9. Dhammapada 110 [N. 2.24914- 



trated himself on his breast before the feet of the novice, and said, 
"Reverend Sir, we are in this forest for the sake of booty. Men, even 
when there are a thousand of them, seeing us afar off, tremble, [250] 
and when there are only two or three of them, cannot utter a word. 
But you show not so much as a tremor, and your face is bright as 
gold in a crucible, or a kanikara in full bloom. What is the reason .f^'' 
And repeating the question, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

You tremble not, nor fear; nay more, your appearance is tranquil; 
Why weep you not at such a horror? 

The novice, rising from trance, preached the Law to the thief, 
saying, "Brother chief, he that has rid himself of the Depravities 
regards his existence as a burden set on his head, which, when it is 
destroyed, brings joy, not fear," and uttered the following Stanzas, 

Chief, he that is free from desire has no mental suffering; 

Seer, he that has rid himself of attachment has passed beyond all fear. 

If the Eye of Existence is destroyed as it should be in this life, 
Death is without terrors and is like the putting down of a burden. 

The ringleader of the thieves listened to the words of the novice, 
looked at the five hundred thieves, and said, "What do you intend 
to do?" "But you, master.^" " So wonderful was the miracle I beheld 
just now that I have no more use for the life of a householder. I intend 
to become a monk under the novice." "We will do the same thing 
too." "Well said, friends." Then the five hundred bowed to the 
novice and asked to be admitted to the Order. [251] With the blades 
of their swords and arrows he cut off their hair and the skirts of their 
garments, and dyeing their garments in reddish-yellow earth, he caused 
them to put on yellow robes. Having so done, he established them in 
the Ten Precepts, and taking them with him, set out. He thought 
to himself, "If I go without seeing the Elders, they will not be able 
to perform their meditations; for doubtless, ever since I was captured 
by the thieves and went away with them, not one of them has been 
able to restrain his tears. With the thought in their minds, *Our 
novice has been killed,' they will not be able to keep the Formula of 
Meditation before their minds. So I will see them before I go." 

So with a retinue of five hundred monks he went to their place 
of residence. When they saw him, they were relieved in mind and 
said, "Good Sarhkicca, did they spare your life.?" "Yes, Reverend 
Sirs. They sought to kill me, but were unable to do so, and believing 



-N. 2. 25311 ] Samkicca the novice 24*5 

in my virtues, they hearkened to the Law and retired from the world. 
I have come to see you before I depart. Perform your meditations 
with heedfulness. I am going to see the Teacher." So saying, he 
bowed to those monks, and taking his own monks with him, went 
to his preceptor. "Sarhkicca, you have obtained pupils.?" "Yes, 
Reverend Sir," replied the novice and told him what had happened. 
The Elder said to him, "Sarhkicca, go see the Teacher." "Very well," 
said the novice. Bowing to the Elder, he took his monks with him 
and went to the Teacher. [252] 

The Teacher said to him, "Samkicca, you have obtained pupils?" 
Sariikicca told him what had happened. The Teacher asked the 
monks, "Monks, is his story true.?" "Yes, Reverend Sir." Said the 
Teacher, "Monks, it were better for you to live but a single day, 
standing fast in virtue as you do now, than to live for a hundred 
years, confirmed in viciousness, committing acts of plunder." And 
joining the connection, he instructed them in the Law by pronouncing 
the following Stanza, 

110. Though one should live a hundred years, corrupt, not meditating, 

Yet were it better to live a single day in the practice of virtue, in meditation. 

After a time Sariikicca made his full profession. When he had 
been a monk for ten years, he received his sister's son as a novice, 
and the novice's name was Atimuttaka. When the novice reached 
the proper age, the Elder sent him home, saying, "We are ready to 
profess you; go home to your parents and find out your exact age." 
The novice set out for home to see his mother and father. [253] 

On his way home he was captured by five hundred thieves, who 
threatened to kill him for the purpose of making an offering. But 
he converted them by preaching the Law to them, and they released 
him on condition that he should tell no one of their existence. Shortly 
afterwards he saw his mother and father coming along the road from 
the opposite direction, and although they were going straight towards 
the thieves, he kept his word to the thieves and did not tell them. 
His parents suffered rough treatment at the hands of the thieves. 
And they wept and said to him, "You also were in league with the 
thieves, no doubt, and for that reason refrained from telling us." 
The thieves heard their reproaches and lamentations, and perceiving 
that the youth had kept his word and had refrained from telling his 
mother and father, believed in their hearts, and requested to be received 
into the Order. Like the novice Sariikicca, he received them all into 



246 Book 8, Story 10, Dhammapada 111 [N.2.253ii- 

the Order and conducted them to his preceptor. His preceptor sent 
him to the Teacher, to whom he went and told what had happened. 
The Teacher asked the monks, "Monks, is his story true?" "Yes, 
Reverend Sir." Then the Teacher joined the connection as before, 
and instructing them in the Law, pronounced the following Stanza, 

110. Though one should live a hundred years, corrupt, not meditating. 

Yet were it better to live a single day in the practice of virtue, in meditation. 



VIII. 10. THE MONK AND THE THIEVES ' 

Though one should live a hundred years. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to the Elder Khanu Kondaiina. [254] 

This Elder, it appears, obtained a Formula of Meditation from 
the Teacher, and while residing in the forest attained Arahatship. 
Desiring to inform the Teacher of his attainment, he set out to return 
from the forest. Growing tired by the way, he left the road, seated 
himself on a flat stone, and entered into a state of trance. Now at 
that time a band of five hundred thieves plundered a village, packed 
up their spoils in sacks of sizes proportioned to the strength of their 
several members, placed the sacks on their heads, and carried them for 
a long distance. Becoming weary, they said to themselves, "We have 
come a long distance; let us rest on the top of this flat rock." So 
saying, they left the road, went to the rock, and mistook the Elder 
for the stump of a tree. One of the thieves placed his sack on the 
Elder's head, and another placed his sack near his body. One after 
another, the five hundred thieves set their sacks in a circle about 
him and then lay down and went to sleep. 

At dawn they woke up and took their sacks. Seeing the Elder, 
and thinking he was an evil spirit, they started to run away. The 
Elder said to them, "Lay disciples, have no fear; I am a monk." 
Thereupon they prostrated themselves before his feet and begged his 
pardon, saying, "Pardon us. Reverend Sir; we mistook you for the 
stump of a tree." The ringleader of the thieves said, "I intend to 
become a monk under the Elder." [255] The rest said, "We also 
will become monks." And with one accord all of the thieves requested 
the Elder to make monks of them. The Elder made monks of them 

^ Text: N i. 254-255. 



-N. 2. 25618 



The monk and the thieves 



247 



all, just as did the novice Samkicca. From that time forward he went 
by the name of Stump Kondaniia, Khanu Kondanna. 

Accompanied by those monks, he went to the Teacher. When 
the Teacher asked him, "Kondanra, you have obtained pupils?" he 
told him what had happened. The Teacher asked, "Monks, is this 
true.f^" "Yes, Reverend Sir; we never saw such an exhibition of 
magical power before and therefore we have become monks." The 
Teacher replied, "Monks, it were better for you to live but a single 
day in the exercise of the wisdom you have just acquired than to live 
for a hundred years committing such acts of foolishness." And join- 
ing the connection and instructing them in the Law, he pronounced 
the following Stanza, 

111. Though one should live a hundred years, unwise, not meditating, 

Yet were it better to live a single day possessed of wisdom, in meditation. 



VIII. 11. ON THE RAZOR'S EDGE ^ 

Though one should live a hundred years. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to the Elder Sappadasa. [256] 

At Savatthi, we are told, the son of a respectable family, after 
hearing the Teacher preach the Law, was received into the Order 
and made his full profession. Becoming discontented after a time, 
he thought to himself, "The life of a layman is not suited to a youth 
of station like me; but even death would be preferable to remaining 
a monk." So he went about considering ways of killing himself. 

Now one day, very early in the morning, the monks went to the 
monastery after breakfast, and seeing a snake in the hall where the 
fire was kept, put it into a jar, closed the jar, and carried it out of 
the monastery. The discontented monk, after eating his breakfast, 
drew near, and seeing the monks, asked them, "What's that you've 
got, brethren?" "A snake, brother." "What are you going to do 
with it.?" "Throw it away." The monk thought to himself, "I will 
commit suicide by letting the snake bite me." So he said to the 
monks, "Let me take it; I'll throw it away." 

He took the jar from their hands, sat down in a certain place, and 
tried to make the snake bite him. But the snake refused to bite 

1 Cf. Thera-Gdthd Ccmmentary, cexv. Text: N ii. 256-260. 



248 



Book 8, Story 11, Dhammapada 112 [N.2.256i8- 



him. Then he put his hand into the jar, waved it this way and that^ 
opened the snake's mouth and stuck his finger in, but the snake still 
refused to bite him. So he said to himself, "It's not a poisonous snake, 
but a house-snake," threw it away, and returned to the monastery. 
The monks asked him, "Did you throw the snake away, brother?" 
"Brethren, that was not a poisonous snake; it was only a house-snake." 
"Brother, that was a poisonous snake, all the same; [257] it spread 
its hood wide, hissed at us, and gave us much trouble to catch. 
Why do you talk thus.^" "Brethren, I tried to make it bite me, and 
even stuck my finger into its mouth, but I couldn't make it bite.'* 
When the monks heard this, they were silent. 

Now the discontented monk acted as barber of the monastery; 
and one day he went to the monastery with two or three razors, and 
laying one razor on the floor, cut the hair of the monks with the other. 
When he removed the razor from the floor, the thought occurred to 
him, "I will cut my throat with this razor and so put myself out of the 
way." So he went to a certain tree, leaned his neck against a branch, 
and applied the blade of the razor to his windpipe. Remaining in 
this position, he reflected upon his conduct from the time of his full 
profession, and perceived that his conduct was flawless, even as the 
spotless disk of the moon or a cluster of transparent jewels. As he 
surveyed his conduct, a thrill of joy suffused his whole body. Sup- 
pressing the feeling of joy and developing Spiritual Insight, he attained 
Arahatship together with the Supernatural Faculties. Then he took 
his razor and entered the monastery inclosure. 

The monks asked him, "Where did you go, brother?" "Brethren, 
I went out thinking to myself, *I will cut my windpipe with this 
razor and so put myself out of the way.' " [258] "How did you escape 
death?" "I can no longer carry a knife. For I said to myself, *With 
this razor will I sever my windpipe.' But instead of so doing, I 
severed the Depravities with the Razor of Knowledge." The monks 
said to themselves, "This monk speaks falsely, says what is untrue," 
and reported the matter to the Exalted One. The Exalted One listened 
to their words and replied, "Monks, those that have rid themselves of 
the Depravities are incapable of taking their own life." "Reverend 
Sir, you speak of this monk as one who has rid himself of the Depravi- 
ties. But how comes it that this monk, possessed of the faculties 
requisite for the attainment of Arahatship, became discontented? 
How came he to possess those faculties? Why did not that snake bite 
him?" "Monks, the simple fact is that that snake was his slave in 



-N. 2. 25916] On the razor's edge 249 

his third previous existence, and therefore did not dare to bite the 
body of his own master." Thus briefly did the Teacher explain this 
cause to them. Thereafter that monk was known as Sappadasa. 
('Having a snake as his slave.') 

11a. Story of the Past: Discontented and covetous 

In the dispensation of the Buddha Kassapa, we are told, a certain 
youth of respectable family, having heard the Teacher preach the 
Law, was moved to enter the Order. Some time after he had made 
his full profession, discontent arose within him, and he spoke of it to 
a certain fellow-monk. The latter spoke to him repeatedly of the 
disadvantages connected with the life of a householder. The monk 
listened to his words, and became satisfied once more with the Religious 
Life. 

One day he was seated on the bank of a pool cleansing his monastic 
utensils of spots they had taken on in the days of his discontent, 
and his fellow-monk was seated beside him. Said he to his fellow- 
monk, "Brother, it was my intention on leaving the Order to give 
these utensils to you." [259] His fellow-monk thought, "What 
difference does it make to me whether this monk remains in the Order 
or leaves it.^^ Now I shall get his utensils away from him." From 
that tune on, his fellow-monk would say to him, "How now, brother! 
What is the use of our living, we who go from house to house with 
potsherds in our hands seeking alms and are forbidden to talk and 
converse with son and wife.^^" This and much else did his fellow- 
monk say to him, dwelling on the advantages of the life of a house- 
holder. From listening to the talk of his fellow-monk, he became 
discontented again. Then the thought occurred to him, "At first, 
when I told this monk that I was discontented, he spoke of the dis- 
advantages of the life of a householder; now, however, he dwells 
repeatedly on its advantages; I wonder what can be the reason." 
The reason flashed through his mind, "It is because he covets these 
monastic utensils of mine." End of Story of the Past. 

"Thus it was that because a certain monk became discontented 
in the dispensation of the Buddha Kassapa, he became discontented 
in the present time; and because he meditated then for twenty thou- 
sand years, he obtained at the present time the faculties requisite 
for the attainment of Arahatship." The monks, after hearing the Ex- 
alted One explain this matter, asked him a further question, "Rever- 



250 



Book 8, Story 12. Dhammapada 113 [N.2.259i6- 



end Sir, this monk says that he attained Arahatship even as he stood 
with the blade of his razor pressed against his windpipe. Is it possible 
to gain the Path of Arahatship in so short a period of time?" "Yes, 
monks, a monk who strives with all his might may gain the Path of 
Arahatship in raising his foot, in setting his foot on the ground, or 
even before his foot touches the ground. [260] For it is better for a 
man who strives with all his might to live but a single instant than 
for an idle man to live a hundred years." So saying, he joined the 
connection, and preaching the Law, he pronounced the following 
Stanza, 

112. Though one should live a hundred years, idle, listless. 

Yet were it better to live for a single day, and strive with might and main. 



VIII. 12. PATACARA IS BEREFT OF ALL HER FAMILY ^ 

Though one should live a hundred years. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher, while in residence at Jetavana, with refer- 
ence to the nun Patacara. 

Patacara, we are told, was the daughter of a wealthy merchant 
of Savatthi. Her father was worth four hundred millions, and she 
was exceedingly beautiful. When she was about sixteen years old, 
her parents provided quarters for her in a palace seven stories high, 
and there they kept her, on the topmost floor, surrounded by guards. 
But in spite of these precautions she misconducted herself, and it was 
with her own page.^ [261] 

Now it so happened that her father and mother had promised her 
in marriage to a certain young man who was her social equal, and 
finally they set the wedding-day. When the day was close at hand, she 
said to the page, "My parents tell me that they intend to give me in 
marriage to a young man who comes of such and such a family. Now 
you know very well that when I am once inside of my husband's house, 
you may bring me presents and come to see me all you like, but you 
will never, never get in. Therefore, if you really love me, don't 
delay an instant, but find some way or other of getting me out of this 

^ Parallels: Anguttara Commentary, JRAS., 1893, 552-560; Theri-Gdthd Com- 
m£ntary, xlvii: 108-112. On the relations of the three versions, see Introduction, 
§ 7 rf. Synoptical Table, and especially p. 50. Cf. Theri-Gdthd, 218-219, and Tibetan 
Tales, xi: n6-%W. Text: N ii. 260-270. 

* Cf. the beginning of Stories ii. 3, viii. 3, and ix. 8. 



-N .2.26213] Patacara is bereft of all her family 251 

place." "Very well, my love; this is what I will do : to-morrow, early 
in the morning, I will go to the city, gate and wait for you at such and 
such a spot; you manage, somehow or other, to get out of this place 
and meet me there." 

On the following day he went to the appointed place and waited. 
Patacara got up very early in the morning, put on soiled garments, 
disheveled her hair, and smeared her body with red powder. Then, 
in order to outwit her keepers, she took a water-pot in her hand, sur- 
rounded herself with slave-maidens, and set out as if she intended 
to fetch water. Escaping from the palace, she went to the appointed 
place and met her lover. Together they went a long way off, and took 
up their abode in a certain village. The husband tilled the soil, and 
gathered firewood and leaves in the forest. The wife fetched water 
in her water-pot, and with her own hand pounded the rice, did the 
cooking, and performed the other household duties. Thus did 
Patacara reap the fruit of her own sin. 

By and by she became pregnant, and when the time for her delivery 
was near at hand, she made the following request to her husband, 
"Here I have no one to help me. But a mother and father always 
have a soft spot in their heart for their child. Therefore take me home 
to them, that I may give birth to my child in their house." [262] 
But her husband refused her request, saying to her, "My dear wife, 
what say you.^ If your mother and father were to see me, they 
would subject me to all manner of tortures. It is out of the question 
for me to go." Over and over again she begged him, and each time 
he refused her. 

One day, when her husband was away in the forest, she went to 
the neighbors and said, "Should my husband ask you where I have 
gone when he returns, tell him that I have gone home to my parents." 
And having so said, she closed the door of her house and went away. 
When her husband returned and observed that she was not there, he 
inquired of the neighbors, and they told him what had happened. 
"I must persuade her to return," thought he, and set out after her. 
Finally he caught sight of her, and overtaking her, begged her to 
return with him. But try as he might, he was unable to persuade 
her to do so. 

When they reached a certain place, the birth-pains came upon her. 
Said she to her husband, "Husband, the birth-pains are come upon 
me." So saying, she made her way into a clump of bushes, laid herself 
upon the ground, and there, with much tossing about and pain, she 



252 



Book 8, Story 12, Dhammapada 113 [N.2.262i4- 



gave birth to a son. Then she said, "What I set out to go home for 
is over." So back again to their house she went with him, and once 
more they Hved together. 

After a time she became pregnant again. When the time for her 
dehvery was at hand, she made the same request of her husband as 
before and received the same answer. So she took her child upon her 
hip and went away just as she had before. Her husband followed 
her, overtook her, and asked her to return with him. This she refused 
to do. Now as they went on their way, a fearful storm arose, out of 
due season. [263] The sky was ablaze with flashes of lightning, and 
rent asunder, as it were, with thunder-claps, and there was an incessant 
downpour of rain. At that moment the birth-pains came upon her. 
She said to her husband, "Husband, the birth-pains are come upon 
me; I cannot stand it; find me a place out of the rain." 

Her husband went hither and thither, axe in hand, seeking materials 
for a shelter. Seeing some brushwood growing on the top of an ant- 
hill, he set about to chop it down. Hardly had he begun his work, 
when a poisonous snake slipped out of the ant-hill and bit him. In- 
stantly his body was burned up, as it were, by flames of fire shooting 
up within him, his flesh turned purple, and in the place wherein he 
stood, there he fell down dead. 

Patacara, suffering intense pain, watched for her husband to 
return, but in vain. Finally she gave birth to a second son. The 
two children, unable to withstand the buffeting of the wind and the 
rain, screamed at the top of their lungs. The mother took them to 
her bosom, and crouching upon the ground with her hands and knees 
pressed together, remained in this posture all night long. Her whole 
body looked as though there were no blood left in it, and her flesh 
had the appearance of a sere and yellow leaf. 

When the dawn rose, she took her new-born son, his flesh as red 
as a piece of meat, and placed him on her hip. Then she gave the 
older boy one of her fingers to hold, and with the words, " Come, dear 
child, your father has left us," set out along the same path her husband 
had taken. [264] When she came to the ant-hill, there, on top of it, 
she saw her husband lying dead, his flesh purple, his body rigid. "All 
on account of me," said she, "my husband has died upon the road," 
and wailing and lamenting, she continued her journey. 

When she came to the river Aciravati, she observed that by reason 
of the rain, which had lasted all night long, the river was swollen 
knee-deep, and in places waist-deep. She was too weak to wade 



-N. 2. 26516] Patdcdrd is bereft of all her family 253 

across the stream with the two children; therefore she left the older 
boy on the near bank and carried the younger across to the far side. 
Breaking off a branch of a tree and spreading it out, she laid the child 
on it. Then, thinking to herself, "I must return to my other child," 
she took leave of the younger boy and turned to recross the stream. 
But she could hardly bring herself to leave the little one, and again 
and again she turned around to look at him. 

She had barely reached midstream, when a hawk caught sight of 
the child, and mistaking him for a piece of meat, swooped down from 
the sky after him. The mother seeing the hawk swoop down after 
her child, raised both her hands and screamed with a loud voice, 
"Begone, begone! (Su, suiy Three times she screamed, but the 
hawk was so far away that he failed to hear her, and seizing the boy, 
flew up into the air with him. 

When the older boy, who had been left on the near bank, saw his 
mother stop in the middle of the river and raise her hands, and heard 
her scream with a loud voice, he thought to himself, "She is calling 
me." And in his haste he fell into the water. In this wise was her 
younger son carried off by a hawk, and her older son swept away 
by the river. And she wailed and lamented, saying, "One of my sons 
has been carried off by a hawk, the other swept away by the water; 
by the roadside my husband lies dead." [265] And thus wailing and 
lamenting, she went on her way. 

As she proceeded on her way, she met a certain man coming from 
Savatthi. She asked him, "Sir, where do you live.^" "In Savatthi, 
my good woman." "In the city of Savatthi, in such and such a street, 
lives such and such a family. Do you know them, sir.^^" "Yes, my 
good woman, I know them. But pray don't ask me about that family. 
Ask me about any other family you know." "Sir, I have no occasion 
to ask about any other. This is the only family I wish to ask about." 
"Woman, you give me no opportunity to avoid telling you. Did you 
observe that it rained all last night.^" "Indeed I did, sir. In fact, 
I am the only person the rain fell on all night long. How it came to 
rain on me, I will tell you by and by. But just tell me what has 
happened to the family of this wealthy merchant, and I will ask you 
no further questions." "My good woman, last night the storm over- 
turned that house, and it fell on the merchant and his wife and his 
son, and they perished, all three, and their neighbors and kinsmen 
are even now burning their bodies on one funeral pyre. Look there, 
my good woman! You can see the smoke now." 



254 Book 8, Story 12. Dhammapada 113 [N.2.265i6- 

Instantly she went mad. Her clothing fell off from her body, 
but she knew not that she was naked. [266] And naked as at her 
birth she wandered round and round, weeping and wailing and 
lamenting. 

Both my sons are dead; my husband on the road lies dead; 
My mother and father and brother bum on one funeral pyre. 

Those who saw her yelled, "Crazy fool! Crazy fool!" Some flung 
rubbish at her, others showered dust on her head, others pelted her 
with clods of earth. 

It so happened that at this time the Teacher was in residence at 
Jetavana monastery. As he sat there in the midst of his disciples 
preaching the Law, he saw Patacara approach from afar, and recog- 
nized in her one who for a hundred thousand cycles of time had 
fulfilled the Perfections, one who had made her Earnest Wish and 
attained it. 

(We are told that in the dispensation of the Buddha Padumuttara 
she had seen the Teacher Padumuttara take a certain nun by the arm 
and assign her preeminence among those that are versed in the Canon 
Law. It seemed as if the Teacher were opening the heaven of Indra 
and admitting the nun to the Garden of Delight. So she formed her 
resolve and made this prayer, "May I also obtain from a Buddha 
like you preeminence among nuns versed in the Canon Law." The 
Buddha Padumuttara, extending his consciousness into the future and 
perceiving that her prayer would be fulfilled, made the following 
prophecy, "In the dispensation of a Buddha to be known as Gotama, 
this woman will bear the name Patacara, and will obtain preeminence 
among nuns versed in the Canon Law.") [267] 

So when the Teacher beheld Patacara approaching from afar, 
her prayer fulfilled, her Earnest Wish attained, he said, "There is none 
other that can be a refuge to this woman, but only I." And he caused 
her to draw near to the monastery. The moment his disciples saw her, 
they cried out, "Suffer not that crazy woman to come hither." But 
he said to them, "Depart from me; forbid her not." And when she 
was come nigh, he said to her, "Sister, return to your right mind." 
Instantly, through the supernatural power of the Buddha, she returned 
to her right mind. At the same moment she became aware that her 
clothing had fallen from off her body; and recovering at once her 
sense of modesty and fear of mortal sin, she crouched upon the 
ground. 



-N .2.2692] Patacdrd is bereft of all her family ^55 

A certain man threw her his cloak. She put it on, and approaching 
the Teacher, prostrated herself before his golden feet with the Five 
Rests. Having so done, she said, "Venerable Sir, be thou my refuge, 
be thou my support. One of my sons has been carried off by a hawk, 
the other swept away by the water; by the roadside my husband lies 
dead; my father's house has been wrecked by the wind, and in it 
have perished my mother and father and brother, and even now their 
bodies are burning on one funeral pyre." 

The Teacher listened to what she had to say and replied, "Patacara, 
be no more troubled. Thou art come to one that is able to be thy 
shelter, thy defense, thy refuge. What thou hast said is true. One of 
thy sons has been carried off by a hawk, the other swept away by 
the water; [268] by the roadside thy husband lies dead; thy father's 
house has been wrecked by the wind, and in it have perished thy 
mother and father and brother. But just as to-day, so also all through 
this round of existences, thou hast wept over the loss of sons and 
others dear to thee, shedding tears more abundant than the waters 
of the four oceans." And he uttered the following Stanza, 

But little water do the oceans four contain. 
Compared with all the tears that man hath shed. 
By sorrow smitten and by suffering distraught. 
Woman, why heedless dost thou still remain? 

In this wise did the Teacher discourse on the round of existences 
without conceivable beginning. As he spoke, the grief which per- 
vaded her body became less intense. Perceiving that her grief was 
become less intense, he continued his discourse as follows, "Patacara, 
to one that is on his way to the world beyond, nor sons nor other 
kith and kin can ever be a shelter or a refuge. How much less can 
you expect them to be such to you in this present life! He that is 
wise should clarify his conduct, and so for himself make clear the 
path that leadeth to Nibbana." So saying, he instructed her in the 
Law by pronouncing the following Stanzas, 

288. Nor sons nor father can a refuge be, nor kith and Idn; 
In them, to him whom death assails, no refuge remains. 

289. Knowing this power of circumstances, the wise man, restrained by the moral 
precepts, 
Should straightway clear the path that leads to Nibbana. [269] 

At the conclusion of the discourse, Patacara obtained the Fruit 
of Conversion, and the Depravities within her, as numerous as the 



^56 



Book 8, Story 12, Dhammapada 113 [N.2.2692- 



particles of dust on the whole wide earth, were burned away. Many 
others likewise obtained the Fruit of Conversion and the Fruits of 
the Second and Third Paths. Patacara, having obtained the Fruit 
of Conversion, requested the Teacher to admit her to the Order. The 
Teacher sent her to the community of nuns and directed that she 
be admitted. Afterwards she made her full profession and by 
reason of her happy demeanor {patitdcarattd) came to be known as 
Patacara. 

One day she filled her water-pot with water, and pouring out water, 
bathed her feet. As she poured out the water, she spilled some on the 
ground. The water ran a little way and disappeared. The second 
time it went a little farther. The third time a little farther yet. So 
she took this very incident for her Subject of Meditation, and fixing 
accurately in her mind the three occurrences, she meditated thus, 
"Even as the water I spilled the first time ran a little way and dis- 
appeared, so also living beings here in the world are dying in youth. 
Even as the water I spilled the second time ran a little farther, so also 
living beings here in the world are dying in the prime of life. Even as 
the water I spilled the third time ran a little farther yet, so also living 
beings here in the world are dying in old age." 

The Teacher, seated in his Perfumed Chamber, sent forth an appari- 
tion of himself, and standing as it were face to face with her, spoke 
and said, "Patacara, 'twere better far to live but a single day, aye, 
but a single moment, and see the rise and set of the Five Elements of 
Being, than to live a hundred years and not see." [270] And joining 
the connection, he instructed her in the Law by pronouncing the 
following Stanza, 

113. Though one should live a hundred years, 'twere all in vain. 
Did one not see that all that is doth wax and wane; 
Instead, 'twere better far to live a single day. 
And know that all the world contains doth rise and pass away. 

At the conclusion of the discourse Patacara attained Arahatship 
together with the Supernatural Faculties. 



-N .2.2721 ] Kisd Gotaml seeks mustard seed 257 



VIII. 13. KISA GOTAMl SEEKS MUSTARD SEED TO CURE 

HER DEAD CHILD ^ 

Though one should live a hundred years. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher at Jetavana, with reference to Kisa Gotami. 

13 a. Kisa Gotami marries the son of a rich merchant 

Once upon a time, the story goes, a merchant worth four hundred 
milHons lived at Savatthi. Suddenly all of his wealth turned into 
charcoal. The merchant, overwhelmed with grief, refused to eat and 
took to his bed. One day a certain friend of his came to see him and 
asked him, "Sir, why are you so sorrowful.f^" The merchant told him 
what had happened. Said his friend, "Sir, give not yourself over to 
sorrow. [271] I know a way out of the difficulty, if you will but make 
use of it." "Well, sir, what am I to do.?" 

Said his friend, "Spread matting in your shop, and pile the char- 
coal on it, and sit down as if you were selling it. People will come 
along and say to you, 'Most merchants sell such things as clothing 
and oil and honey and molasses; but you are sitting here selling 
charcoal.' Then you must say to them, *If I can't sell what belongs 
to me, what am I to do.^^' But again some one may say, *Most mer- 
chants sell such things as clothing and oil and honey and molasses; 
but you are sitting here selling yellow gold.' Then you must say, 
* Where's any yellow gold.^^' Your customer will say, 'There it is!' 
Then say, 'Let me have it.' Your customer will bring you a handful 
of charcoal. Take it, cover it with your hands, and presto! it will 
turn into yellow gold. Now if your customer be a maiden, marry her 
to your son, turn over your four hundred millions to her, and live 
on what she gives you. But if your customer be a youth, marry your 
daughter to him as soon as she reaches marriageable age, turn over 
your four hundred millions to him, and live on what he gives you." 

"A fine plan indeed!" said the merchant. [272] So he piled the 
charcoal up in his shop, and sat down as if he were selling it. People 

1 Parallels: Anguttara Commentary, JRAS., 1893, 791-796; Therl-Gdthd Com- 
mentary, Ixiii: 174-176; Rogers, Buddhaghosha's Parables, x, pp. 98-102; Tibetan 
Tales, xi, pp. 216-226. In Therl-Gdthd, 218-219, and in the Tibetan version, certain 
episodes of the story of Patacara (viii. 12) are incorporated in the story of Kisa Gotami. 
Cf. Die Legende von Kisdgotaml. Eine literarhistorische Untersuchung. Von Jakob 
H. Thiessen, Breslau, 1880. Text: N ii. 270-^75. 



258 



Booh 8, Story 13. Dhammapada 11 Jf [N .2.2721- 



came along and said to him, "Most merchants sell such things as 
clothing and oil and honey and molasses; but you are sitting here 
selling charcoal." To such as asked this question, he replied as follows, 
"If I can't sell what belongs to me, what am I to do.^'* 

There came one day to the door of his shop a certain maiden, the 
daughter of a poverty-stricken house. Her name was Gotami, but by 
reason of the leanness of her body she was generally known as Kisa 
Gotami. She came to buy something for herself; but when she saw the 
merchant, she said to him, "My good sir, most merchants sell such 
things as clothing and oil and honey and molasses; but you are sitting 
here selling yellow gold." "Maiden, where is there any yellow gold.^^" 
"Right there where you are sitting." "Let me have some of it, maiden." 
She took a handful of the charcoal and placed it in his hands. No 
sooner had it touched his hands than presto! it turned into yellow gold. 

Then said the merchant to her, "Which is your house, maiden.^^" 
Said she, "Such and such, sir." The merchant, perceiving that she 
was unmarried, married her to his own son. He then gathered up 
his wealth (what was previously charcoal turning into yellow gold at 
his touch), and gave the four hundred millions into her charge. In 
time she became pregnant, and, after ten lunar months, gave birth to 
a son. But the child died as soon as he was able to walk. 



,^ 13 b. Kisa Gotami seeks mustard seed to cure her dead child^ 

Now Kisa Gotami had never seen death before. Therefore, when 
they came to remove the body for burning, she forbade them to do so. 
Said she to herself, " I will seek medicine for my son." Placing the dead 
child on her hip, she went from house to house inquiring, "Know ye 
aught that will cure my son.?" [273] Everyone said to her, "Woman, 
thou art stark mad that thou goest from house to house seeking medi- 
cine for thy dead child." But she went her way, thinking, "Surely 
I shall find someone that knoweth medicine for my child." 

Now a certain wise man saw her and thought to himself, "This 
my daughter hath no doubt borne and lost her first and only child, 
nor death hath seen before; I must help her." So he said to her, 
"Woman, as for me, I know not that wherewith to cure your child; 
but one there is that knoweth, and him I know." "Sir, who is it 
that doth know.?" "Woman, the Teacher doth know; go ask him." 
"Good sir, I will go ask him." 

* Facsimiles of original, in Burmese and Cingalese letters, vol. 28, pages xii-xiii. 



-N. 2. 2758] Kisd Gotami seeks mustard seed 259 

So she went to the Teacher, paid obeisance to him, stood at his 
side, and asked him, "Venerable Sir, is it true, as men say, that thou 
dost know that wherewith to cure my child?" "Yea, that know I." 
"What shall I get?" "A pinch of white mustard seed." "That will 
I, Venerable Sir. But in whose house shall I get it?" "In whose 
house nor son nor daughter nor any other hath yet died." "Very 
well, Venerable Sir," said she, and paid obeisance to him. Then she 
placed the dead child on her hip, entered the village, stopped at the 
door of the very first house, and asked, "Have ye here any white 
mustard seed? [274] They say it will cure my child." "Yea." 
"Well then, give it me." They brought grains of white mustard 
seed and gave to her. She asked, "Friends, in the house wherein ye 
dwell hath son or daughter yet died?" "What sayest thou, woman? 
As for the living, they be few; only the dead be many." "Well then, 
take back your mustard seed; that is no medicine for my child." 
So saying, she gave back the mustard seed. 

After this manner, going from house to house, she plied her quest. 
Never a house wherein she found the mustard seed she sought; and 
when the evening came, she thought, "Ah! 'tis a heavy task I took 
upon myself. I thought 'twas I alone had lost a child, but in every 
village the dead are more in number than the living." The while 
she thus reflected, hard became the heart the which erewhile was soft 
with mother's love. She took the child and in a forest laid him down, 
and going to the Teacher paid obeisance to him and beside him took 
her stand. 

Said the Teacher, "Didst thou get the single pinch of mustard 
seed?" "Nay, that did I not. Venerable Sir. In every village the 
dead are more in number than the living." Said the Teacher, "Vainly 
didst thou imagine that thou alone hadst lost a child. But all living 
beings are subject to an unchanging law, and it is this: The Prince 
of Death, like to a raging torrent, [275] sweeps away into the sea of 
ruin all living beings; still are their longings unfulfilled." And in- 
structing her in the Law, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

287. Whoso hath set his heart on sons or flocks and herds. 
To worldly pleasures given o'er whose thoughts, — 
Even as a torrent sweeps away a sleeping town. 
So him the Prince of Death doth take and bear away. 

As the Teacher uttered the last word of the Stanza, Kisa Gotami 
was established in the Fruit of Conversion. Likewise did many others 
also obtain the Fruit of Conversion, and the Fruits of the Second and 



260 



Book 8, Story 13. Dhammapada IH [N. 2. 2759- 



Third Paths. Kisa Gotami requested the Teacher to admit her to 
the Order; accordingly he sent her to the community of nuns and 
directed that she be admitted. Afterwards she made her full pro- 
fession and came to be known as the nun Kisa Gotami. 

One day it was her turn to light the lamp in the Hall of Confession. 
Having lighted the lamp, she sat down and watched the tongues of 
flame. Some flared up and others flickered out. She took this for 
her Subject of Meditation and meditated as follows, "Even as it is 
with these flames, so also is it with living beings here in the world: 
some flare up, while others flicker out; they only that have reached 
Nibbana are no more seen." 

The Teacher, seated in his Perfumed Chamber, sent forth an 
apparition of himself, and standing as it were face to face with her, 
spoke and said, "Even as it is with these flames, so also is it with living 
beings here in the world: some flare up, while others flicker out; they 
only that have reached Nibbana are no more seen. Therefore, better 
is the life of him that seeth Nibbana, though he live but for an instant, 
than the lives of them that endure for a hundred years and yet see not 
Nibbana." And joining the connection, he instructed her in the Law 
by pronouncing the following Stanza, 

114. Though one should live a hundred years, the region of the deathless never seeing,. 
*Twould be in vain; instead, 'twould better be 
To Kve a single day, the region of the deathless seeing. 

At the conclusion of the discourse Kisa Gotami, even as she sat 
there, attained Arahatship and the Supernatural Faculties. 



Vin. 14. THE WIDOW BAHUPUTTIKA AND HER 
UNGRATEFUL CHILDREN ^ 

Though one should live a hundred years. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to Bahuputtika. [276] 

In a certain household at Savatthi, we are told, were seven sons 
and seven daughters. All of them married as soon as they were old 
enough, and were happy, as was indeed their nature. After a time 
their father died. But the mother, the eminent female lay disciple, even 
after the death of her husband, did not for some time relinquish control 

1 Cf. Story xxiii. 3. Text: N ii. 276-278. 



-N. 2. 2787] Bahuputtikd and her ungrateful children 261 

of his property. One day her sons said to her, "Mother, now that 
our father is dead, what is the use of your retaining his property? Can 
we not support you?" She Hstened to their words, but said nothing. 
After they had spoken to her several times about the matter, she 
thought to herself, "My sons will look after me; why need I keep the 
property separate for myself?" So she divided the estate into two 
parts and distributed them among the children. 

After a few days had passed, the wife of her oldest son said to her, 
"Apparently this is the only house our excellent mother visits; she 
acts as though she had given both parts of her estate to her oldest 
son." In like manner did the wives of her other sons address her. So 
likewise did her daughters address her whenever she entered their 
houses, from the oldest to the youngest. With such disrespect was 
she treated that finally she said to herself, "Why should I live with 
them any longer? I will enter the Order and live the life of a nun." 
So she went to the nuns' convent [277] and asked to be admitted to 
the Order. They received her into the Order, and when she had made 
her full profession she went by the name of Bahuputtika the nun. 

"Since I have entered the Order in old age," thought she, as she 
performed the major and minor duties assigned to nuns, "it behooves 
me to be heedful; I will therefore spend the whole night in meditation." 
On the lower terrace, putting her hand on a pillar, she guided her steps 
thereby and meditated. Even as she walked along, fearful that in 
the dark places she might strike her head against a tree or against 
some other object, she put her hand on a tree and guided her steps 
thereby, and meditated. Resolved to observe only the Law taught 
by the Teacher, she considered the Law and pondered the Law and 
meditated. 

The Teacher, seated in the Perfumed Chamber, sent forth a radiant 
image of himself, and sitting as it were face to face with her, talked with 
her, saying, "Bahuputtika, though one should live a hundred years, 
did he not behold the Law I have taught and meditate thereon, it 
were better that he live but a moment and behold the Law I have 
taught." And joining the connection and teaching the Law, he 
pronounced the following Stanza, 

115. Though one should Hve a hundred years, did he not behold the Law Supreme, 
It were better that he live but a single day and behold the Law Supreme. [278] 

At the conclusion of the Stanza, Bahuputtika became an Arahat, 
possessed of the Supernatural Faculties. 



BOOK IX. EVIL, PAPA VAGGA 



IX. 1. THE BRAHMAN WITH A SINGLE ROBE ^ 

Let a man make haste to do good. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to the Brahman Little One-Robe, Culla Ekasataka. [1] 

For in the dispensation of the Buddha Vipassi Hved a Brahman 
named Maha Ekasataka, and he it was who was reborn in the present 
dispensation in Savatthi as One-Robe, Culla Ekasataka. For Culla 
Ekasataka possessed but a single undergarment, and his wife possessed 
but a single undergarment, and both of them together possessed but 
a single upper garment. The result was that, whenever either the 
Brahman or his wife went out of doors, the other had to stay at home. 
One day announcement was made that there would be preaching at 
the monastery. Said the Brahman to his wife, "Wife, announcement 
is made that there will be preaching at the monastery. Will you go to 
hear the Law by day or by night.'* For we have not enough upper 
garments between us to permit both of us to go together." The 
Brahman's wife replied, "Husband, I will go in the daytime." So 
saying, she put on the upper garment and went. 

The Brahman spent the day at home. At night he went to the 
monastery, seated himself in front of the Teacher, and listened to the 
Law. As he listened to the Law, the five sorts of joy arose within 
him, suffusing his body. He greatly desired to do honor to the Teacher, 
but the following thought restrained him, "If I give this garment to 
the Teacher, there will be no upper garment left for my wife or me." 
A thousand selfish thoughts arose within him; then a single believing 
thought arose within him. [2] Then thought of self arose within 
him and overmastered the believing thought. Even so did the mighty 
thought of self seize, as it were, and bind and thrust out the believing 
thought. "I will give it! No, I will not give it!" said the Brahman 
to himself. As he thus reflected, the first watch passed and the second 
watch arrived. Even then he was not able to bring himself to give the 

1 This story is referred to at Milindapanha, 115^^. Parallel in Anguttara Com- 
mentary (citation at HOS. 28. p. 51). Text: N iii. 1-5. 



-N.3.39] 



The Brahman with a single robe 



263 



garment to the Teacher. Then the last watch came. Finally the 
Brahman thought to himself, "While I have been fighting with 
thoughts of faith and thoughts of self, two watches have elapsed. If 
these powerful thoughts of self increase, they will not permit me to 
lift up my head from the Four States of Suffering. I will therefore 
give my gift." Thus the Brahman finally overmastered a thousand 
thoughts of self and followed the lead of a thought of faith. Taking 
his garment, he laid it at the Teacher's feet and thrice cried out with 
a loud voice, "I have conquered! I have conquered!" 

King Pasenadi Kosala happened to be listening to the Law. When 
he heard that cry, he said, "Ask him what he has conquered." The 
king's men asked the Brahman the question, and the Brahman ex- 
plained the matter to them. When the king heard the explanation, 
he said, "It was a hard thing to do what the Brahman did. I will do 
him a kindness." So he caused a pair of garments to be presented to 
him. The Brahman presented these garments also to the Tathagata. 
Then the king doubled his gift, presenting the Brahman first with 
two pairs of garments, then with four, then with eight, finally with 
sixteen. The Brahman presented all these garments also to the 
Tathagata. Then the king directed thirty-two pairs of garments to 
be presented to the Brahman. But to avoid having it said, "The 
Brahman has kept not a single pair for himself, but has given away 
every pair he received," he said to the Brahman, "Keep one pair for 
yourself and give another pair to your wife." So saying, he caused 
the Brahman to keep two pairs and gave the remaining thirty pairs 
to the Tathagata alone. Even had the Brahman given away what 
he possessed a hundred times, the king would have met his gifts 
with equal gifts. (In a former state of existence Maha Ekasataka 
kept for himself two pairs of garments out of sixty-four he received; 
Culla Ekasataka [3] kept two out of thirty-two.) 

The king gave orders to his men, "It was indeed a hard thing to 
do what the Brahman did. Fetch my two blankets into the presence- 
chamber." They did so. The king presented him with the two 
blankets, valued at a thousand pieces of money. But the Brahman 
said to himself, "I am not worthy to cover my body with these blankets. 
These are suitable only for the Religion of the Buddha." Accordingly 
he made a canopy of one of the blankets and hung it up in the Per- 
fumed Chamber over the Teacher's bed; likewise he made a canopy 
of the other blanket and hung it up in his own house over the spot 
where the monk who resorted to his house for alms took his meals. 



264 



Book 9, Story 1. Dhammapada 116 [N.s.Sio- 



At eventide the king went to visit the Teacher. Recognizing the 
blanket, he asked him, "Reverend Sir, who was it that honored you 
with the gift of this blanket?" "Ekasataka." Thought the king 
to himself, "Even as I believe and rejoice in my belief, even so does 
this Brahman believe and rejoice in his belief." Accordingly he 
presented to him four elephants, four horses, four thousand pieces of 
money, four women, four female slaves, and four most excellent 
villages. Thus therefore did the king cause the Brahman to be given 
the Gift of Fours. 

The monks started a discussion in the Hall of Truth: "Oh how 
wonderful was the deed of Culla Ekasataka! No sooner done than he 
received all manner of presents of four! As soon as he did a good 
deed, straightway the fruit thereof was given to him." The Teacher 
approached and asked the monks, "Monks, what are you sitting here 
now talking about.?" When they told him, he said, "Monks, had 
Ekasataka been able to bring himself to give me his gift in the first 
watch, he would have received the Gift of Sixteens; had he been able 
to do so in the middle watch, [4] he would have received the Gift of 
Eights; because it was not until late in the last watch that he gave me 
his gift, he received only the Gift of Fours. He who does good works 
should not put away the impulse to good that arises within him, but 
should act on the instant. A meritorious deed tardily done brings its 
reward, but tardy is the reward it brings. Therefore a man should 
perform a good work the instant the impulse to good arises within 
him." So saying, he joined the connectioa, and preaching the Law, 
pronounced the following Stanza, 

116. Let a man make haste to do good; let him restrain his heart from evil; 
For if a man is slow in doing good, his mind delights in evil. 



IX. 2. A DISCONTENTED MONK ^ 

Should a man commit sin. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference 
to Elder Seyyasaka. [5] 

For Elder Seyyasaka was Elder Laludayi's fellow-monk. Becoming 
discontented with the continence required by the Religious Life, he 

* This story is derived from the Vinaya, Samghddisesa, i. 1: iii. 110-112. Text: 
N iii. 5-6. 



-N.3.621] 



A discontented monk 



%65 



told his companion, who put him up to violating the first Sanghadisesa 
Rule.^ Thereafter, as often as he fell into that sin of discontent, he 
broke that same Rule. The Teacher heard about his doings, sent for 
him, and asked him, "Is the report true that you do thus and so?" 
"Yes, Reverend Sir." "Fond man," said the Teacher, "why have 
you sinned so grievously, in a manner so unbecoming to your state.^^" 
In such fashion did the Teacher reprove him. Having so done, he 
enjoined upon him the observance of the Precepts. Then he said 
to him, "Such a course of action inevitably leads to suffering, both 
in this world and in the world to come." So saying, he joined the 
connection, and preaching the Law, pronounced the following 
Stanza, 

117. Should a man commit sin, he should not repeat his sin again and again; 
He should not seek after evil; suffering is the outcome of evil. 



IX. 3. GODDESS AND MONK 2 

// a man do works of merit. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference 
to the goddess Laja. The story begins at Rajagaha. [6] 

For while Venerable Kassapa the Great was in residence at Pipphali 
Cave, he entered into a state of trance, remaining therein for seven 
days. Arising from trance on the seventh day, he surveyed with 
Supernatural Vision the places where he was wont to go his rounds 
for alms. As he looked abroad, he beheld a certain woman, the keeper 
of a field of rice-paddy, parching heads of rice which she had gathered. 
Thereupon he considered within himself, "Is she endowed with faith 
or is she not endowed with faith.?" Straightway becoming aware that 
she was endowed with faith, he reflected, " Will she be able to render me 
assistance.?" Straightway he became aware of the following, "This 
noble young woman is wise and resourceful; she will render me 
assistance, and as the result of so doing will receive a rich reward." 
So he put on his robe, took bowl in hand, and went and stood near the 
rice-field. 

When this noble young woman saw the Elder, her heart believed, 
and her body was suffused with the five sorts of joy. "Wait a moment. 
Reverend Sir," said she. Taking some of the parched rice, she went 



1 Explained at SBE. xiii. 7; xx. 77. 



2 Text: N iii. 6-9. 



^66 



Book P, Story S, Dhammapada 118 [N. 3.621- 



quickly to him, poured the rice into the Elder's bowl, and then, 
saluting him with the Five Rests, she made an Earnest Wish, saying, 
"Reverend Sir, may I be a partaker of the Truth you have seen?" 
"So be it," replied the Elder, pronouncing the words of thanksgiving. 
Then that noble young woman saluted the Elder and set out to return, 
reflecting upon the alms she had given to the Elder. [7] 

Now in a certain hole by the road skirting the field of growing 
rice lurked a poisonous snake. He was not able to bite the Elder's 
leg, for it was covered with his yellow robe. But as that noble young 
woman reached that spot on her return, reflecting upon the alms she 
had given to the Elder, the snake wriggled out of his hole, bit her, 
and then and there caused her to fall prostrate on the ground. Dying 
with believing heart, she was reborn in the World of the Thirty-three. 
Like a sleeper awakened, she awoke in a celestial mansion of gold 
thirty leagues in extent; her stature was three-quarters of a league. 
She wore a celestial robe twelve leagues in measure as an under- 
garment, and another celestial robe twelve leagues long as an upper 
garment. She had a retinue of a thousand celestial nymphs. The 
portal of the mansion was richly ornamented, and there hung down 
therefrom a golden vessel filled with golden grains of rice, to make 
known her former work of merit. 

Standing at the portal of the mansion, she surveyed her glory and 
considered within herself, "Through what work of merit did I attain 
this glory .'^" Straightway she became aware of the following, "This 
my glory is the result of my gift of parched rice to Elder Kassapa 
the Great." Then she thought to herself, "Since I have received 
this splendor and glory as the result of a trifling work of merit, I 
ought not henceforth to be heedless. I will therefore perform the 
major and minor duties for the Elder and so make my salvation sure." 
Accordingly early in the morning she took a golden broom and a 
golden receptacle for sweepings, went to the Elder's cell, swept it 
clean, and set out water for drinking. 

When the Elder saw what had been done, he concluded, "Some 
probationer or novice must have rendered me this service." On the 
second day the goddess did the same thing again, and the Elder again 
came to the same conclusion. But on the third day the Elder [8] 
heard the sound of her sweeping, and looking in through the keyhole, 
saw the radiant image of her body. And straightway he asked, "Who 
is it that is sweeping.'^" "It is I, Reverend Sir, your female disciple 
the goddess Laja." "I have no female disciple by that name." 



-N.3.9ii] Goddess and monk 267 

"Reverend Sir, when I was a young woman tending a rice-field, I 
gave you parched rice; as I returned on my way, a snake bit me, and 
I died with believing heart and was reborn in the World of the 
Thirty-three. Since it was through you that I received this glory, I 
said to myself, *I will perform the major and minor duties for you 
and so make my salvation sure.' Therefore came I hither, Reverend 
Sir." "Was it you that swept this place for me yesterday and on 
the preceding days, setting out water for drinking.^" "Yes, Rever- 
end Sir." 

"Pray depart hence, goddess. Never mind about the duties you 
have rendered, but henceforth come no more hither." "Reverend 
Sir, do not destroy me. Permit me to perform the major and minor 
services for you and so make my salvation sure." "Goddess, depart 
hence, lest in the future, when expounders of the Law take the varie- 
gated fan and sit down, they have reason to say, * Report has it that 
a goddess comes and performs the major and minor duties for Elder 
Kassapa the Great, setting out water for him to drink.' Henceforth, 
therefore, come no more hither, but turn your steps elsewhere." 
"Reverend Sir, do not destroy me," begged the goddess again and 
again. The Elder thought to himself, "This goddess pays no attention 
to my command." Therefore he said to her, "You do not know your 
place." So saying, he snapped his fingers in contempt. The goddess, 
not daring to remain where she was, flew up into the air, and extending 
her clasped hands in an attitude of reverence, cried out, "Reverend 
Sir, do not nullify the attainment I have attained. Let me make 
my salvation sure." Thereupon the goddess wept and wailed and 
lamented, standing poised in the air. 

As the Teacher sat in his Perfumed Chamber at Jetavana, [9] he 
heard the sound of her lamentation. Therefore he sent forth a luminous 
image of himself, and sitting down face to face as it were with the 
goddess, he opened his lips and said, "Goddess, it was indeed the 
duty of my son Kassapa the Great to restrain himself. But they who 
desire to perform works of merit conclude, *This one thing alone is 
needful,' and recognize the doing of works of merit as their sole duty. 
Indeed, both in this world and the world to come, it is the doing of 
good works alone that brings happiness." Then he joined the con- 
nection, and preaching the Law, pronounced the following Stanza, 

118. If a man do works of merit, he should do them again and again; 

He should long to do works of merit; happy is the outcome of works of merit. 



£68 



Book 9, Story 4- Dhammapada 119-120 [N.3.921- 



IX. 4. ANATHAPINDIKA AND THE GODDESS ^ 

Even an evildoer sees happiness. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to Anathapindika. [10] 

For Anathapindika, who spent fifty-four crores of treasure in the 
Religion of the Buddha on Jetavana monastery alone, proceeded in 
state three times a day to wait upon the Teacher during the Teacher's 
residence at Jetavana. Whenever he set out to go thither, he thought, 
"The probationers and novices will look at my hands and ask the 
question, *What has he brought with him as offerings?' "and therefore 
never went empty-handed. When he went thither early in the morn- 
ing he carried rice-porridge with him; after breakfast he carried ghee, 
fresh butter, and the other medicaments; in the evening he carried 
with him perfumes, garlands, unguents, and garments. Now those 
who lived by trade had borrowed from him eighteen crores of treasure. 
Moreover eighteen crores of treasure belonging to his family, secretly 
buried at the bank of the river, had been swept into the great ocean 
at the time when the river burst its banks. The result was that he 
was gradually being reduced to a state of poverty. But in spite of 
this, he just gave alms to the Congregation of Monks as before, al- 
though he was unable to give choice food such as he had before. 

One day the Teacher asked him, "Are alms provided for us in the 
house of our householder.^" Anathapindika replied, "Yes, Reverend 
Sir, but the food is naught but bird-feed and sour gruel." Then said 
the Teacher to him, "Householder, do not allow yourself to think, *It is 
naught but coarse food that I give to the Teacher,' and be not disturbed 
thereat. If the intention be pure, it is impossible to give the Buddhas 
and others food that is really coarse. You have given food to the 
Eight Holy Personages. I, however, in the time of Velama stirred 
up all India by setting rich offerings agoing, [11] but yet I failed to 
win a single man to betake himself to the Three Refuges. It is a 
hard thing to find those on whom it is proper to bestow offerings. 
Therefore be not disturbed at the thought, 'My offerings are coarse 
food.'" So saying, the Teacher recited in full the Velama Sutta.^ 

^ This story is for the most part an abbreviated version of the Introduction to 
Jdtaka 40: i. 226-231. The text is frequently word for word the same as the Jdtaka. 



Dh. cm. 10^1 !'• is derived from Anguttara, iv. 392-396. 
2 AnguUara, iv. 392-396. 



Text: Niii. 9-15. 



-N .3.1213] Andthapindika and the goddess 269 

When the Teacher and the Teacher's disciples entered the house 
of Anathapindika, the goddess who dwelt over the gate, unable to 
remain by reason of the intensity of their goodness, thought to herself, 
"I will detach the householder from his allegiance, that they may no 
more enter this house." Now although the goddess had longed to 
address the householder, she could say not a word to him in the heyday 
of his wealth and power. At this time, however, she thought to 
herself, "The householder is now a poor man, and will therefore be 
disposed to give heed to my words." Accordingly she went by night, 
entered the treasurer's chamber of state, and stood poised in the air. 
When the treasurer saw her, he said, "Who is that.^^" "It is I, great 
treasurer, the goddess that resides over your fourth gate. I am come 
to give you admonition." "Well then, say what you have to say." 

"Great treasurer, without considering the future, you have dissi- 
pated your great wealth in the religion of the monk Gotama. Now, 
although you have reduced yourself to poverty, you still continue to 
give of your wealth. If you continue this course, in a few days you 
will not have enough left to provide you with clothing and food. Of 
what use to you is the monk Gotama .^^ Abandon your lavish giving, 
devote your attention to business, and make a fortune." "Is this the 
advice you came to give me.?" "Yes, treasurer." "Then begone. 
Though a hundred thousand like you should try, [12] you would 
not be able to move me from my course. You have said to me what 
you had no right to say; what business have you to dwell in my 
house.? Leave my house instantly." The goddess, unable to with- 
stand the words of a Noble Disciple who had attained the Fruit of 
Conversion, left his house, taking her children with her. 

But after the goddess had left his house, she was unable to find 
lodging elsewhere. Then she thought to herself, "I will ask the 
treasurer to pardon me and to allow me to resume my residence in 
his house." Accordingly she approached the tutelary deity of the 
city, told him of her offense, and said to him, "Come now, conduct 
me to the treasurer, persuade him to pardon me, and persuade him 
to allow me to resume my residence in his house." But the tutelary 
deity of the city replied, "You said something you had no business 
to say; it will be impossible for me to go with you to the treasurer's 
residence." Thus did the tutelary deity of the city refuse her request. 
Then she went to the Four Great Kings, but they likewise refused 
her request. Then she approached Sakka king of gods, told him her 
jstory, and entreated him yet more earnestly. Said she, "Sire, I am 



270 



Book 9, Story ^. Dhammapada 119-120 [N.3.i2i4- 



unable to find a place wherein to lodge myself, but wander about 
without protection, children in hand. Obtain for me the privilege of 
returning to my former residence." Sakka replied, "But neither will 
it be possible for me to speak to the treasurer in your behalf. However, 
I will tell you a way." "Very good, sire; tell me what it is." 

"Go assume the dress of the treasurer's steward; note on a leaf 
from the hand of the treasurer a list of the wealth he once possessed; 
put forth your supernatural power and recover the eighteen crores of 
wealth borrowed by those who live by trade, and fill therewith the 
treasurer's empty storeroom. [13] Besides this wealth, there are 
eighteen crores of wealth which were swept into the great ocean. Yet 
again there are eighteen crores of wealth without an owner, to be found 
in such and such a place. Gather all this together and therewith fill 
his empty store-room. Having thus atoned for your offense, ask him 
to grant you pardon." "Very well," said the goddess. And straight- 
way she did all, just as Sakka king of gods told her to. Having so 
done, she went and stood poised in the air, illuminating with super- 
natural radiance the treasurer's chamber of state. 

"Who is that.^" asked the treasurer. "It is I," replied the goddess, 
"the blind, stupid goddess that once dwelt over your fourth gate. 
Pardon me the words I once spoke to you in my blind stupidity. In 
obedience to the command of Sakka king of gods, I have recovered 
the fifty-four crores of wealth and filled your empty store-room there- 
with; thus have I atoned for my offense; I have no place wherein to 
lodge myself, and therefore am I greatly wearied." Anathapindika 
thought to himself, "This goddess says to me, *I have made atone- 
ment for my offense,' and confesses her fault; I will conduct her to 
the Supremely Enlightened." Accordingly he conducted her to the 
Teacher, saying to her, "Tell the Teacher all you have done." The 
goddess fell upon her face before the feet of the Teacher and said, 
"Reverend Sir, because of my folly I did not recognize your eminent 
merit and uttered evil words; pardon me for having uttered them." 
Thus did the goddess ask pardon both of the Teacher and of the great 
treasurer. 

Then the Teacher admonished both the treasurer and the fairy 
with reference to the ripening of deeds both good and evil, saying, 
"Here in this present life, great treasurer, even an evildoer sees 
happiness, so long as his evil deed has not yet ripened. But so soon 
as his evil deed has ripened, then he sees only evil. Likewise a good 
man sees evil things, so long as his good deeds have not yet ripened; 



-N.3.169] Andthapindika and the goddess 271 

but so soon as his good deeds have ripened, then he sees only happi- 
ness." [14] So saying, he joined the connection, and preaching the 
Law, pronounced the following Stanzas, 

119. Even an evildoer sees happiness, so long as his evil deed has not yet ripened; 
But so soon as his evil deed has ripened, then the evildoer sees evil things. 

120. Even a good man sees evil, so long as his good deeds have not yet ripened; 
But so soon as his good deeds have ripened, then the good man sees happiness. 



IX. 5. THE MONK WHO FAILED TO KEEP HIS 
REQUISITES IN ORDERS 

One should not think lightly of evil. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to a monk who failed to keep his requisites in order. [15] 

The story goes that this monk would leave out of doors whatever 
requisites, such as beds and chairs, he used out of doors. His requisites, 
thus exposed to the ravages of rain and sun and white ants, soon went 
to pieces. His brother monks used to say to him, "Brother, ought 
you not to put away your requisites.'^" The monk would reply, "I 
have committed only a slight fault, brethren; it is not worth wasting 
thought or bile over." Then he would do the same thing over again. 
The monks informed the Teacher of his doings. The Teacher sent for 
him and said to him, "Monk, is the report true that you are doing 
thus and so.^" But even when the Teacher asked him, the monk 
replied, "Exalted Sir, I committed only a slight fault; it is not worth 
wasting thought or bile over." Thus did he reply to the Teacher, 
expressing slight concern over what he had done. Then said the 
Teacher, "Monks should never act on this principle. One should 
never regard an evil deed as a small matter, saying, *It is a mere 
trifle.' For when a water-vessel stands with mouth uncovered in the 
open [16] and the rain descends, it is not, to be sure, filled by a single 
drop of rain; but when it rains again and again, it is filled to the brim. 
Even so, little by little, the man who commits sin accumulates a huge 
pile of sin." So saying, he joined the connection, and preaching the 
Law, pronounced the following Stanza, 

121. One should not think lightly of evil and say, "It will not come nigh unto me.'* 
Even a water- vessel is filled by the falling of one drop of water after another; 
Even so the simpleton fills himself with evil, though he gather it little by little. 

1 Text: N iii. 15-16. 



272 Book 9, Story 6. Dhammapada 122 [N.3.I619- 

At the conclusion of the lesson many attained the Fruit of Con- 
version and the Fruits of the Second and Third Paths. Then the 
Teacher promulgated the following precept, "Whoever fails to remove 
a bed he has spread in the open air is guilty of sin." 



IX. 6. TREASURER CATFOOT ^ 

One should not think lightly of good. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to Treasurer Catfoot, Bilalapadaka. [17] 

For once upon a time the residents of Savatthi banded themselves 
together and gave alms to the Congregation of Monks presided over 
by the Buddha. Now one day the Teacher, in returning thanks, spoke 
as follows, "Lay disciples, here in this world one man himself gives, 
but does not urge others to give; in the various places where he is 
reborn, such a man receives the blessing of wealth but not the blessing 
of a retinue. A second man does not himself give, but urges others 
to give; in the various places where he is reborn, such a man receives 
the blessing of a retinue but not the blessing of wealth. A third man 
neither himself gives nor urges others to give; in the various places 
where he is reborn, such a man receives neither the blessing of wealth 
nor the blessing of a retinue. Lastly, a man both himself gives and 
urges others to give; in the various places where he is reborn, such 
a man receives both the blessing of wealth and the blessing of a retinue." 

Now a certain wise man who stood listening to the Teacher's dis- 
course on the Law, thought to himself, "This is indeed a wonderful 
thing! I will straightway perform works of merit leading to both of 
these blessings." Accordingly he arose and said to the Teacher, as 
the latter was departing, "Reverend Sir, accept our offering of food 
to-morrow." "But how many monks do you need.^" "All the monks 
you have. Reverend Sir." The Teacher [18] graciously consented 
to come. Then the layman entered the village and went hither and 
thither, proclaiming, "Women and men, I have invited the Congrega- 
tion of Monks presided over by the Buddha for to-morrow. Give 
rice and whatever else be needed for making rice-porridge and other 
kinds of food, each providing for as many monks as his means permit. 
Let us do all the cooking in one place and give alms in common." 

1 Text: N iii. 17-20. 



-N.3.1914] 



Treasurer Catfoot 



273 



Now a certain treasurer, seeing that the layman had come to the 
door of his shop, became angry and thought to himself, "Here is a 
layman who, instead of inviting as many monks as he could himself 
accommodate, is going about urging the entire village to give alms." 
And he said to the layman, "Fetch hither the vessel you brought 
with you." The treasurer took grains of rice in his three fingers, 
and presented them to the layman; similarly with different kinds of 
kidney-beans. Ever after that the treasurer bore the name of Catfoot, 
Bilalapada. Likewise in presenting ghee and jagghery to the layman, 
he placed a basket in the layman's vessel, and allowing a corner to 
remain empty, dribbled out his offering pellet by pellet, giving him only 
a very little. 

The lay disciple placed together the offerings which the rest pre- 
sented to him, but placed apart by themselves the offerings of the 
treasurer. When the treasurer saw the layman do this, he thought to 
himself, "Why does he place apart by themselves the offerings I have 
presented to him.?" In order to satisfy his curiosity, he sent a page 
with orders to follow the layman, saying to the page, "Go find out 
what he does with my offerings." The layman took the offerings 
with him, and saying, "May the treasurer receive a rich reward," 
put two or three grains of rice into the porridge and cakes, distributing 
beans and drops of oil and jaggery-pellets in all the vessels. The page 
returned [19] and told the treasurer what the layman had done. 
When the treasurer heard his report, he thought to himself, "If the 
layman blames me in the midst of the assembled company, I will 
strike him and kill him the moment he takes my name upon his lips." 

On the following day, therefore, the treasurer secreted a knife in 
a fold of his undergarment and went and stood waiting at the refectory. 
The layman escorted into the refectory the Congregation of Monks 
presided over by the Buddha, and then said to the Exalted One, 
"Reverend Sir, at my suggestion the populace has presented these 
offerings to you. All those persons whom I urged to give have given 
rice and other provisions according to their respective ability. May 
all of them receive a rich reward." When the treasurer heard this, he 
thought to himself, "I came here with the intention of killing the 
layman in case he took my name upon his lips by way of blame; in 
case, for example, he said, ' So and So took a pinch of rice and gave it 
to me.' But instead of so doing, this layman has included all in his 
request for a blessing, both those who measured out their gifts in 
pint-pots and those who took pinches of food and gave, saying, *May 



274 Book 9, Story 6, Dhammapada 122 [N.3.i9i4- 

all receive a rich reward.' If I do not ask so good a man to pardon me, 
punishment from the king will fall upon my head." And straightway 
the treasurer prostrated himself before the layman's feet and said, 
"Pardon me, master." "What do you mean.^" asked the layman. 
Thereupon the treasurer told him the whole story. 

The Teacher seeing this act, asked the steward of the offerings, 
"What does this mean.^" Thereupon the layman told him the whole 
story, beginning with the incidents of the previous day. Then the 
Teacher asked the treasurer, "Is his story correct, treasurer.?" "Yes, 
Reverend Sir." Then said the Teacher, "Disciple, one should never 
regard a good deed as a small matter and say, * It is a mere trifle.' One 
should never regard lightly an offering given to a Buddha like me, [20] 
or to the Congregation of Monks presided over by the Buddha, and 
say of it, * It is a mere trifle.' For wise men who do works of merit, 
in the course of time, become filled with merit, even as a water- vessel 
which stands uncovered becomes filled with water." So saying, he 
joined the connection, and preaching the Law, pronounced the follow- 
ing Stanza, 

122. One should not think lightly of good and say, "It will not come nigh unto me." 
Even a water- vessel is filled by the falling of one drop after another; 
Even so a wise man fills himself with good, though he gather it Httle by little. 



IX. 7. MERCHANT GREAT-WEALTH ^ 

Even as a merchant. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to 
Merchant Great- Wealth. [21] 

The story goes that five hundred thieves sought to effect an 
entrance into the house of this merchant, but failed in the attempt. 
By and by the merchant filled five hundred carts with wares, but 
before setting out on his journey, sent the following message to the 
monks, "I am going to such and such a place on business. Let such 
of you as desire to go to this place come forth and proceed with me. 
Those who do so will not be troubled on the way for lack of food." 
Five hundred monks heard the message, and as soon as they heard it, 
set out on the road with the merchant. Now those thieves also heard 
that the merchant was setting out on a journey, and no sooner did 

1 Text: N iii. 21-24. 



-N.3.231] Merchant Great-Wealth 275 

they hear the news than they went and secreted themselves in a 
forest by the way. 

When the merchant reached the entrance to the forest, he halted 
in a certain village. There he spent three days disposing of the oxen, 
the carts, and the rest. During this time, however, he provided 
regularly for the monks. While he tarried there, the thieves sent out 
a certain man, saying to him, "Go find out when the merchant intends 
to leave the village and then come back and tell us." The agent of the 
thieves went to that village and said to a friend of his, "When does 
the merchant intend to leave the village.^" "Two days more and 
he will set out," was the reply; "but why do you ask.^" The agent 
of the thieves told him the reason, saying, "I belong to a band of 
five hundred thieves who are lying in wait for him in the forest." 
"Very good," said his friend; "go your way; he will be setting out 
right soon." So saying, he dismissed him. [22] 

Thought the friend of the thief, "Shall I restrain the thieves, or 
the merchant.?" After thinking the matter over, he came to the 
following conclusion, "Why should I have anything to do with these 
thieves.? Five hundred monks are living on the bounty of this mer- 
chant; I will therefore give the merchant a hint." So he went to 
the merchant and said to him, "When do you intend to set out on your 
journey.?" "On the third day," replied the merchant. Then said 
the man, "Do just as I tell you. I have just learned that there are 
five hundred thieves lying in wait for you in the forest. Do not go 
there, I pray you." "How do you know.?" "I have a friend who 
belongs to the band. I know because he told me." "Well then, why 
should I go on from this point at all.? I will turn round and go back 
home again." 

Since the merchant still tarried, those thieves sent the same man 
back again to investigate. The man went and asked his friend. 
Learning the merchant's plans, he went back and said to the thieves, 
"My friend tells me that the merchant intends to turn round and go 
back home again." When the thieves heard that, they filed out of 
the forest and took up a position on the road leading in the opposite 
direction. But the merchant still tarried. So the thieves sent the 
same man back again, and he went as before to his friend. The friend 
of the thief, knowing where the thieves were now posted, again told 
the merchant. The merchant thought to himself, "I lack for nothing 
here; since this is the case, I will go neither forward nor backward, 
but will remain right here where I am." Accordingly he went to 



276 



Book 9, Story 7. Dhammapada 123 [N.3.23i- 



the monks and said to them, [23] *' Reverend Sirs, I am informed that 
a band of thieves posted themselves along the road with the intention 
of plundering me, and that upon hearing of my intention to turn 
back, they posted themselves on the road leading in the opposite 
direction. Now I have decided to go neither forward nor backward, 
but to remain right here where I am. If your reverences desire to 
remain right here also, suit your own pleasure." 

The monks decided under the circumstances to go back. Accord- 
ingly they took leave of the merchant, returned to Savatthi, and 
having saluted the Teacher, sat down respectfully at one side. The 
Teacher asked them, "Monks, did you not accompany the merchant 
of great wealth?" "Yes, Reverend Sir," replied the monks; "but 
a band of thieves encompassed the comings and goings of the merchant 
of great wealth for the purpose of plundering him. Therefore he 
remained right where he was. But we have returned." Then said 
the Teacher, "Monks, Merchant Great- Wealth is avoiding the path 
because thieves lie in wait for him there. Even so the man who would 
live avoids deadly poison. Even so should monks also avoid evil, re- 
garding the Three Forms of Being as paths encompassed about by 
bands of thieves." So saying, he joined the connection and preaching 
the Law, pronounced the following Stanza, 

123. Even as a merchant possessing small company and great wealth avoids a path 
where danger lurks. 
Even as a man desiring to live avoids poison, so should a man avoid evil. 



IX. 8. THE ENCHANTED HUNTERS 

If in his hand. This religious instruction was given by the Teacher 
while he was in residence at Veluvana with reference to the hunter 
Kukkutamitta. [24] 

Once upon a time there lived in Rajagaha a certain rich man's 
daughter. When she reached marriageable age, her mother and 
father lodged her in an apartment of royal splendor on the topmost 
floor of a seven-storied palace, with a female slave to guard her. One 
day towards evening, as she stood at her window looking down into the 
street below, she saw Kukkutamitta enter the city. Kukkutamitta 
was a hunter who made his living by killing deer; five hundred were 



Text: N iii. 21-24. 



-N. 3 .2524] 



The enchanted hunter 



277 



the snares, and five hundred the spears, with which he used to catch 
them. Now the hunter Kukkutamitta had killed five hundred deer, 
had filled his cart with their flesh, and was entering the city sitting 
on the pole of his cart to market his kill. 

When the rich man's daughter saw him, she immediately fell in 
love with him. Giving her slave a present, she sent her out, saying, 
"Go find out when this hunter expects to return, and come back to 
me." The slave went out, gave the hunter the present, and asked 
him the question her mistress had told her to ask. The hunter replied, 
"Today I shall sell the meat, and to-morrow morning early I shall 
come out of such and such a gate and [25] set out on my return 
journey." The slave listened to the hunter's reply and went back and 
told her mistress. 

The rich man's daughter laid out such of her clothes and jewels 
as she thought proper to take with her, and very early the following 
morning, having dressed herself in soiled garments, she left the house 
accompanied by a number of female slaves, carrying a water-pot in 
her hand, as though it was her intention to go to the landing on the 
river. Going to the place named by the hunter, she stood and watched 
for him to come. Very early the following morning the hunter also 
set out, driving his cart. The rich man's daughter fell in behind his 
cart and followed him. When the hunter saw the rich man's daughter, 
he said to her, "I do not recognize you as the daughter of anyone with 
whom I am acquainted; pray cease from following me, young woman." 
Said the rich man's daughter, "You did not summon me; I came of 
my own accord; be still and drive your cart." The hunter repeatedly 
bade her turn back, but to no purpose. Finally she said to him, " When 
good fortune comes to one, one shouldn't turn it away." Then the 
hunter knew for certain that she was following him, immediately 
assisted her to mount the cart, and continued his journey. Her mother 
and father sought everywhere to find her, but finding her nowhere, 
concluded that she must be dead, and held the funeral feast in honor 
of the dead. After living with the hunter, she gave birth to seven 
sons. When her sons reached manhood, she got them married. 

Now one day as the Teacher surveyed the world at dawn, he 
observed that Kukkutamitta and his sons and daughters-in-law had 
entered the Net of his Knowledge. Thereupon he considered within 
himself, "What will this come to.?" Becoming aware that all fifteen 
possessed the dispositions requisite to conversion, he took bowl and 
robe and went to the place where Kukkutamitta's nets were spread. 



278 Book 9, Story 8, Dhammapada 1^4 [N .3. 2524- 

Now it so happened that on that day not a single animal had been 
caught in any of his nets. [26] The Teacher left his footprint on 
one of the hunter's nets, went on, and sat down under a bush in the 
shade. Very early in the morning Kukkutamitta took his bow and 
went to the place where his nets were spread. He inspected all of 
his nets from first to last, and found that he had caught not a single 
animal. Finally he saw the Teacher's footprint, whereupon the 
thought occurred to him, "Somebody is going about setting free the 
animals I have caught." His anger was aroused against the Teacher, 
and when, as he proceeded on his way, he caught sight of the Teacher 
sitting under the bush, he immediately drew his bow and said to 
himself, "That is the man who set free the animals I caught; I will 
kill him." The Teacher permitted him to draw his bow, but did not 
permit him to shoot. So there the hunter stood, unable to shoot the 
arrow and unable to take it from the string, wearied to exhaustion, 
with saliva streaming from his mouth, as if his ribs had been shattered. 

When his sons returned home, they said, "Our father is a long time 
returning home; what can be the matter.'^" So the mother sent them 
out, saying, "My dear sons, go and seek your father." Accordingly 
they took their bows and set out. When they saw their father stand- 
ing there enchanted, they said to themselves, "That must be some 
enemy of our father;" and forthwith those seven brothers drew their 
bows. But through the supernatural power of the Buddha they were 
all rooted to the spot immovable, even as was their father, and there 
they stood. Their mother asked herself, "Why are my sons so long 
in returning home.^^" So she went to the place where her husband and 
sons had gone, accompanied by her seven daughters-in-law. When she 
saw her husband and sons standing there enchanted, she thought to 
herself, "At whom, pray, are they aiming their bows.^^" When she 
looked beyond and saw the Teacher, she stretched forth her hands 
and cried out with a loud voice, "Do not kill my father; do not kill 
my father." 

Kukkutamitta heard her cry, and thought to himself, "I am indeed 
lost; so that is my father-in-law; oh, [27] what a wicked deed I have 
done!" Likewise his sons thought to themselves, "So that is our 
grandfather; oh, what a wicked deed we have done!" As Kukkuta- 
mitta thought, "That is my father-in-law," his disposition became 
friendly. Likewise, as his sons thought, "That is our grandfather," 
their disposition became friendly. Then their mother, the rich man's 
daughter, spoke to them and said, "Throw away your bows immedi- 



-N.3.2810] 



The enchanted hunter 



279 



ately; ask my father to pardon you." The Teacher, knowing that 
their hearts had softened, permitted them to lower their bows. Then 
all of them bowed low before the Teacher and asked his pardon, 
saying, "Pardon us. Reverend Sir." So saying, they sat down respect- 
fully on one side. Thereupon the Teacher preached the Law to them 
in orderly sequence. At the end of his discourse Kukkutamitta and 
his seven sons and his seven daughters-in-law, making fifteen persons 
in all, were established in the Fruit of Conversion. 

The Teacher made his round for alms, and after breakfast returned 
to the monastery. On his return the Elder Ananda asked him, 
"Reverend Sir, where have you been.?" "I have been with Kukkuta- 
mitta, Ananda." "Did you prevail upon him to abandon the taking 
of life. Reverend Sir.?" "Yes, Ananda. Kukkutamitta, together 
with his seven sons and "his seven daughters-in-law, has become rooted 
and grounded in immovable faith, has professed faith in the Three 
Jewels, and has abandoned the taking of life." Said the monks, " Rever- 
end Sir, has he not a wife.?" "Yes, monks, he has a wife; and when 
she was a mere girl, living with her family, she obtained the Fruit of 
Conversion." 

The monks began to discuss the matter, saying, "So Kukkuta- 
mitta has a wife, and when she was a mere girl she obtained the Fruit 
of Conversion; yet she married this hunter and by him had seven 
sons. Furthermore, during all this time, whenever her husband 
said to her, 'Bring me my bow, bring me my arrows, bring me my 
hunting-knife, bring me my net,' she obeyed him and gave him what 
he asked for. And her husband, taking what she had given him, went 
and took life. Is it possible that those who have obtained the Fruit 
of Conversion take life.?" [28] Just then the Teacher approached and 
asked, "Monks, what is it that you are sitting here now talking about.?" 
When they told him, he said, "Monks, of course those that have ob- 
tained the Fruit of Conversion do not take life. Kukkutamitta's 
wife did what she did because she was actuated by the thought, 'I 
will obey the commands of my husband.' It never occurred to her 
to think, *He will take what I give him and go hence and take life.' 
If a man's hand be free from wounds, even though he take poison 
into his hand, yet the poison will not harm him. Precisely so, a man 
who harbors no thoughts of wrong and who commits no evil, may 
take down bows and other similar objects and present them to another, 
and yet be guiltless of sin." So saying, he joined the connection, and 
preaching the Law, pronounced the following Stanza, 



280 Book 9, Story 8, Dhammapada 12 1^ [N.3.28ii~ 

124. If in his hand there be no wound, 

A man may carry poison in his hand. 

Poison cannot harm him who is free from wounds. 

No evil befalls him who does no evil. 

On a subsequent occasion the monks began the following dis- 
cussion, "On what basis did Kukkutamitta, together with his sons 
and his daughters-in-law, attain the Path of Conversion.? And why 
was he reborn as a hunter.?" At that moment the Teacher drew near 
and asked, "Monks, what is it that you are sitting here now talking 
about?" When they told him, [29] he said, 

8 a. Story of the Past : The city treasurer and the 
country treasurer 

Monks, in times past men planned a shrine for the relics of the 
Buddha Kassapa. And they said, "What shall be the mortar for 
this shrine, and what shall be the water.?" And this was their decision, 
"Yellow orpiment and red arsenic shall be the mortar and sesame oil 
shall be the water." Accordingly they reduced yellow orpiment and 
red arsenic to a powder and mixed it with sesame oil. Then, cutting 
bricks in two, and alternating bricks and blocks of gold, they laid up 
an inner wall. The outer wall consisted of solid blocks of gold, each 
of which was worth a hundred thousand pieces of money. 

When the shrine was completed as far as the receptacle for the 
relics, they thought, "Now that we have reached the receptacle for 
the relics, we have need of a large amount of money; whom shall we 
make our foreman.?" A certain village treasurer said, "I will be fore- 
man." So saying, he contributed a crore of gold towards the reliquary. 
When the inhabitants of the country saw what he had done, they 
said, "This city treasurer is just piling up money. But in spite of 
the fact that a shrine is building so splendid as this, he is not will- 
ing to contribute enough money to make himself chief. Therefore the 
village treasurer, by reason of his contribution of a crore of treasure, 
will become foreman." And they were greatly offended. The city 
treasurer heard their words and said, "I will give two crores and be 
foreman myself." So saying, he contributed two crores. Thereupon 
the village treasurer said, "I will be foreman," and contributed three 
crores. Thus did the village treasurer and the city treasurer bid 
against each other, until finally the city treasurer offered to give 
eight crores. 

Now the village treasurer had only nine crores of treasure in his 



-N.3.313] 



The enchanted hunter 



281 



house, while the city treasurer had forty. Therefore the village 
treasurer thought to himself, "If I give nine crores, this [30] city 
treasurer will say, 'I will give ten crores,' and I shall be plunged into 
poverty." So the village treasurer said, "Not only will I give all 
this wealth, but I will myself, together with sons and wife, become the 
slave of this shrine." And with his seven sons and his seven daughters- 
in-law and his wife, he surrendered himself to the shrine. The inhabit- 
ants of the country said, "It is possible to obtain money, but this 
man, with sons and wife, has surrendered his very self; let him alone 
be foreman." So they made him foreman. 

Thus did these sixteen persons become slaves of the shrine. The 
inhabitants of the country, however, made them freemen. In spite 
of this they cared for the shrine, and the shrine was their only care. 
When they finished the term of life allotted to them, they passed 
from that state of existence and were reborn in the World of the Gods. 
They remained in the World of the Gods during the interval between 
two Buddhas. In the dispensation of the present Buddha the wife 
passed from that state of existence and was reborn as the daughter 
of a rich man of Savatthi. When she was a mere girl, she attained 
Arahatship. But "Rebirth is a grievous matter for him who has 
not yet seen the Truth;" and so it was with her husband. After 
passing from birth to birth in the round of existences, he was at last 
reborn as a hunter. Thus it happened that no sooner did the rich 
man's daughter see her former husband than her former passion for 
him returned ! And it has been said, 

Through past association or present advantage. 
That love springs up again as the lotus in the water. 

So it happened that solely because of her former love for him 
the rich man's daughter married the hunter. Likewise, when her 
sons passed from that state of existence, they were conceived once 
more in her womb. Likewise her daughters-in-law were conceived 
once more in the wombs of their respective former mothers, and [31] 
when they reached marriageable age they married into the same 
households. And thus all those who at that time cared for the shrine, 
by the supernatural power of that meritorious work, attained the 
Fruit of Conversion. End of Story of the Past. 



282 Book 9, Story 9. Dhammapada 125 [N.s.sis- 



IX. 9. THE HUNTER WHO WAS DEVOURED BY 
HIS OWN DOGSi 

Whosoever commits offense against the man that is offenseless. This 
religious instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in resi- 
dence at Jetavana with reference to the hunter Koka. 

The story goes that one day early in the morning, as Koka was on 
his way to the forest with bow in hand and a pack of hounds trailing 
after him, he met by the wayside a certain monk entering a village 
for alms. The sight of the monk angered him. As he continued on 
his way, he thought to himself, "I have met a Jonah; I shall get 
nothing to-day." As for the Elder, when he had made his round of 
the village and eaten his breakfast, he set out to return to the monas- 
tery. Likewise the hunter, who had scoured the forest without bagging 
any game, set out on his return journey. 

Seeing the Elder again, the hunter thought to himself, "Early 
this morning I met this Jonah, went to the forest, and got nothing; 
now he bobs up again before my very eyes; I will let my dogs eat 
him up." So he gave the word to his dogs and set them on the Elder. 
As for the Elder, he begged the hunter for mercy, saying, "Do not so, 
lay disciple, I pray you." The hunter replied, "Early this morning 
I met you face to face, and because of you I got nothing in the forest; 
now you bob up again before my very eyes; I will let my dogs eat 
you up, and that is all I have to say." So saying, the hunter set his 
dogs on the Elder without more ado. 

The Elder climbed a certain tree in haste, and settled himself in 
a fork of the tree a man's height from the ground; the dogs closed 
around the tree. [32] The hunter Koka accompanied the dogs to 
the tree and said to the Elder, "Don't delude yourself with the thought 
that you have escaped from my clutches merely by climbing a tree." 
And forthwith he pierced the sole of one of the Elder's feet with the 
point of an arrow. Again the Elder begged the hunter for mercy, 
saying, "Do not so, I pray you." The hunter, however, paid no 
attention to the Elder's entreaty, but pierced the sole of the Elder's 
foot again and again with the point of the arrow. When the sole of 
one of the Elder's feet had been pierced through and through, he drew 
up the wounded foot and let his other foot hang down; when the 

1 Text: N iii. 31-34. 



-N.3.33io] Hunter devoured by his own dogs ' 283 

sole of that foot had been pierced through and through, he drew 
that foot up also. When the hunter had thus pierced through and 
through the soles of both of the Elder's feet in spite of the Elder's 
entreaties, the Elder felt as though his body had been set on fire with 
torches. So intense was the pain he suffered that he was unable any 
longer to fix his attention; the robe which he wore as an outer garment 
dropped from his body, but he did not even notice that it had fallen. 
When the robe dropped from the Elder's body, it fell upon the hunter 
Koka, covering him from head to foot. 

"The Elder has fallen out of the tree," thought the dogs. Forth- 
with they crept in under the robe, dragged out their own master, 
and devoured him, leaving only the bare bones. Once out from under 
the folds of the robe, the dogs stood and waited. The first thing they 
knew, the Elder broke off a dry stick and threw it at them. The 
moment the dogs saw the Elder they thought, "We have eaten our 
own master," and straightway they scurried off into the forest. The 
Elder was greatly perplexed and disturbed. Thought he to himself, 
"The hunter lost his life because my robe fell and covered him; is 
my innocence still unimpaired.'^" With this thought in his mind he 
slipped down from the tree, went to the Teacher, and told him the 
whole story, beginning at the beginning. "Reverend Sir," said he, 
"it was all because of my robe [33] that this hunter lost his life; is 
my innocence still unimpaired .^^ Am I still a religious.^" The Teacher 
listened to the Elder's words and replied, "Monk, your innocence 
is still unimpaired; you are still a religious; it is he who offended 
against the offenseless that has gone to perdition. Moreover, this is 
not the first time he has done this very thing. In a previous state 
of existence also he offended against the offenseless and went to per- 
dition for it." And when the Teacher had thus spoken, he illustrated 
the matter further by relating the following 

9 a. Story of the Past : Wicked physician, boys, and 
poisonous snake ^ 

The story goes that in times long past a certain physician made 
the rounds of a village seeking employment for his services. Finding 
none, and overcome with hunger, he departed from that village. As 
he passed out of the village gate, he noticed a throng of little boys 

1 This story is derived from Jdtaka 367: iii. 202-203. Cf. story i. la. The 
wicked physician and the woman. 



284 . Booh 9, Story 9. Dhammapada 125 [N.3.33io- 

playing about the gate. As soon as the physician saw them, he thought 
to himself, "I will let a snake bite these boys, then I will treat their 
wounds; thus I shall obtain food for myself." Accordingly he pointed 
to a snake that lay in the hole of a certain tree with his head thrust 
out and said to the boys, "Boys, there is a young Salika bird; catch 
him." One of the boys immediately gripped the snake firmly by the 
neck and dragged him out of his hole. But as soon as he discovered 
that he had a snake in his hands, he screamed and threw the snake 
on the head of the physician, who stood close by. The snake coiled 
about the shoulders of the physician, bit him hard, and then and 
there killed him. 

"Thus," concluded the Teacher, "in a previous state of existence 
also this hunter Koka offended against the offenseless and went to 
perdition for it." When the Teacher had related this Story of the 
Past, he joined the connection, and preaching the Law, pronounced 
the following Stanza, 

125. Whosoever commits offense against the man that is offenseless. 
Against the man that is free from impurity and sin. 
Unto that very simpleton returns that evil deed again. 
Like fine dust tossed agaiust the wind. 



IX. 10. THE JEWELER, THE MONK, AND THE 

HERON 1 

Some are reborn on earth. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to 
Tissa, an Elder who resorted to a jeweler for alms. [34] 

This Elder, it seems, had taken his meals in the house of a certain 
jeweler for twelve years, and the master and mistress of the household 
had ministered to his wants as faithfully as a mother or father might 
do. Now one day the jeweler sat chopping some meat, and the 
Elder sat before him. At that moment King Pasenadi Kosala sent 
a certain precious stone to the jeweler together with the following 
message, " Clean it, pierce it, and send it back." The jeweler, although 
his hands were covered with blood, took the stone in his hand and 
placed it in a jewel-box. [35] Then he went into an inner room to 
wash his hands. 

* For a discussion of the motif on which this story turns, see Bloomfield, JAOS.t 
36, 63-65. Text: N iii. 34-37. 



I 



-N. 3 .3616] The jeweler, the monk, and the heron 285 

Now the jeweler had a pet heron in his house; and the heron, 
concluding from the smell of blood that the jewel must be a piece of 
meat, swallowed the jewel before the very eyes of the Elder. When the 
jeweler returned and discovered that the jewel had disappeared, he 
asked his wife and his sons in turn, " Did you take the jewel.^" " Indeed 
we did not take it," they replied. The jeweler immediately concluded, 
"The Elder must have taken it;" and whispered to his wife, "The 
Elder must have taken the jewel." His wife replied, "Husband, say 
not so. During all the years the Elder has visited this house, I have 
never observed a flaw in him; it was not he that took the jewel." 

Then the jeweler asked the Elder, "Reverend Sir, did you take 
a precious stone in this place.?" "No, lay disciple, I did not take it." 
"Reverend Sir, there was nobody else here. You, and you alone, 
must have taken the jewel. Give me back the precious stone." Since 
the Elder steadfastly refused to admit that he had taken the jewel, 
the jeweler said to his wife, "It must have been the Elder that took 
the jewel. I will question him even by torture." "Husband, do not 
ruin us; it were better far for us to become slaves than to lay such 
a charge at the door of the Elder." But the jeweler replied, "Were 
all of us to become slaves, we should not bring the price of that jewel." 

The jeweler took a rope, bound the head of the Elder, [36] and 
beat him on the head with a stick. Blood streamed from the Elder's 
head, ears, and nostrils, and his eyes looked as though they would 
pop out of their sockets. Overwhelmed with the pain, the Elder fell 
prostrate on the ground. The heron sniffing the blood, approached 
the Elder and began to drink the blood. At this the jeweler, beside 
himself with anger at the Elder, screamed, "What are you doing here.?" 
and kicked the heron out of the way. But a single blow sufficed to 
kill the heron and he turned over on his back. 

When the Elder saw that, he said to the jeweler, "Lay disciple, 
just slacken the rope about my head and see whether the heron is dead 
or not." The jeweler answered him, "You also will die just as has 
this heron." "Lay disciple, it was this heron that swallowed that 
jewel. However, had not the heron died, I would sooner have died 
myself than have told you what became of the jewel." The jeweler 
immediately ripped open the crop of the heron, and the first thing he 
saw was the jewel. Thereupon he trembled in every limb, his heart 
palpitated with excitement, and flinging himself at the feet of the 
Elder, he said, "Pardon me. Reverend Sir; what I did I did in my 
ignorance." "Lay disciple," replied the Elder, "it was not your fault 



286 



Book 9, Story 10. Dhammapada 126 [N.3.S6i«- 



at all, and neither was it my fault; the round of existences alone is 
to blame for this. I pardon you freely." "Reverend Sir, if it is really 
true that you have pardoned me, then pray take your accustomed 
seat in my house once more and accept alms at my hands." "Lay 
disciple, I shall not henceforth set foot under the roof of anybody's 
house; my present plight is the result of entering other men's houses. 
[37] From this time forth, whithersoever my feet may carry me, I' 
shall receive alms only when standing at the house-door." Thus did 
the Elder speak, taking upon himself one of the Pure Precepts. And 
when he had thus spoken, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

Food is cooked for the sage, a little here and a little there, in one house after another. 
I will journey about on my round for alms; a good stout leg is mine. 

But not long after the Elder had spoken these words, he passed 
into Nibbana as the result of the beating he had received at the hands 
of the jeweler. The heron was reborn in the womb of the jeweler's 
wife. When the jeweler died, he was reborn in Hell. When the jeweler's 
wife died, she was reborn, because of her soft-heartedness towards 
the Elder, in the World of the Gods. 

The monks asked the Teacher about their future state. Said the 
Teacher, "Monks, of living beings here in this world, some reenter 
the womb; others who are evildoers go to Hell; others, who have 
done good deeds go to the World of the Gods; while they that have 
rid themselves of the Contaminations, pass to Nibbana." So saying, 
he joined the connection, and preaching the Law, pronounced the 
following Stanza, 

126. Some are reborn on earth, evildoers go to hell, 

The righteous go to heaven, Arahats pass to Nibbana. 



IX. n. THREE PARTIES OF MONKS ^ 

Neither in the heaven above. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference 
to three groups of persons. [38] 



11 a. Story of the Present: A crow burned to death 

The story goes that while the Teacher was in residence at Jeta- 
vana, a party of monks set out to pay him a visit, and entered a certain 

1 Text: N iii. 38-44. 



-N.3.398] 



Three parties of monks 



287 



village for alms. The inhabitants of the village took their bowls, 
provided seats for them in a rest-house, offered them rice-porridge 
and hard food, and while awaiting time for almsgiving, sat and listened 
to the Law. At that moment a flame of fire shot up from under the 
cooking- vessel of a certain woman who was boiling rice and seasoning 
sauce and curry, and caught the thatch of the roof; whereupon a 
bundle of grass detached itself from the thatch and floated away into 
the air a mass of flames 

At that moment a crow came soaring through the air, thrust his 
neck into the bundle of grass, was instantly enveloped in the blazing 
mass, burned to a crisp, and fell to the ground in the heart of the 
village. All this happened before the very eyes of the monks, and 
they said, "Oh, what a terrible thing has happened! Just look, breth- 
ren, at the dreadful death that has overtaken this crow! As for what 
he did in a previous state of existence to be overtaken by so dreadful 
a death, who is likely to know other than the Teacher alone.^^ Let us 
therefore ask the Teacher what he did in a previous state of exist- 
ence." And with this purpose in mind they departed. 



lib. Story of the Present: A woman cast overboard 

A second party of monks set out to pay the Teacher a visit and 
embarked in a ship. When the ship reached mid-ocean, it stopped 
and stood stock-still. "There must be a Jonah on board," said the 
passengers, and cast lots. Now the captain had his wife on board, and 
she was a young woman in the bloom of youth, exceedingly beautiful 
and fair to see. When, therefore, they cast lots for the first time and 
the lot fell upon the captain's wife, they said, "Cast lots again." So 
they cast lots the second and the third time, and three times in suc- 
cession [39] the lot fell upon the captain's wife. Thereupon the 
passengers went to the captain, looked him straight in the face, and 
asked him, "What about it, master.?" The captain replied, "It is 
not right to sacrifice the lives of all on board for the sake of this lone 
woman; throw her overboard." So they seized the woman and 
started to throw her overboard. All of a sudden, terrified with the 
fear of death, she let out a loud scream. When the captain heard her 
scream, he said, "There is no sense in allowing her jewels to go down 
with her; remove her jewels, every one, wrap her in a piece of cloth, 
and then throw her overboard into the sea. But I shall not have 
the heart to witness her death-struggle on the surface of the water. 



288 Book 9, Story 11. Dhammapada 127 [N .3.398- 

Therefore, in order to make sure that I shall not see her, tie a jar 
of sand about her neck in this fashion and then throw her over- 
board.'* They did as the captain told them to. The moment she 
struck the water, fishes and tortoises swam up and tore her limb from 
limb. When the monks learned what had happened, they said, "With 
the single exception of the Teacher, who is likely to know what this 
woman did in a previous state of existence.'^ Let us ask the Teacher 
what it was that she did." So as soon as they reached the haven where 
they would be, they disembarked and set out to see the Teacher. 

11 c. Story of the Present: Monks imprisoned in a cavern 

Likewise seven other monks set out to see the Teacher. Arriving 
at a certain monastery in the evening, they entered and asked for a 
night's lodging. Now there were seven beds in a certain rock-cell, 
and the seven monks, having obtained permission to sleep in this 
cavern, immediately lay down and went to sleep. In the night a 
rock as big as a pagoda came rolling down the opposite slope and 
stopped at the entrance to the cavern, blocking it completely. When 
the resident monks discovered what had happened, they said, "This 
cavern we provided for the express use of visiting monks. But this 
huge rock has fallen and blocked the entrance to the cavern com- 
pletely; [40] let us remove it." So they gathered together the men 
from seven villages, and the men and the monks without struggled 
with might and main, and the monks who were imprisoned within 
struggled with might and main, but in spite of their combined efforts 
they were unable to budge the rock. Worse yet, for seven days they 
were unable to budge the rock, and for seven days the visiting monks, 
overcome with hunger, suffered greatly. Finally, on the seventh day, 
suddenly and without warning, the rock rolled away from the entrance 
to the cavern of its own accord, and the visiting monks were free. 
When they came out of the cavern, they thought to themselves, 
" With the single exception of the Teacher, who is likely to be able to 
explain the disaster with which we were overtaken.? Let us ask the 
Teacher about it." And with this purpose in mind they departed. 

These seven monks met the two other parties of monks on the way, 
and all three parties of monks continued their journey together. 
Together they approached the Teacher, saluted him, and seated 
themselves at one side. Then, one after another, the three parties 



~N.3.4ii8] Three parties of monks 289 

of monks asked the Teacher to explain the incidents which they had 
witnessed and in which they had had a share. The Teacher took up 
the incidents one after another and explained them as follows : 

11 d. Story of the Past: Burning of an ox 

"Monks, as for that crow, he experienced identically the same 
form of suffering he had once inflicted upon another. For in times 
long past that crow was a certain farmer of Benares. Once upon a 
time he tried to break in an ox of his, but try as he might, he could 
not break him in. His ox would go a little way and then lie down; 
and when the farmer beat him, he would get up, go a little farther, 
and then lie down again. Finally, after the farmer had done his best 
to make his ox go and had failed completely, his anger got the better 
of him. [41] Said the farmer to the ox, 'Very well! from this moment 
you shall lie here to your heart's content.' So saying, the farmer 
wrapped the body of the ox with straw just as he would make a bundle 
of straw; and when he had so done, he set fire to the straw. Then 
and there the ox was burned to a crisp, and then and there he died. 
This, monks, is the evil deed which that crow committed at that time. 
Through the ripening of that evil deed he suffered torment in Hell for 
a long period of time, and thereafter, because the fruit of that evil 
deed was not yet exhausted, he was seven times in succession reborn 
as a crow. 

lie. Story of the Past : Drowning of a dog 

"As for that woman, monks, she too experienced identically the 
same form of suffering she once inflicted upon another. For in times 
long past that woman was the wife of a certain householder of Benares. 
She used to do with her own hand all of the household duties, such 
as fetching water, pounding rice, and cooking. And she had a certain 
dog that used to sit watching her as she performed her duties within 
the house; and whenever she went to the field to gather rice, or when- 
ever she went to the forest to pick up firewood and leaves, that dog 
always went with her. One day some young men, seeing her with her 
dog, said jestingly, *Ah! here is a hunter come out with a dog; to-day 
we shall have some meat to eat !' Annoyed by their jesting, the woman 
beat the dog with sticks and stones and clods of earth, and chased 
him away. The dog, however, ran back only a Kttle way and then 
turned around and began to follow her again. 

(It appears that in his third previous existence that dog had been 



290 



Book 9, Story 11. Dhammapada 127 [N.3.4118- 



her husband, and therefore it was impossible that he should ever lose 
his affection for her. In the revolution of being which has no con- 
ceivable beginning, there is no one who has not at some time or other 
been the wife or husband of somebody else. Of course, in states of 
existence not far removed, the affection that persists for relatives is 
exceedingly strong; [42] and this is the reason why that dog simply 
could not leave his mistress.) 

"The woman was in a great rage when she reached her husband's 
field. After she had gathered what rice she needed, she picked up a 
rope, put it in the fold of her dress, and started back home. All this 
time that dog was following in her footsteps. After the woman had 
given her husband his meal of rice-porridge, she took an empty water- 
pot in her hand and started off for a certain water-pool. Having filled 
the vessel with sand, she looked about her, when all of a sudden she 
heard the dog bark close by. Immediately the dog ran up to her, 
wagging his tail and thinking to himself, * It is a long time since I have 
had a pleasant word from her to-day.' The woman seized the dog 
firmly by the neck, fastened one end of the rope to the water-vessel 
and the other to the dog's neck, and then started the vessel rolling 
down the slope into the water. The dog was dragged along by the 
water-vessel, fell into the water and died then and there. Through 
the ripening of that evil deed that woman suffered torment for a long 
period of time in Hell; and thereafter, because the fruit of that evil 
deed was not yet exhausted, in a hundred successive existences a 
jar of sand was tied to her neck, she was thrown into the water, and 
in this manner suffered death. 



11 f. Story of the Past: Imprisonment of a lizard 

"In like manner, monks, you too have experienced identically 
the same form of suffering you once inflicted upon others. For example, 
in times long past there lived in Benares seven young cowherds. For 
seven days by turns they used to tend a herd of cattle. One day, as 
they were returning home after tending their cattle, they caught sight 
of a huge lizard. They immediately ran after the lizard, but the lizard 
ran faster than they did and slipped into a certain ant-hill. Now there 
were seven holes in this ant-hill, and the boys immediately concluded, 
*We shall not be able to catch this lizard to-day; we will come back 
again to-morrow and then we shall catch him.' Accordingly each of 
them took a fistful of broken twigs, and between them the seven boys 



■.3.4418] 



Three parties of monks 



291 



stuffed the seven holes full. Having so done, [43] they went away. 
On the following day they drove their cows in a different direction and 
forgot all about that lizard. On the seventh day they came along with 
their cows, saw that ant-hill, and suddenly remembered about the 
lizard. *What has become of the lizard.'^' thought they. Immediately 
each of them removed the twigs which they had stuffed into the 
seven holes. The lizard, caring little whether he lived or not, immedi- 
ately came out of the hole, reduced to skin and bones, quaking and 
trembling. When those boys saw him, they took pity on him and said, 
*Do not kill him; he has not had a thing to eat for seven days.' And 
they stroked him on the back and let him go, saying, 'Go in peace.' 
Now because those boys did not kill that lizard they escaped torture 
in Hell, but in fourteen successive existences that band of seven lacked 
food for seven successive days. Monks, you were those cowherds 
at that time, and that was the evil deed you committed." 

Thus did the Teacher, in answer to their questions, explain those 
three incidents. When he had finished speaking, a certain monk asked 
him, "But, Reverend Sir, if a man has committed an evil deed, can 
he not escape from the consequences thereof, either by soaring into 
the air, or by diving into the sea, or by entering a cave in a mountain.^" 
Said the Teacher, "It matters not, monks, where he may seek to hide 
himself, whether in the air or in the sea or in the bowels of the earth; 
there is no place on earth where a man can escape from the conse- 
quences of an evil deed." So speaking, he joined the connection, and 
preaching the Law, pronounced the following Stanza, [44] 

127. Neither in the heaven above, nor in the depths of the sea, 
Nor in a cavern of the mountains, should one there enter; 
Nowhere on earth can the place be found 
Where a man can escape from the consequences of an evil deed. 



IX. 12. SUPPABUDDHA INSULTS THE TEACHER ^ 

Neither in the heaven above. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Nigrodha Monastery 
with reference to Suppabuddha the Sakiya. [44] 

The story goes that Suppabuddha the Sakiya took offense at 
the Teacher because the latter renounced his daughter and retired 

1 Cf. Hardy, Manwa/ o/ Bw(fcZM*m, pp. 351-352. Text: N iii. 44-47. 



292 



Booh 9, Story 12. Dhammapada 128 [N.3.44i8- 



from the world, and because, after receiving his son into the Order, 
he assumed a hostile attitude towards him. [45] So one day he said 
to himself, "I will not permit the Teacher to go where he has been 
invited and partake of food." Accordingly he seated himself in the 
street, drinking strong drink, and blocking the Teacher's way. When 
the Teacher with his retinue of monks arrived at the spot in the street 
where sat Suppabuddha the Sakyan, they said to the latter, "The 
Teacher is come nigh." Suppabuddha replied, "Tell him to go on his 
way; he is no older than I am. I will not make way for him." Al- 
though announcement of the Teacher's arrival was repeated several 
times to Suppabuddha the Sakyan, he invariably made the same 
answer and sat in the street just the same. Since his uncle refused 
to make way for him, the Teacher turned back. Suppabuddha the 
Sakyan sent a spy, saying to him, "Go listen to what the Teacher 
says and come back and tell me." 

As the Teacher returned on his way, he smiled. Thereupon the 
Elder Ananda asked him, "Reverend Sir, why do you smile?" The 
Teacher replied, "Ananda, just look at Suppabuddha the Sakyan." 
"I see him. Reverend Sir." "He has committed a grievous sin in 
refusing to make way for a Buddha like me. Seven days hence, 
on the ground floor of his palace, at the foot of the stairway, he will 
be swallowed up by the earth." The spy heard these words and 
immediately hurried to Suppabuddha the Sakyan. Said the latter, 
"What did my nephew say, as he returned on his way.^^" The spy 
told his master just what he had heard. When Suppabuddha the 
Sakyan heard the words which his nephew had spoken, he said, 
"There is no immediate danger to me in the words which my nephew 
has spoken. To be sure, whatever he says will be fulfilled to the letter; 
but even so [46] I will yet prove him to be a liar. He did not say 
unqualifiedly, *0n the seventh day he will be swallowed up by the 
earth.' What he said was, 'On the ground floor of the palace at the 
foot of the stairway he will be swallowed up by the earth.' Hence- 
forth, therefore, I will not go to that particular place; and by not 
being swallowed up by the earth at that particular spot, I will prove 
him to be a liar." 

Accordingly Suppabuddha the Sakyan had all of his household 
goods carried to the topmost floor of his seven-storied palace, had the 
stairway removed, had the door closed and barred, and stationed two 
strong men at each and every door. Said he to these strong men, "If 
I forget myself and start to come down, you are to make me go back.'* 



-N .3 .4718] 



Suppabuddha insults the Teacher 



293 



And having so said, he sat down in an apartment of royal splendor on 
the seventh floor of his palace. When the Teacher heard what he had 
done, he said, "Monks, let not Suppabuddha be content with ascend- 
ing to the topmost floor of his palace; let him soar aloft and sit in 
the air, or let him put to sea in a boat, or let him enter into the bowels 
of a mountain; there is no equivocation in the words of the Buddhas; 
he will enter the earth precisely where I said he would." And when he 
had thus spoken, he expounded the Law by pronouncing the following 
Stanza, 

128. Neither in the heaven above, nor in the depths of the sea. 
Nor in a cavern of the mountains, should one there enter; 
Nowhere on the earth can the place be found 
Where, if a man abide. Death would not overpower him. [47] 

On the seventh day after the Teacher had been prevented from 
continuing his alms-pilgrimage, a state charger belonging to Suppa- 
buddha broke loose on the ground floor of the palace, and ran about 
kicking first this wall and then that. Suppabuddha, although sitting 
on the topmost floor, heard the noise and asked what was the trouble. 
"Your state charger has broken loose," was the answer. When the 
horse saw Suppabuddha, he immediately quieted down. Suppa- 
buddha, desiring to catch him, arose from the seat where he had been 
sitting and started towards the door. Precisely at that moment the 
doors opened of their own accord, the stairway returned to its proper 
place, and the strong men who were posted at the door seized him 
by the neck and threw him down. In the same way the doors on all 
seven floors opened of their own accord, the stairways returned to 
their proper places, and the strong men who were posted at the doors 
seized him by the neck and threw him down. When he landed at the 
bottom of the stairway on the ground floor, at that moment the great 
earth opened and split apart and swallowed him up, and he descended 
therein and was reborn in the Avici Hell. 



BOOK X. THE ROD OR PUNISHMENT, DANDA 

VAGGA 

X. 1. THE BAND OF SIX ^ 

All men tremble. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to the 
monks of the Band of Six. [48] 

For once upon a time, when lodging had been made ready by the 
monks of the Band of Seventeen, the monks of the Band of Six said 
to the former, "We are older; this belongs to us." The Band of 
Seventeen replied, "We will not give it to you; we were the first to 
make it ready." Then the Band of Six struck their brother monks. 
The Band of Seventeen, terrified by the fear of death, screamed at the 
top of their lungs. The Teacher, hearing the outcry, asked, "What was 
that.^" When they told him, he promulgated the precept regarding 
the delivering of blows, saying, "Monks, henceforth a monk must 
not do this; whoever does this is guilty of sin." Having so done, he 
said, "Monks, one should say to himself, *As do I, so also do others 
tremble at the rod and fear death.' Therefore one should not strike 
another or kill another." So saying, he joined the connection, and 
preaching the Law, pronounced the following Stanza, 

129. All men tremble at the rod; all men fear death. 

One should treat one's neighbor as oneself, and therefore neither strike nor kill. 



X. 2. THE BAND OF SIX ^ 

All men tremble. This religious instruction was also given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to the 
monks of the Band of Six. [50] 

1 Derived from the Vinayay Culla Vagga, vi. 11: ii. 166-167; PdciUiya, Ixxiv. 1 : iv. 
145-146. Text: N iii. 48-49. 

2 Derived from the Vinaya, Pdcittiya, Ixxv. 1: iv. 146-147. Text: N iii. 49-50. 



-N .3 .5115] 



The Band of Six 



295 



For once upon a time, the circumstances being the same as those 
which attended the promulgation of the foregoing precept, the monks 
of the Band of Six struck the monks of the Band of Seventeen, where- 
upon the latter made threatening gestures. On this occasion also 
the Teacher heard the outcry made by the latter and asked, "What is 
that.^" Informed of the cause, he promulgated the precept regarding 
threatening gestures, saying, "Monks, henceforth no monk should 
do any such thing. Whoever does this is guilty of sin." Having so 
done, he said, "Monks, a monk should consider, *As do I, so also do 
others tremble at the rod; as do I, so also do others cherish life.' 
And bearing this thought in mind, he should neither strike another 
nor kill another." So saying, he joined the connection and preaching 
the Law, pronounced the following Stanza, 

130. All men tremble at the rod; to all men life is dear. 

One should treat one's neighbor as oneself, and should neither strike nor kill. 



X. 3. A COMPANY OF BOYS ^ 

Whoever injures vdth the rod living beings that long fcrr happiness. 
This religious instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in 
residence at Jetavana with reference to a company of boys. [51] 

For one day, as the Teacher was entering Savatthi for alms, he 
saw by the wayside a company of boys beating a house-snake with a 
stick. Thereupon he asked, "Boys, what are you doing.?" "Reverend 
Sir," replied the boys, "we are beating a snake with a stick." "Why 
are you doing that.?" "Reverend Sir, we are afraid he will bite us." 
Then said the Teacher, "If you beat this snake, thinking to your- 
selves, 'We shall thereby insure our own happiness,' the result will 
be that in the various places where you will be reborn you will not 
obtain happiness. They who seek to gain happiness for themselves 
should not strike another." So saying, he joined the connection, and 
preaching the Law, pronounced the following Stanzas, 

131. Whoever injures with the rod living beings that long for happiness, 
Longing himself for happiness, will not obtain happiness after death. 

132. Whoever does not injure with the rod living beings that long for happiness. 
Longing himself for happiness, will obtain happiness after death. 

1 Text: N ill. 50-51. 



296 Book 10, Story 4- Dhammapada 133-13^ [N.3.521- 



X. 4. THE MONK AND THE PHANTOM ^ 

Speak not harshly to anyone. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference 
to Elder Kundadhana. [52] 

The story goes that from the day Kundadhana became a monk 
a certain female form accompanied the Elder wherever he went. ^The 
Elder himself never saw her, but everybody else saw her. Indeed, when- 
ever the Elder made an alms-pilgrimage in a village, the inhabitants 
would first give the Elder a portion of alms, saying, "Reverend Sir, 
this is for you;" and then they would give the woman a second portion 
of alms, saying, "And this is for our female friend." 

4 a. Story of the Past: The goddess who took the form of a woman 

The story goes that in the dispensation of the Buddha Kassapa 
there were two companion-monks who were as intimately associated 
with each other as though they had issued from the womb of the same 
mother. And in the dispensation of the Buddha Dighayu, as year by 
year and month by month the monks met together for the purpose of 
keeping fast-day, those same two monks would come forth from their 
lodging and say to each other, "Let us go to the Hall of Discipline 
together." 

Now a certain goddess reborn in the World of the Thirty-three, 
seeing those two monks, thought, "These two monks are too much 
together; is there perhaps some way by which I can separate them.'^" 
No sooner had she thought this in her folly than one of the two 
monks said to his companion, "Brother, wait a moment; I must attend 
to the needs of nature." So soon as she heard this, that goddess [53] 
assumed the form of a woman and entered the thicket with the Elder. 
When he came out, she followed close behind him, arranging with 
one hand her tuft of hair and with the other her undergarment. 

The Elder himself did not notice her, but when the monk who 
stood outside waiting for him turned and looked, he saw the woman 
come out, arranging her hair and her undergarment. As soon as the 
woman observed that the monk had seen her, she disappeared. When 
the Elder came up to the monk who was waiting for him, the latter 

1 Cf. Thera-Gdtha Commentary, xv. Text: N iii. 52-58. 



-N .3 .5417] 



The monk and the phantom 



297 



said to him, "Brother, you have broken your vow of chastity." "I 
have done no such thing, brother." "Why, I just saw a young woman 
come out after you, doing this and that. Yet you say, *I have done 
no such thing.'" 

The Elder acted as if he had been struck by a thunderbolt. Said 
he, "Brother, do not ruin me. I have done no such thing." Said the 
monk, "What I saw, I saw with my own eyes. Do you expect me to 
believe you?" And forthwith he broke off the tip of his staff and 
departed. Moreover, when he sat down in the Hall of Confession, 
he said, "I will not keep Fast-day in his company." Said the Elder 
to the monks, "Brethren, there is not a fleck even the size of an atom 
on my chastity." But the monk repeated, "What I saw, I saw with 
my own eyes." 

When the goddess saw that the monk was unwilling to keep Fast- 
day with the Elder, she thought to herself, "I have done a grievous 
wrong." And straightway she said to the monk, "Reverend Sir, my 
noble Elder has not really violated his vow of chastity. I did this 
merely to try him. Pray keep Fast-day with him as usual.'^ When 
the monk saw the goddess poised in the air, and heard her speak those 
words, he believed her, and kept Fast-day with the Elder. [54] He 
was not, however, so kindly disposed to the Elder as before. Such was 
the former deed of the goddess. End of Story of the Past. 

Now at the end of their allotted term of life, the Elders were 
reborn according to their good pleasure. The goddess was reborn in 
the Avici Hell, and after suffering torment there for a period of an 
interval between two Buddhas, was reborn in Savatthi in the dis- 
pensation of the present Buddha as a man. When he had grown up 
he retired from the world and became a monk, subsequently making 
his full profession. From the day he retired from the world, that 
same female form appeared and followed him. Therefore they gave 
him the name Kundadhana. When the monks observed that he was 
followed about by a woman, they said to Anathapindika, "Treasurer, 
drive this unchaste monk out of your monastery, for by reason of him 
reproach will fall upon all of the other monks." "But, Reverend 
Sirs, is the Teacher not at the monastery?" "He is, lay disciple." 
"Well then, the Teacher alone will know." The monks went and 
said the same thing to Visakha, and she gave them the same answer. 

The monks, getting no satisfaction from the two lay disciples, 
reported the matter to the king, saying, "Great king, Kundadhana 
goes about accompanied by a woman, and has thus cast reproach 



298 Booh 10 y Story 4, Dhammapada 133-13 J^ [N .3. 5417- 

upon all the rest of the monks. Drive him out of your kingdom." 
"But where is he, Reverend Sirs.^" "In the monastery, great king." 
"In which lodging does he reside.^" "In such and such." "Very 
well, go your way. I will have him caught." So in the evening the 
king went to the monastery, caused the Elder's lodging to be sur- 
rounded by his men, and himself stood facing the entrance to the 
Elder's cell. 

The Elder, hearing a loud noise, came out and stood facing the 
monastery. [55] The king immediately saw that phantom of a 
woman standing behind him. When the Elder observed that the 
king had come to his cell, he went up into the monastery again and 
sat down, but the king did not make obeisance to the Eldejr. The 
king saw the woman no more. Although he looked inside the door 
and under the bed, still he did not see her. Finally he said to the 
Elder, "Reverend Sir, I saw a certain woman in this place; where is 
she.^" "I see none, great king." Then said the king, "I just saw her 
behind your back." But the Elder replied as before, "I see no woman, 
great king." 

"Reverend Sir, just step out here for a moment." The Elder came 
out and stood below, facing the monastery. Again that woman stood 
behind the Elder. The king seeing her, ascended once more to the 
upper floor. The Elder observing that the king had gone, sat down. 
The king again looked everywhere, but for all that failed to see the 
woman. And again he asked the Elder, "Reverend Sir, where is that 
woman?" "I do not see her." "Tell me the truth, Reverend Sir. 
I just saw a woman standing behind your back." "Yes, great king; 
that is what everybody says. Everybody says, 'A woman follows you 
wherever you go;' but I never see her." [56] 

The king, suspecting it was a phantom, said once more to the Elder, 
"Reverend Sir, just step down for a moment." When the Elder 
came down and stood facing the monastery, the king once more saw 
that woman standing behind him. But when the king ascended to 
the upper floor, he saw her no more. The king again questioned the 
Elder, but when the latter said, "I see no woman," the king con- 
cluded that it must be a phantom. Accordingly he said to the Elder, 
"Reverend Sir, with such an impurity following about after you, no one 
will give even food to you. Therefore visit my house regularly, and I 
alone will furnish you with the Four Requisites." And having given 
him this invitation, he departed. 

The monks were offended and said, "Behold the wicked deed of 



-N .3 .5717] 



The monk and the phantom 



299 



that wicked king! When we asked him to drive that monk out of 
the monastery, he came and invited him to receive the Four Requisites 
from him, and then went away again." And they said to that Elder, 
"Oh, you corrupt monk, now you have become the king's bastard!" 
Thereupon that monk, who formerly had not dared to say a thing to 
the other monks, said also to them, "You are corrupt, you are bastards, 
you consort with women." The monks went and reported the matter 
to the Teacher, saying, "Reverend Sir, when we spoke to Kundadhana, 
he said to us, *You are corrupt, you are bastards, you consort with 
women.' With such words as these did he abuse us." The Teacher 
sent for him and asked him, "Monk, is it true, as has been reported 
to me, that you said thus and so.^" "Yes, Reverend Sir, it is all true." 
"Why did you do so .^" "Because they said things to me." "Monks, 
why did you say things to him.^" "Because we saw a woman following 
after him." 

Said the Teacher, "They say they spoke to you because they saw 
a woman accompanying you wherever you went. But why did you 
say what you said.? [57] They said what they said solely because of 
what they saw, but why did you say what you said, when you had not 
seen it.? It is surely because of your false views in a previous state of 
existence that this has happened to you; now why do you take a 
wrong attitude again.?" The monks asked the Teacher, "But, Rever- 
end Sir, what was it that he did in a previous state of existence.?" 
Then the Teacher related to them the Elder's wicked deed in a previous 
state of existence, concluding as follows, "Monk, it is because of this 
wicked deed that you have fallen into this sad plight. Surely it is 
unbecoming in you again to take so wrong an attitude. Do not again 
hold converse with the monks. Make no sound, even as a brass 
plate shattered at the rim makes no sound, for by so doing you will 
attain Nibbana." So saying, he joined the connection, and preaching 
the Law, pronounced the following Stanzas, 

133. Speak not harshly to anyone; those you address may answer you; 
For angry words bring trouble; blows for blows may touch you. 

134. If you keep yourself silent as a broken gong, 

You have already reached Nibbana; angry speech is not foimd in you. 



300 



Book 10, Story 5. Dhammapada 185 [N.3.58i8- 



X. 5. VISAKHA AND HER COMPANIONS KEEP 
FAST-DAY 1 

As with a staff. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Pubbarama with reference to 
the manner in which Fast-day was kept by Visakha and her female 
lay disciples. [59] 

At Savatthi, we are told, on a certain great Fast-day, five hundred 
women took upon themselves the obligations of Fast-day and went to 
the monastery. Visakha approached the oldest women of the com- 
pany and asked, "Women, for what purpose have you assumed the 
obligations of Fast-day.^" They replied, "Because we seek a heavenly 
reward." When she put the question to the women who had reached 
middle life, they replied, "To obtain release from the power of our 
husbands." When she asked the young women, they replied, "That 
we may conceive a child as soon as possible." Finally she asked the 
maidens, who replied, "That we may obtain husbands while we are 
still young." 

When Visakha had heard the replies of all, she then went to the 
Teacher, taking the women with her, and told him each of the replies 
in order. The Teacher listened to the replies and then said, "Visakha, 
in the case of living beings here in the world, birth, old age, sickness, 
and death are like cowherds with staves in their hands. Birth sends 
them to old age, and old age to sickness, and sickness to death; they 
cut life short as though they cut with an axe. But despite this, there 
are none that desire absence of rebirth; rebirth is all they desire." 
So saying, he joined the connection, and preaching the Law, pro- 
nounced the following Stanza, 

135. As with a staff a cowherd drives his cows to pasture, 

Even so old age and death drive the life of living beings. 



X. 6. THE BOA-CONSTRICTOR GHOST ^ 

In the act of committing evil deeds. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Veluvana with 
reference to a ghost in the form of a boa-constrictor. [60] 



1 Text: N iii. 58-60. 

2 The Story of the Present is derived from 



a, xix: ii. 254 ff. Text: N iii. 



60-64. 



-N .3.6121 ] The boa-constrictor ghost 301 

For once upon a time Elder Moggallana the Great was descending 
from Vulture Peak with Elder Lakkhana, when by Supernatural 
Vision he beheld a ghost twenty-five leagues long in the form of a 
boa-constrictor. Flames of fire proceeded from his head and descended 
on his extremities; flames of fire proceeded from his extremities and 
descended on his head; flames of fire proceeded from both sides of 
him and descended on his middle. When the Elder beheld that ghost 
he smiled; and when the Elder Lakkhana asked him why he smiled, 
he replied, "Brother, it is not the proper time to answer that question; 
wait until we are in the presence of the Teacher, and then ask me." [61] 

When, therefore. Elder Moggallana the Great had completed his 
round for alms in Rajagaha, and had come into the presence of the 
Teacher, Elder Lakkhana repeated his question. Elder Moggallana 
the Great replied as follows, "At that spot, brother, I saw a ghost, 
and his outward appearance was such and such. When I saw him, 
I thought to myself, *No such ghost as that did I ever see before.' 
That is why I smiled." Then said the Teacher, "Monks, my disciples 
indeed possess eyes and use them." Continuing, he confirmed the 
statement of the Elder and added, "I saw that very ghost as I sat 
on the Throne of Enlightenment. However, the thought came into 
my mind, *If any refuse to believe my word, it may be to their detri- 
ment.' Therefore I said nothing about it. But now that I have Mog- 
gallana for my witness, I do say it." When he had thus spoken, in 
response to a request of the monks, he explained what the ghost had 
done in a previous state of existence. 

6 a. Story of the Past : The treasurer Sumangala and the thief 

The story goes that in the dispensation of the Buddha Kassapa 
a treasurer named Sumangala spread the ground with bricks of gold 
for a space of twenty usabhas, expended an equal amount of treasure 
in building a monastery, and an equal amount in giving a festival in 
honor of the opening of the monastery. One day, very early in the 
morning, as he was on his way to pay his respects to the Teacher, 
he saw hidden in a certain rest-house at the gate of the city a certain 
thief, his feet spattered with mud, his robe drawn over his head. The 
treasurer said to himself, "This man with feet all spattered with mud 
must be some night-prowler in hiding." Upon seeing the treasurer, 
the thief opened his mouth and said, "Never mind, I know how to 
get even with you!" And conceiving a grudge against the treasurer, 



302 



Book 10, Story 6. Dhammapada 136 [N.3.6I21- 



he burned his field seven times, cut off the feet of the cattle in his cattle- 
pen seven times, and burned his house seven times. 

But in spite of all this, he was unable to satisfy his grudge against 
the treasurer. So he made friends with the treasurer's page and asked 
him, [62] "What is your master the treasurer especially fond of?" 
"There is nothing he thinks more of than the Perfumed Chamber," 
replied the page. "Very well," thought the thief, "I will burn up 
the Perfumed Chamber and thus satisfy my grudge." Accordingly, 
when the Teacher entered the city for alms, he broke all the vessels 
used for drinking and eating and set fire to the Perfumed Chamber. 
When the treasurer heard the cry, "The Perfumed Chamber is on 
fire!" he immediately went thither, but before he arrived at the Per- 
fumed Chamber it had burned to the ground. 

As the treasurer looked at the Perfumed Chamber lying in ashes, 
he felt not so much grief as could be measured with the tip of a hair; 
but doubling his left arm, he clapped with his right as loud as he 
could. Those who stood near asked him, "Master, how comes it 
that after expending all this money in building a Perfumed Chamber 
you clap your hands when it burns to the ground .f^" Said the treasurer, 
"Friends, through fire and other mishaps I have been permitted to 
expend all this wealth in the cause of the Buddha. I clapped my hands 
because of the joy that filled my heart at the thought, ' I shall once more 
be permitted to expend an equal amount of money in rebuilding the Per- 
fumed Chamber.' " So the treasurer spent as much money again in re- 
building the Perfumed Chamber; and having so done, presented it as 
an offering to the Teacher and his retinue of twenty thousand monks. 

When the thief saw that, he thought to himself, "Apparently I 
shall not be able to discomfit this man unless I kill him. Very well, 
I will kill him." So he fastened a knife in the fold of his undergarment, 
and thus armed, went about the monastery for a period of seven 
days. But he found no opportunity to kill his man. During these 
seven days the great treasurer gave gifts to the Congregation of 
Monks presided over by the Buddha. Finally he paid obeisance to 
the Teacher and said, "Reverend Sir, [63] a certain thought dwells 
in my mind, and it is this, * Seven times a certain man has burned 
my field, seven times he has cut off the feet of my cattle, and seven 
times he has burned my house. That man also must have set fire 
to the Perfumed Chamber just now.' I make over to that man the 
first-fruits of the merit of this offering." 

When the thief heard that, he thought to himself, "It was indeed 



-N .3 .6413] The boa-constrictor ghost 303 

a grievous sin that I committed. But although I am so grievous a 
sinner, this man cherishes no ill-will at all towards me. Instead, he 
makes over to me alone the first-fruits of the merit of this offering. 
Compared to this man, I appear to great disadvantage. If I do not 
ask so magnanimous a man as this to pardon me, punishment from the 
king may fall upon my head." So he went and prostrated himself 
at the feet of the treasurer, saying, "Pardon me, master." "What do 
you mean.?" asked the treasurer. The thief replied, "All this evil 
have I done; pardon me for it." Thereupon the treasurer asked him 
about each particular thing, saying, "Did you do this to me.? Did you 
do that?" "Yes, master," replied the thief, "all this I did myself." 
"But," said the treasurer, "I never saw you before. Why did you 
take a dislike to me and do what you have done.?" 

The thief replied, "One day as you were coming out of the city, 
you said something and I remembered it; that is why I took a dislike 
to you." The treasurer immediately remembered that he had said 
that very thing, and straightway asked the thief to pardon him, saying, 
"Yes, friend, I did say that; pardon me for it." Then he said, "Rise, 
friend, I pardon you; go your way, friend." Then said the thief, 
"Master, if you pardon me, let me be a slave in your house, together 
with my children and my wife." The treasurer replied, "Friend, be- 
cause of what I said, you caused this damage. [64] But it would be 
impossible for me to hold converse with you if you were to dwell in 
my house. Nor have I need that you should dwell in my house. I 
pardon you freely. Go your way, friend." End of Story of the Past. 

Said the Teacher in conclusion, "Because the thief committed 
this evil deed, at the end of his allotted term of life, he was reborn 
in the Avici Hell. After suffering torment there for a long period of 
time, because the fruit of his evil deed is not yet exhausted, he is 
now suffering torment on Vulture Peak." 

After the Teacher had related the evil deed of the ghost in a previ- 
ous state of existence, he said, "Monks, in the act of committing wicked 
deeds, simpletons do not realize their wickedness. Afterwards, how- 
ever, they are consumed by the wicked deeds they have themselves 
committed, and are like burning forests which they themselves have 
set on fire." So saying, he joined the connection, and preaching the 
Law pronounced the following Stanza, 

136. In the act of committing wicked deeds, the simpleton does not reaKze their 
wickedness ; 
But the stupid man is consumed by his own wicked deeds, as if burnt with fire. 



304 Book 10, Story 7. Dhammapada 1S7-H0 [N.3.65i- 



X. 7. DEATH OF MOGGALLANA THE GREAT ^ 

Whosoever visits punishment. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Veluvana with reference 
to Elder Moggallana the Great. [65] 

For once upon a time the heretics met together and said to each 
other, "Brethren, do you know the reason why the gifts and offerings 
to the monk Gotama have waxed great?" "No, we do not know; but 
do you know?" "Indeed we do know; it has all come about through 
one Moggallana the Great. For Moggallana the Great goes to heaven 
and asks the deities what deeds of merit they performed; and then 
he comes back to earth and says to men, *By doing this and that men 
receive such and such glory.' Then he goes to Hell and asks also those 
who have been reborn in Hell what they did; and comes back to earth 
and says to men, *By doing this and that men experience such and 
such suffering.' Men listen to what he says, and bring rich gifts and 
offerings. Now if we succeed in killing him, all these rich gifts and 
offerings will fall to us." 

"That is a way indeed!" exclaimed all the heretics. So all the 
heretics with one accord formed the resolution, "We will kill him by 
hook or by crook." Accordingly they roused their own supporters, 
procured a thousand pieces of money, and formed a plot to kill Mog- 
gallana the Great. Summoning some wandering thieves, they gave 
them the thousand pieces of money and said to them, "Elder Moggal- 
lana the Great lives at Black Rock. Go there and kill him." The money 
attracted the thieves anc^they immediately agreed to do as they were 
asked. "Yes, indeed," said the thieves; "we will kill the Elder." 
So they went and surrounded the Elder's place of abode. 

The Elder, knowing that his place of abode was surrounded, slipped 
out through the keyhole and escaped. The thieves, not seeing the 
Elder that day, came back on the following day, and again surrounded 
the Elder's place of abode. [66] But the Elder knew, and so he broke 
through the circular peak of the house and soared away into the air. 
Thus did the thieves attempt both in the first month and in the second 

^ This story is in general similar to the Introduction to Jdtaka 522: v. 125-126; 
but there are important differences. For example, in the Jdtaka version, Moggallana 
escapes on each of six successive days by flying up into the air; and instead of killing 
his father and mother, relents at the last moment and spares their lives. Cf. Hardy, 
Manual of Buddhism, pp. 349-351; Warren, p. 222. Text: N iii. 65-71. 



-N.3.6710] 



Death of Moggalldna the Great 



305 



month to catch the Elder, but without success. But when the third 
month came, the Elder felt the compelling force of the evil deed he 
had himself committed in a previous state of existence, and made no 
attempt to get away. 

At last the thieves succeeded in catching the Elder. When they 
had so done, they tore him limb from limb, and pounded his bones 
until they were as small as grains of rice. Then thinking to themselves, 
**He is dead," they tossed his bones behind a certain clump of bushes 
and went their way. The Elder thought to himself, "I will pay my 
respects to the Teacher before I pass into Nibbana." Accordingly 
he swathed himself with meditation as with a cloth, made himself 
rigid, and soaring through the air, he proceeded to the Teacher, 
paid obeisance to the Teacher, and said to him, "Reverend Sir, I 
am about to pass into Nibbana." "You are about to pass into Nib- 
bana, Moggallana.^" "Yes, Reverend Sir." "To what region of the 
earth are you going?" "To Black Rock, Reverend Sir." "Well 
then, Moggallana, preach the Law to me before you go, for hereafter 
I shall have no such disciple as you to look upon." "That will I do. 
Reverend Sir," replied Moggallana. So first paying obeisance to 
the Teacher, he rose into the air, performed all manner of miracles 
just as did the Elder Sariputta on the day when he passed into Nibbana, 
preached the Law, paid obeisance to the Teacher, and then went to 
Black Rock forest and passed into Nibbana. 

Immediately the report spread all over the Land of the Rose-apple, 
"Thieves have killed the Elder." Immediately King Ajatasattu 
sent out spies to search for the thieves. Now as those very thieves 
were drinking strong drink in a tavern, one of them struck the other 
on the back and felled him to the ground. Immediately the second 
thief reviled the first, saying, "You scoundrel, why did you strike me 
on the back and fell me to the ground .P" [67] "Why, you vagabond 
of a thief, you were the first to strike Moggallana the Great." "You 
don't know whether I struck him or not." There was a babel of voices 
crying out, "'Twas I struck him, 'Twas I struck him." 

Those spies heard what the thieves said, captured all the thieves, 
and made their report to the king. The king caused the thieves to 
be brought into his presence and asked them, "Was it you that killed 
the Elder.?" "Yes, your majesty." "Who, pray, put you up to it.?" 
"The Naked Ascetics, your majesty." The king had the five hundred 
Naked Ascetics caught, placed them, together with the G.ve hundred 
thieves, waist-deep in pits which he had dug in the palace-court, caused 



306 Book 10, Story 7. Dhammapada 137-HO [N.s.gtio- 

their bodies to be cx)vered over with bundles of straw, and then 
caused the bundles of straw to be lighted. When he knew that they 
had been burned to a crisp, he caused their bodies to be plowed with 
iron plows and thus caused them all to be ground to bits. 

The monks began a discussion in the Hall of Truth: "Elder 
Moggallana the Great met death which he did not deserve." At that 
moment the Teacher approached and asked them, "Monks, what 
are you saying as you sit here all gathered together .f^" When they 
told him, he said, "Monks, if you regard only this present state of 
existence, Moggallana the Great did indeed meet death which he did 
not deserve. But as a matter of fact, the manner of death he met 
was in exact conformity with the deed he committed in a previous 
state of existence." Thereupon the monks asked the Teacher, "But, 
Reverend Sir, what was the deed he committed in a previous state 
of existence.?" In reply the Teacher related his former deed in detail, 
saying, [68] 

7 a. Story of the Past: The son who killed his parents 

The story goes that once upon a time in the distant past a certain 
youth of station performed with his own hand all of the household 
duties, such as pounding rice and cooking, and took care of his mother 
and father to boot. One day his mother and father said to him, "Son, 
you are wearing yourself out by performing all of the work both in 
the house and in the forest. We will fetch you home a certain young 
woman to be your wife." The son replied, "Dear mother and father, 
there is no necessity of your doing anything of the sort. So long as 
you both shall live I will wait upon you with my own hand." In spite 
of the fact that he refused to listen to their suggestion, they repeated 
their request time and again, and finally brought him home a young 
woman to be his wife. 

For a few days only she waited upon his mother and father. After 
those few days had passed, she was unable even to bear the sight of 
them and said to her husband with a great show of indignation, "It 
is impossible for me to live any longer in the same house with your 
mother and father." But he paid no attention to what she said. So 
one day, when he was out of the house, she took bits of clay and 
bark and scum of rice-gruel and scattered them here and there about 
the house. When her husband returned and asked her what it meant, 
she said, "This is what your blind old parents have done; they go 



-N. 3. 6920] Death of Moggalldna the Great 307 

about littering up the entire house; it is impossible for me to live in the 
same place with them any longer." Thus did she speak again and 
again. The result was that finally even a being so distinguished as 
he, a being who had fulfilled the Perfections, broke with his mother 
and father. 

"Never mind," said the husband, "I shall find some way of dealing 
with them properly." So when he had given them food, he said to 
them, "Dear mother and father, in such and such a place [69] live 
kinsfolk of yours who desire you to visit them; let us go thither." 
And assisting them to enter a carriage, he set out with them. When he 
reached the depths of the forest, he said to his father, "Dear father, 
hold these reins; the oxen know the track so well that they will go 
without guidance; this is a place where thieves lie in wait for travelers; 
I am going to descend from the carriage." And giving the reins into 
the hands of his father, he descended from the carriage and made his 
way into the forest. 

As he did so, he began to make a noise, increasing the volume of 
the noise until it sounded as if a band of thieves were about to make 
an attack. When his mother and father heard the noise, they thought 
to themselves, "A band of thieves are about to attack us." Therefore 
they said to their son, "Son, we are old people; save yourself, and 
pay no attention to us." But even as his mother and father cried 
out thus, the son, yelling the thieves' yell, beat them and killed them 
and threw their bodies into the forest. Having so done, he returned 
home. End of Story of the Past. 

When the Teacher had related the foregoing story of Moggallana's 
misdeed in a previous state of existence, he said, "Monks, by reason 
of the fact that Moggallana committed so monstrous a sin, he suffered 
torment for numberless hundreds of thousands of years in Hell; and 
thereafter, because the fruit of his evil deed was not yet exhausted, in 
a hundred successive existences he was beaten and pounded to pieces 
in like manner and so met death. Therefore the manner of death which 
Moggallana suffered was in exact conformity with his own misdeed in 
a previous state of existence. Likewise the five hundred heretics who 
with the five hundred thieves offended against my son who had com- 
mitted no offense against them, suffered precisely that form of death 
which they deserved. For he that offends against the offenseless, 
incurs misfortune and loss through ten circumstances." So saying, 
he joined the connection, and preaching the Law, pronounced the 
following Stanzas, [70] 



308 Book 10, Story 8, Dhammapada 1^1 [N.3.701- 

137. Whosoever visits punishment upon those that deserve not punishment, 
Whosoever offends against those that are without offense, 

Such an one will right quickly come to one of ten states: 

138. He will incur cruel suffering, or infirmity or injury of the body. 
Or severe sickness, or loss of mind, 

139. Or misfortune proceeding from the king, or a heavy accusation. 
Or death of relatives, or loss of treasures, 

140. Or else the fire of lightning will consume his houses; 

Upon dissolution of the body such a simpleton will go to Hell. 



X. 8. THE MONK OF MANY POSSESSIONS ^ 

Neither going naked. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to a 
monk of many possessions. [72] 

The story goes that on the death of his wife a certain householder 
of Savatthi retired from the world and became a monk. When he 
became a monk, he caused a cell to be built for his express use, and 
likewise a fire-room and a store-room. And having caused the whole 
store-room to be filled with ghee, honey, oil, and other provisions, 
in spite of the fact that he had become a monk, he sent for his own 
slaves, had them cook food to his liking, and would eat only this food. 
Likewise he possessed many requisites, wearing one set of robes at 
night and another in the daytime. He lived in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the monastery. 

One day as he was drying his robes and bedding, some monks who 
were going about in search of lodging saw them and asked him, "Whose 
are these requisites, brother.'^" "They belong to me," replied the 
monk. "Brother, the Exalted One permits a monk to possess only 
three robes; but you, although you have retired from the world and 
become a monk under the dispensation of a Buddha who is satisfied 
with but little, have taken upon yourself to possess these many 
requisites." So saying, they led him to the Teacher [73] and reported 
the matter to him, saying, "Reverend Sir, here is a monk whose 
possessions are excessively numerous." The Teacher asked him, 
"Monk, is the report true concerning you?" "Yes, Reverend Sir, it is 
all true." "But how comes it that you, monk, in spite of the fact that 

^ This story is almost word for word the same as Jdtaka 6: i. 126-133. Text: 
N iii. 72-78. 



-N.3.746] The monk of many possessions 309 

I have expressly taught that one should be satisfied with but little, 
have possessed yourself of so many requisites?" 

Angered by so little as this, the monk exclaimed, "Well then, I 
will go about in this manner." Forthwith casting off his outer gar- 
ment, he stood in the midst of the assemblage wearing but one robe. 
The Teacher, remaining his support, said to him, "Assuredly, monk, 
in a previous state of existence you sought to preserve your modesty 
and fear of mortal sin; for even when you were a water-sprite, you 
dwelt for twelve years striving to preserve your modesty and fear of 
mortal sin. How comes it that now, having retired from the world 
and become a monk under the dispensation of so august a Buddha, 
you have cast off your outer garment, thrown aside your modesty 
and fear of sin, and stand thus in the midst of the fourfold assemblage.?" 
When the monk heard those words of the Teacher, he recovered his 
sense of modesty and fear of mortal sin, wrapped his outer robe about 
him again, saluted the Teacher, and seated himself respectfully at 
one side. The monks asked the Exalted One to explain the matter; 
and in response to their request, the Exalted One related in detail the 
following 

8 a. Story of the Past: Mahimsasa and the princes Moon and Sun 

The story goes that at a time far back in the past the Future 
Buddha obtained a new existence in the womb of the chief consort 
of the king of Benares. On the day appointed for the naming of the 
child, they gave him the name Mahimsasa. Afterwards he had a 
younger brother named Moon, Cauda. The mother died, and the 
king took to himself another chief consort. When she gave birth to 
a son, they gave him the name Sun, Suriya. When the king saw his 
son, he was greatly pleased and said to the mother, "I grant your son 
a boon." The mother replied, "I will make my choice at such time 
as I wish." 

When her son had grown up, [74] she said to the king, "Your 
majesty, when my son was born, you granted him a boon. Give my 
son the kingdom." But this the king refused to do, saying, "My 
two sons walk abroad resplendent as flames of fire. It is impossible 
for me to give your son the kingdom." In spite of the king's refusal, 
the queen repeated her request several times. The king, observing 
this, thought to himself, "She may do some harm to my sons." So 
he summoned his two sons and said to them, "My dear sons, when 



310 



Booh 10, Story 8, Dhammapada HI tN.3.747- 



Suriya was born, I granted him a boon. The queen has just asked me 
to give him the kingdom. Now I am not wilhng to give him the king- 
dom, and I therefore fear that his mother may do you some harm. Do 
you therefore go live in the forest, and when I am dead, come back and 
take the kingdom." So saying, the king sent his two sons to the forest. 

The two sons, bowing to their father, came down from the terrace. 
As they passed through the palace-court. Prince Suriya, who was 
playing there, saw them, learned what had happened, and departed 
with them. When they reached the Himalaya, the Future Buddha 
left the beaten track and seating himself under a tree, said to Prince 
Suriya, "Dear brother, go to a certain lake, bathe therein, drink the 
water thereof, and fetch us water in lotus-leaves." (Now that lake 
had been given to a certain water-sprite by Vessavana, and Vessavana 
had said to him, "You may devour all those who descend into this 
lake except only those that know what is godlike." From that time 
on, the water-sprite asked all those who descended into that lake 
whether they knew what was truly godlike, and all those who did not 
know he was wont to devour.) [75] 

With never a thought of trouble. Prince Suriya descended into the 
lake. The water-sprite asked him, "Do you know what is truly god- 
like.f^" He answered, "The moon and the sun are truly godlike." 
Said the water-sprite, "You do not know what is truly godlike." 
Forthwith the water-sprite dragged him under the water and im- 
prisoned him in his own habitation. The Future Buddha, observing 
that Prince Suriya tarried, sent forth Prince Cauda. The water-sprite 
asked Prince Cauda also whether he knew what was truly godlike. 
Prince Cauda replied, "The four cardinal points are truly godlike." 
The water-sprite dragged him also under the water and imprisoned 
him in the same place. 

The Future Buddha, observing that Prince Cauda tarried also, 
thought to himself, "Some accident must have happened," and 
immediately set out for the lake himself. Observing that the footsteps 
of two persons led down into the lake, he came to the conclusion, 
"This lake is haunted by a water-sprite." Forthwith he girded him- 
self with his sword, took bow in hand, and stood waiting. When the 
water-sprite saw that he did not descend into the lake, he disguised 
himself as a woodman, drew near and said, "Fellow, you must be 
tired with your journey. Why do you not descend into this lake, 
bathe therein, drink the water thereof, eat the film and stalk of the 
lotus, and deck yourself with flowers .f^" 



-N .3 .7625] The monk of many possessions Sll 

The instant the Future Buddha saw him, he knew, "That is an 
ogre!" So he said to him, "It was you that seized my brothers!" 
"Yes," said the ogre, "I did." "Why did you do so.?" "I catch all 
that descend into this lake." "You catch all.?" "I catch all, except 
only those that know what is truly godlike." "But do you really wish 
to know who are truly godlike.?" "Yes," replied the water-sprite, 
"I do." "I will tell you." "Very well, then, tell me." "I cannot tell 
you while my body remains unwashed." The ogre immediately [76] 
bathed the Future Buddha, gave him water to drink, adorned him 
with rich apparel, and assisting him to mount a couch in the center of 
a richly adorned pavilion, himself sat down at the foot. Then said 
the Future Buddha to him, "Listen attentively." So saying, he 
pronounced the following Stanza, 

They that possess modesty and fear of sin, they that are endowed with righteousness. 
They that are good and upright men in this world, they alone are called "godlike." 

When the ogre heard this religious instruction, he believed and 
said to the Future Buddha, "Wise man, I believe you. I will give you 
one of your brothers. Which one shall I bring.?" "Bring me my 
youngest brother." "Wise man, you, and you alone, know what is 
truly godlike; but what is godlike you do not practice." "Why do 
you say that.?" "Because, by leaving out your oldest brother and 
directing me to bring your youngest brother, you are doing the reverse 
of honoring your oldest brother." "Ogre, not only do I know what 
is truly godlike, but I also practice the same. Indeed it was solely 
because of my youngest brother that we entered this forest. For it 
was on his account that his mother asked our father for the kingdom, 
and when our father refused to give her what she asked for, to make sure 
of our safety, he permitted us to dwell in the forest and that prince 
followed us and accompanied us. If I return and say, *A certain ogre 
devoured him in the forest,' nobody will believe me. For this reason, 
therefore, terrified with the fear of rebuke, I bid you bring him only 
to me." 

The ogre believed the Future Buddha and said to him, "Well 
said, wise man! You, and you alone, know what things are truly 
godlike." So saying, the ogre brought both of the brothers and gave 
them to the Future Buddha. Then the Future Buddha discoursed 
to him on the disadvantages of the state of being an ogre, and estab- 
lished him in the Five Precepts. The Future Buddha continued to 
dwell in that forest, and the ogre provided ample protection for him. 



sn 



Book 10, Story 8, Dhammapada 1^1 [N.3.7625- 



When the king his father died, he returned to Benares with the ogre, 
[77] took the kingdom, and gave Prince Canda the post of viceroy 
and Prince Suriya the post of commander-in-chief. Moreover he 
had a shelter built for the ogre in a pleasant place, and saw to it that 
the ogre received gifts and offerings in abundance. 

When the Teacher had completed this religious instruction, he 
identified the characters in the Jataka as follows, "At that time the 
ogre was the monk of many possessions. Prince Suriya was Ananda, 
Prince Canda was Sariputta, and Prince Mahimsasa was I myself." 
Having thus related the Jataka, the Teacher said, "Thus, monk, in 
a previous state of existence you sought those things that are truly 
godlike, and your walk was that of a man endowed with sense of 
modesty and fear of mortal sin. But just now you did an unbecoming 
thing, when you stood before me in the midst of the fourfold assemblage 
in this fashion and said, *I want little.' A monk is a monk not solely 
because he throws a robe around him." So saying, he joined the 
connection, and preaching the Law, pronounced the following Stanza, 

141. Neither going naked, nor matted locks, nor filth, nor fasting, nor sleeping on 
the bare ground. 
Nor nibbing with dust, nor sitting on the haunches, can purify that mortal who 
has not overcome doubt. 



X. 9. SANTATI THE KING'S MINISTERS 

Even though a man be richly adorned. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to the king's minister Santati. [78] 

For once upon a time Santati returned from suppressing disorder 
on King Pasenadi Kosala's frontier, and the king was so pleased that 
he turned over his kingdom to him for seven days and gave him a 
woman who danced and sang. For seven days Santati steeped himself 
in liquor, and on the seventh day, adorned with all the adornments, 
he mounted the back of the state elephant and set out for the bathing- 
place. As he passed out of the gateway, he saw the Teacher entering 
the city for alms. Remaining seated as he was on the back of the 
elephant, he nodded his head by way of salute to the Teacher and 
passed on. 

The Teacher smiled. "Why do you smile. Reverend Sir.?" asked 

' Cf. the similar story of Prince Abhaya, xiii. 4. Text: N iii. 78-84. 




-N.3.809] Santati the king's minister 313 

Elder Ananda. [79] Said the Teacher, explaining the reason for his 
smile, "Ananda, just look at the king's minister Santati! This very 
day, adorned as he is with all the adornments, he will come into my 
presence, and at the conclusion of a Stanza consisting of four verses 
he will attain Arahatship. He will then assume a sitting posture at 
a height of seven palm-trees above the earth and will then and there 
pass into Nibbana." 

The populace heard the words that passed between the Teacher 
and the Elder. Those of the crowd who held false views thought to 
themselves, "Look at the way the monk Gotama acts! Whatever 
comes into his head he speaks with his mouth! This very day, so he 
says, that drunken sot, adorned as he is with all the adornments, will 
come into his presence and listen to the Law and pass into Nibbana! 
But that is precisely what will not happen; this very day we shall catch 
him in a lie." On the other hand the orthodox thought to themselves, 
"Oh how great and how marvelous is the supernatural power of the 
Buddhas! To-day we shall have the privilege of beholding the grace 
of the Buddha and the grace of the king's minister Santati." 

Santati the king's minister spent a portion of the day at the 
bathing-place sporting in the water, and then entered his pleasure 
garden and sat down in his drinking-hall. Straightway that woman 
came down to the center of the stage and began to display her skill 
in dancing and singing. Now she had fasted for seven days that she 
might display more perfect grace of body; and the result was that on 
that particular day, as she was displaying her skill in dancing and 
singing, knife-like pains arose in her belly and as it were cut the 
flesh of her heart asunder. And then and there with open mouth 
and open eyes she died. 

Said Santati the king's minister, "Look to the lady!" "She is 
dead, master," was the reply. [80] As soon as Santati the king's 
minister heard those words, he was overwhelmed with mighty sorrow; 
and in an instant the liquor he had drunk during the preceding week 
vanished away like a drop of water on a red-hot potsherd. Said he to 
himself, "With the single exception of the Teacher, who is likely to 
be able to extinguish this my sorrow.^" 

So in the evening, surrounded by his force of men, he went to the 
Teacher; and having saluted him, spoke as follows, "Reverend Sir, 
such and such sorrow has come upon me. I have come to you because 
I know that you will be able to extinguish my sorrow. Be my refuge." 
Then said the Teacher to him, "You have indeed come into the 



314 



Book 10, Story 9. Dhammapada H2 [N.3.8O9- 



presence of one who is able to extinguish your sorrow. On the number- 
less occasions when this woman has died in this very manner and 
you have wept over her, you have shed tears more abundant than 
all the water contained in the Four Great Oceans." So saying, he 
pronounced the following Stanza, 

What is past, — let that seem best. Before thee let there be nothing. 
And if thou wilt not grasp what lies between, thou shalt walk in peace. 

At the conclusion of the Stanza, Santati the king's minister attained 
Arahatship, together with the Supernatural Faculties. Thereupon 
he surveyed his own aggregate of life, and perceiving that he had but 
a little while to live, said to the Teacher, "Reverend Sir, permit me to 
pass into Nibbana." The Teacher, although he himself knew what 
had been Santati's meritorious deed in a previous state of existence, 
bethought himself, "The heretics who have gathered themselves 
together for the purpose of catching me in a lie will not succeed in 
doing so; and the orthodox who have assembled with the thought in 
their minds, *We shall behold the grace of the Buddha and the grace 
of Santati the king's minister,' when they hear about the meritorious 
deed he performed in a previous state of existence, will increase in 
esteem for works of merit." [81] 

Therefore the Teacher said to Santati the king's minister, "Well 
then, rehearse to us all the meritorious deed you did in a previous 
state of existence. Do not, however, rehearse it to us standing on 
the ground, but rehearse it to us poised in the air at a height of seven 
palm-trees above the ground." "Very well," replied Santati the 
king's minister. So saluting the Teacher, he rose into the air to the 
height of one palm-tree and then descended to the ground. Then he 
saluted the Teacher once more, and rising gradually to the height of 
seven palm-trees above the ground, he seated himself cross-legged 
in the air, and said, "Listen, Reverend Sirs, to the meritorious deed I 
performed in a previous state of existence." So saying, he related 
the following 



9 a. Story of the Past: The preacher of the Law and the King 

Ninety-one cycles of time ago, in the dispensation of the Buddha 
Vipassi, I was reborn in a certain household in a city named Bandhu- 
mati. And the following thought occurred to me, "What labor will 
do away with the want and sufferings of others .f^" While I was 
pondering this thought, I observed the labors of those who went 




N .3 .8219] Santati the hinges minister 315 



about proclaiming the Law, and from that time forth I labored at 
that very task. I incited others to perform works of merit, and I 
performed works of merit myself. On fast-days I took upon myself 
the obligations of fast-day; I gave alms; I listened to the Law. And 
I went about proclaiming, "There are no jewels comparable to the 
Three Jewels which are named the Buddha, the Law, and the Order; 
therefore do honor to the Three Jewels." 

Now the great King Bandhumati, father of the Buddha, hearing 
my voice, sent for me and asked me, "Friend, on what business are 
you going about. f^" I replied, "Your majesty, I am going about 
proclaiming the virtues of the Three Jewels, and inciting the populace 
to perform works of merit." "What vehicle do you use on your 
travels .J^" asked the king. I replied, "I travel about on my two legs, 
your majesty." [82] Thereupon the king said, "Friend, it is not 
fitting that you should go about in that fashion. Deck yourself with 
this string of flowers and seat yourself on the back of a horse and 
go about in this fashion." So saying, he gave me a string of flowers 
similar in appearance to a string of pearls, and at the same time he 
gave me a horse. 

After the king had done me this kindness, I went about as before 
proclaiming the Law. Thereupon the king summoned me again and 
asked me, "Friend, on what business are you going about?" "The 
same as before, your majesty," I replied. "Friend," said the king, 
"a horse is not good enough for you; sit herein as you go about." 
So saying, he presented me with a chariot drawn by four Sindh horses. 
Again the third time the king heard my voice, whereupon he sent for 
me and asked me, "Friend, on what business are you going about.^^" 
"The same as before, your majesty," I replied. "Friend," said the 
king, "a chariot is not good enough for you." And forthwith he 
presented me with great wealth and a splendid set of jewels, and at 
the same time he gave me an elephant. Accordingly I decked myself 
with all my jewels and seated myself on the back of the elephant, and 
in this manner for eighty thousand years I went about performing 
the meritorious work of proclaiming the Law. And during all that 
time there was diffused from my body the fragrance of sandal and 
from my mouth the fragrance of the lotus. This was my meritorious 
deed in a previous state of existence. End of Story of the Past. 

As Santati the king's minister thus related the story of his meri- 
torious deed in a previous state of existence, sitting cross-legged in 
the air, he applied himseK to meditation on the element of fire; and 



316 



Booh 10, Story 9, Dhammapada H2 [N.3.82i9- 



having thus induced a state of trance, he entered therein and straight- 
way passed into Nibbana. Instantly j3ames of fire burst from his 
body and consumed his flesh and blood, and his relics floated down 
like jasmine flowers. The Teacher spread out a pure white cloth, [83] 
and his relics fell therein, and the Teacher deposited them at a crossing 
of four highways, caused a shrine to be erected over them and said, 
"By doing reverence to these relics the populace will earn much merit." 
The monks started up a discussion in the Hall of Truth, "Santati 
the king's minister attained Arahatship at the conclusion of the 
Stanza, and though adorned and dressed in state, sitting cross-legged 
in the air, passed into Nibbana. Ought one to speak of him as a 
'hermit' or as a 'Brahman'.?" At that moment the Teacher entered 
and asked the monks, " Monks, what is it that engages your attention 
as you sit here all gathered together .f^" When they told him, he said, 
"Monks, it is proper to speak of my son as a 'hermit,' and it is equally 
proper to speak of him as a 'Brahman.'" So saying, he preached 
the Law by pronouncing the following Stanza, 

142. Even though a man be richly adorned, if he walk in peace. 
If he be quiet, subdued, restrained, and chaste. 
And if he refrain from injuring any living being. 
That man is a Brahman, that man is a hermit, that man is a monk. 



X. 10. THE MONK AND THE RAGGED GARMENT ^ 

7* there a man in this world so restrained by modesty? This religious 
instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at 
Jetavana with reference to Elder Pilotika. [84] 

For one day Elder Ananda saw a certain youth going along, clad 
in a ragged undergarment, with a potsherd in his hand. Said the 
Elder to the youth, "Is not the monastic life superior to the kind of 
life you lead.?" Said the youth to the Elder, "Reverend Sir, who will 
make a monk of me?" "I will make a monk of you," said the Elder. 
So taking him with him, he bathed him with his own hand, and giving 
him a Subject of Meditation, made a monk of him. Now the youth 
spread out the cloth which he had worn as an undergarment, looked 
about him, and seeing no place to which he might resort for the pur- 
pose of straining water, placed the cloth and the potsherd on the 
branch of a certain tree. Having been admitted to the Order and hav- 

1 Cf. story XXV. 10. Text: N iii. 84-87. 



-N.3.866] The monk and the ragged garment 317 

ing made his full profession, he enjoyed to the full the rich offerings 
which accrue to the Buddhas, and went about clad in robes of great 
price. After a time he became fat and discontented. Thought he to 
himself, "What is the use of my going about clad in robes which are 
the pious offerings of the people? I will clothe myself once more in 
the same old cloth I used to wear." Accordingly he went to the place 
where he had left the cloth and recovered it. [85] Having so done, he 
said to himself, "You shameless, unblushing simpleton, you have 
thrown away the privilege of wearing rich apparel, have clothed 
yourself in these rags, and with potsherd in hand, are about to go forth 
for alms." And taking this thought for his Subject of Meditation, 
all by himself he admonished himself. Now even as he admonished 
himself, his mind became tranquil. Then and there he put away 
that cloth and went back again to the monastery. After a few days, 
however, he became discontented once more, said the same thing to him- 
self, and then went back again to the monastery. Again the third time 
the same thing happened. When the monks saw him going back and 
forth in this manner, they asked him, "Brother, where are you going .f^" 
"I am going to my teacher, brethren," he replied. Thus did he take 
his own old ragged garment for his Subject of Meditation, by this 
means conquer himself, and in a few days attain Arahatship. 

Said the monks, "Brother, do you no longer go to your teacher? 
This is not the path you have been accustomed to travel." "Breth- 
ren," replied the monk, "when I was attached to the world, I walked 
with a teacher. But now that I have cut off the ties that bind me to 
the world, I no longer go to him." The monks reported the matter 
to the Teacher, saying, "Reverend Sir, the Elder Pilotika does not 
speak the truth." "What did he say, monks?" replied the Teacher. 
"He said this and that. Reverend Sir." When the Teacher heard 
that, he said, "Monks, what he says is quite true. When my son was 
attached to the world, he went to a teacher. But now he has cut off 
the ties that bound him to the world, has himseff restrained himself, 
and has attained Arahatship." So saying, he pronounced the follow- 
ing Stanzas, 

143. Is there a man in this world so restrained by modesty 

That he wards off reproach as a well-bred horse the whip? [86] 

144. Even as a well-bred horse touched by the whip, so be ye ardent and active. 

By faith, by virtue, by resolution, by meditation, by understanding of the Law, 
Possessing perfect knowledge and behavior, thoughtful, you will rid yourselves 
of this great suffering. 



318 Book 10, Story 11, Dhammapada H5 [N.s.STi 



X. 11. SUKHA THE NOVICE ' 

Ditch-diggers lead the water. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference 
to the novice Sukha. [87] 

11 a. Story of the Past: The treasurer Gandha, the laborer 
Bhattabhatika, and the Private Buddha 

Once upon a time there lived in Benares a youth named Gandha, 
and he was the son of the principal treasurer of the city. When his 
father died, the king sent for him, and after comforting him, bestowed 
high honor upon him, giving him the post of treasurer which his 
father had held before him. From that time on he was known as the 
treasurer Gandha. 

One day the steward of his property opened the door of his strong- 
room and said to him, "Master, now you are the possessor of all this 
wealth which once belonged to your father, and of all this wealth 
which once belonged to your grandfather and to those who went before 
him." And when he had so said, he brought out store after store of 
treasure and showed them to him. The treasurer looked at the stores 
of treasure and said, "But why did they not take this treasure with 
them when they went to the other world .f^" "Master, there are none 
that can take their treasure with them when they go to the other 
world. All that men take with them when they die is their works, 
whether they be good or whether they be evil." 

When the treasurer heard this saying, he thought to himself, 
"What a piece of folly for them to amass all these treasures and then 
to go away and leave them! As for me, I will take them with me 
when I go." This was the thought that passed through the treasurer's 
mind. But instead of saying to himself, "I will give alms; [88] I will 
render honor to whom honor is due," he reflected, "I will eat up all 
this wealth before I go." 

Accordingly he spent a hundred thousand pieces of money in 
building a bath-house of crystal. At a cost of a hundred thousand 
pieces of money he had made a bath-seat of crystal. At a cost of a 
hundred thousand pieces of money he had made a couch whereon to 

1 With the Story of the Present (x. 116), cf . story vi. 5, Pandita the Novice. Text: 
N iii. 87-99. 



-N.3.8911] 



Sukha the novice 



319 



sit. At a cost of a hundred thousand pieces of money he had made a 
bowl for his food. At a cost of a hundred thousand pieces of money 
he caused to be erected a pavilion over his dining-hall. At a cost of 
a hundred thousand pieces of money he had made a copper-plated 
receptacle for his bowl. At a cost of a hundred thousand pieces of 
money he had a magnificent window built in his house. For his 
breakfast he spent a thousand pieces of money, and for his evening 
meal he spent a thousand pieces of money. And for the purpose of 
providing himself with food at midday on the day of full moon he 
spent a hundred thousand pieces of money. 

On the day when he intended to eat this food, he spent a hundred 
thousand pieces of money in decorating the city, caused a drum to be 
beaten and the following proclamation to be made, "Let all behold 
the manner in which the treasurer Gandha eats his meals." Straight- 
way the populace assembled, bringing with them beds and couches. 
And the treasurer Gandha, having first bathed in his bath-house 
which had cost him a hundred thousand pieces of money, in perfumed 
water drawn from sixteen vessels, seated himself on his couch which 
had cost him a hundred thousand pieces of money. Having so done, 
he opened his magnificent window and displayed himself to view, 
seated on that couch. And his servants placed his bowl in that 
copper-plated receptacle and served him with food. In such splendor, 
surrounded by a company of dancers, did the treasurer Gandha 
enjoy that feast. 

A short time afterwards a certain villager came to the city with 
a cart filled with firewood and so forth, and for the purpose of sparing 
himself unnecessary expense found lodging in the house of a friend 
of his. Now it so happened that it was the day of full moon; [89] 
and on this day men went about the city beating drums and crying 
out, "Let all behold the splendor in which the treasurer Gandha takes 
his meals." The villager's friend said to him, "Have you ever seen 
the splendor in which the treasurer Gandha takes his meals.?" "No, 
my friend," said the villager. "Well then, come, let us go; there is 
the drum making the rounds of the city; we shall see great splendor 
and magnificence." So the city man took the countryman with him, 
and they went out together. The populace climbed on beds and 
couches and looked on. 

Just then the villager smelt the savor of food and said to the city 
man, "I feel thirsty for that bowl of rice." "Friend, do not wish for 
that; you could never get it." "Friend, if I do not get it, I shall not 



320 



Book 10, Story 11. Dhammapada H5 [N.3.89ii- 



be able to live any longer." The city man, unable to restrain the 
villager, standing in the outer circle of the crowd, cried out thrice 
with a loud voice, "I bow myself before you, master." "Who is 
that.?" said the treasurer. "It is I, master." "What is the matter.?" 
"There is a certain villager here who thirsts for the rice in your bowl. 
Pray give him just a morsel of rice." "He cannot have it." "Friend, 
did you hear what he said.?" "Yes, I heard. If I can have some of 
the rice, I can live; but if I cannot have it, I shall surely die." 

Thereupon the city man cried out again with a loud voice, "Master, 
this villager says that if he cannot have some of your rice, he will 
surely die. Spare his life, I pray you." "Sirrah, every morsel of 
rice is worth a hundred pieces of money, two hundred pieces of money. 
If I give rice to everyone who asks for it, [90] what shall I have to 
eat myself.?" "Master, if this villager cannot have some of your 
rice, he will die. Spare his life, I pray you." "He cannot have it. 
However, if it be really true that unless he receives some of the rice 
he will die, let him work for hire for me for the space of three years. 
If he will do that, I will let him have the bowl of rice." 

When the villager heard that, he said to his friend, "So be it, friend." 
Then he took leave of son and wife, saying to them, "I intend to work 
for hire for three years in order to obtain this bowl of rice." And 
having so said, he entered the treasurer's house. During his term of 
service he performed all of his duties most faithfully; whether in 
the house or in the forest, whether by day or by night, all the duties 
which fell to him were performed just as they should have been. 
He became known to all the residents of the city as Food-earner, 
Bhattabhatika. 

When his term of service was completed, the treasurer's steward 
said to his master, "Bhattabhatika's term of service is now completed; 
it was a difficult task he performed for the space of three years in 
working for hire; not a single piece of work he undertook was done 
amiss." Thereupon the treasurer gave him two thousand pieces of 
money for his evening meal and a thousand pieces of money for his 
breakfast, making three thousand pieces of money in all. And he 
gave orders to all the members of his household, except his own dear 
wife Cintamani, to wait on that day upon Bhattabhatika only, saying, 
"To-day you are to render precisely the same attentions to him as 
you have been accustomed to render to me." So s^jying, he bestowed 
his own state upon Bhattabhatika. 

So Bhattabhatika bathed in the same kind of water as that in 



-N.3.927] Sukha the novice 321 

which the treasurer had been accustomed to bathe, and in the same 
bath-house, and sat on the treasurer's bath-seat after his bath, [91] 
and put on the treasurer's garments, and sat down upon the treasurer's 
couch. And the treasurer caused a man to go about the city beating a 
drum and crying out, "Bhattabhatika worked for hire in the house 
of the treasurer Gandha for the space of three years, and by so doing 
obtained for himself a bowl of rice. Let all look upon the splendor 
and magnificence in which he eats his meal." The populace climbed 
beds and couches and looked on. Every place Bhattabhatika looked 
at quaked and shook; dancers stood in attendance about him; 
servants brought the bowl of rice to him and set it before him. 

When it was time for him to wash his hands, a certain Private 
Buddha on Mount Gandhamadana arose from a state of trance 
which had lasted seven days, and considering within himself, "Where 
shall I go to-day to receive alms.?^" beheld Bhattabhatika. Then 
this thought occurred to him, "This man has worked for hire for 
three years and by so doing has received a bowl of rice; has this 
man faith or not.^^" Perceiving that he had faith, the Private Buddha 
considered further, "Even they that have faith do not always take 
the trouble to bestow favor; will this man take the trouble to bestow 
his favor upon me.^" Immediately he became aware of the following, 
"He will surely bestow favor upon me, and by bestowing favor upon 
me he will earn for himself a rich reward." So the Private Buddha 
put on his upper robe, took his bowl in his hand, and soaring through 
the air, alighted in the midst of the assembly and showed himself 
standing before his very face. 

When Bhattabhatika saw the Private Buddha, he thought to 
himself, "Because I have not previously bestowed alms, it has been 
necessary for me to work for hire in the house of another for three 
years in order to obtain the bowl of rice. This rice which I have just 
received will keep me for a night and a day; but if I give this to 
this noble person, it will keep me for countless millions of cycles of 
time. [92] I will give it to this noble person and to none other." 
Thereupon Bhattabhatika, who had earned possession of the bowl 
of rice by working for hire for three years, without so much as putting 
a morsel of rice in his mouth, suppressed his thirst, took the bowl in 
his own hands, and went to the Private Buddha and placed the bowl 
in the hands of another. Then he saluted the Private Buddha with 
the Five Rests, and taking the bowl in his left hand, with his right 
hand poured the rice into the bowl of the Private Buddha. When 



322 Book 10, Story 11, Dhammapada H5 [N.3.927- 

half of the rice had been emptied into his bowl, the Private Buddha 
covered the bowl with his hand. Bhattabhatika, however, said to 
him, "Reverend Sir, one portion cannot be divided into two. I 
ask you not to bestow favor upon me in this present life, but to bestow 
favor upon me in the life to come. I desire to keep nothing for myself, 
but to give you all without reserve." And without keeping back 
anything at all for himself, he gave all without reserve to the Private 
Buddha, thereby earning much merit for himself. When he had 
so done, giving all he possessed, he saluted the Private Buddha again 
and said to him, "Reverend Sir, all because of this bowl of rice I 
worked for hire in the house of another for three years and endured 
much suffering. May happiness alone be my portion henceforth in 
the various places where I shall be reborn. Grant that I may be a 
partaker of the same Truth which you have seen." "So be it," said 
the Private Buddha, adding, "May all your desires be granted, even 
as the wishing-jewel grants them; may all your longings be fulfilled, 
even as the moon at the full." And by way of thanksgiving he 
pronounced the following Stanzas, 

May what you seek and wish for quickly be obtained; 

May all your longings be fulfilled, even as the moon on full-moon day. 

May what you seek and wish for quickly be obtained; 

May all your longings be fulfilled, even as the wishing-jewel fulfills them. [93] 

Then the Private Buddha formed the resolution, "May this 
multitude stand watching me until I reach Mount Gandhamadana." 
Straightway he flew through the air to Gandhamadana, and the 
multitude stood watching him. When he reached Gandhamadana, 
he divided the food among five hundred Private Buddhas; each 
received enough for himself. (The question must not be asked, "How 
could so small a portion of alms suffice for so many?" There are four 
Inconceivables, and the Power of a Private Buddha is one of them.) 
When the multitude saw him dividing the food among the Private 
Buddhas, they sent up thousands of shouts of applause, insomuch 
that the noise thereof was like the noise of simultaneous bursts of 
thunder. 

When the treasurer Gandha heard the shouts, he thought to 
himself, "Bhattabhatika has been unable to endure the splendor 
and glory which I bestowed upon him. Therefore this multitude has 
assembled and is making sport of him." So he sent out men to investi- 
gate the matter. The men returned and told the treasurer what had 
happened, saying, "Master, in like manner may they endure splendor 



-N. 3.9418] 



Sukha the novice 



323 



and glory." When the treasurer heard this, his body was suffused 
with the five sorts of joy. Said he, "Oh, what a laborious task it 
was that this man performed! And to think that during all the time 
that I enjoyed this splendor and glory I should never have taken 
the trouble to give anything!" So he summoned Bhattabhatika and 
asked him, "Is the report true that you have done this and that?" 
"Yes, master." "Well! take these thousand pieces of money and 
make over to me the merit that you have earned by bestowing this 
gift." Bhattabhatika did so, and the treasurer divided all of his 
possessions into two parts and gave Bhattabhatika one of the portions. 



(There are four Attainments: Attainment of Substance, Attain- 
ment of Requisites, Attainment of Consciousness, and Attainment of 
Extraordinary Power. [94] For example, an Arahat, or a person 
who has attained the Fruit of the Third Path, after he has arisen from 
a Trance of Cessation, is a worthy recipient of offerings. Attainment 
of Substance means acquisition of substance by such a person. By 
Attainment of Requisites is meant acquisition of requisites by right- 
eous living and just dealing. By Attainment of Consciousness is 
meant a state of consciousness resulting from knowledge and associated 
with feelings of joy. It proceeds from the giving of alms in the three 
divisions of time: past, present, and future. Attainment of Extra- 
ordinary Power means acquisition of the state of a worthy recipient 
of offerings, after he has arisen from trance. Now this Arahat, this 
Private Buddha, deserved to receive offerings from Bhattabhatika, 
and the requisites the latter received by working for hire were the 
natural result of his righteousness. The Attainment of Consciousness 
was the result of a consciousness purified in the three divisions of 
time. The Private Buddha, as soon as he arose from trance, mani- 
fested the Attainment of Extraordinary Power. Thus arise the four 
Attainments; and through their supernatural power, even in this 
present life, men obtain splendor and glory. Therefore it was that 
Bhattabhatika received splendor and glory at the hands of the 
treasurer.) 

Some time later, the king, hearing what Bhattabhatika had done, 
sent for him, gave him a thousand pieces of money in exchange for 
his bowl, bestowed rich treasure upon him, and gave him the post of 
treasurer. Thus he came to be called Treasurer Bhattabhatika. 

Bhattabhatika became warm friends with the treasurer Gandha 



324 Book 10, Story 11. Dhammapada H5 [N.3.94i8- 

and ate with him and drank with him and slept with him. Having 
lived out his allotted term of life, he passed from that existence and 
was reborn in the World of the Gods. After enjoying celestial bliss 
in the World of the Gods for the space of an interval between two 
Buddhas, he obtained a new existence in the dispensation of this 
present Buddha in the city Savatthi in the household of a supporter 
of the Elder Sariputta. [95] 

lib. Story of the Present: Sukha the novice 

His mother received the treatment usual for the protection of her 
unborn babe, and after a few days the longing of pregnancy came 
upon her. Thought she, "Oh, that I might give food of rich flavor to 
the Elder Sariputta and his five hundred monks! Oh, that I might 
put on yellow robes, take a golden vessel in my hand, sit down in the 
outer circle of the congregation, and partake of the food left uneaten 
by those monks!" Thus she did, and satisfied her longing. And on 
other festival occasions also she gave like offerings. Finally she gave 
birth to a son, and on the day appointed for the naming of the child 
she said to the Elder Sariputta, "Reverend Sir, confer the precepts on 
my son." Said the Elder, "What shall be his name.?" Said the 
mother, "Reverend Sir, from the day when he was conceived, no one 
in this house has experienced pain; therefore his name shall be Happy, 
Sukha Kumara." The Elder gave him that name, and then conferred 
the precepts upon him. 

Now at that time the following thought arose in the mother's 
mind, "I will not interfere with the desire of my son." On the feast 
of the piercing of the child's ears and on the other festival days she 
gave offerings in like manner. When the boy was seven years old, 
he said to his mother, "Mother, I desire to retire from the world and 
become a monk under the Elder." "Very well, my dear son," replied 
the mother; "I will not interfere with your desire." Accordingly 
she invited the Elder to her house and said to him, "Reverend Sir, 
my son desires to become a monk; I will therefore bring him to the 
monastery in the evening." Having so said, she dismissed the Elder 
and assembled her kinsfolk, saying, "This very day we shall do for 
my son everything that should be done for him while he is yet living 
the life of a layman." So saying, she dressed her son in rich apparel, 
conducted him to the monastery in state, and committed him into the 
hands of the Elder. The Elder said to him, " My dear son, the monastic 



-N.3.974] 



Sukha the novice 



325 



life is a hard life; [96] shall you be able to take delight therein?" 
The youth replied, "Reverend Sir, I will keep your admonitions." 
Thereupon the Elder gave him a Subject of Meditation, and having 
so done, received him into the Order. 

For seven days his mother and father bestowed rich offerings 
within the monastery in honor of his reception into the Order, giving 
food of a hundred flavors to the Congregation of Monks presided 
over by the Buddha, returning in the evening to their own home. On 
the eighth day, while the Congregation of Monks were making the 
rounds of the village, the Elder Sariputta performed various duties 
about the monastery. Afterwards, directing the novice to take his 
bowl and robe, he himself entered the village for alms. 

On the way the novice noticed watercourses and so forth, just as 
had the novice Pandita, and asked the Elder about them. The Elder 
answered his questions just as he had answered the questions of the 
novice Pandita. When the novice had heard all these matters ex- 
plained, he said to the Elder, "If you will be so good as to take your 
bowl and robe, I should like to turn back." The Elder offered no 
opposition to his wishes, but said, "Very well, novice, bring me my 
bowl and robe." When the Elder had taken his bowl and robe, the 
novice bowed to him and turned back. As he did so, he said to the 
Elder, "Reverend Sir, when you bring me my food, pray bring me 
food of a hundred flavors." "Whence shall we obtain such food.^" 
"If you cannot obtain it through your own merit. Reverend Sir, you 
can obtain it through mine." The Elder gave him a key and entered 
the village for alms. The novice returned to the monastery, opened 
the Elder's cell, closed the door, and having seated himself, strove 
to obtain in his own person a conception of the nature of the body. 

Through the power of the novice's virtue Sakka's seat manifested 
signs of heat. Sakka considered within himself, "What can this 
mean?" Looking about him, he saw the novice and became aware 
of the following, "The novice Sukha has given his preceptor his bowl 
and robe, and has returned with this resolution in his mind, 'I will 
strive diligently for the attainment of Arahatship.' It is my duty 
to go to him." Accordingly Sakka summoned the Four Great Kings 
and sent them forth, saying to them, "Go to the monastery park [97] 
and drive the noisy birds away." The Four Great Kings did so and 
guarded the approaches from all quarters. Then Sakka gave orders 
to the moon and the sun, saying, "Stop the movement of your 
cars and stand still;" and they did so. Sakka himself stood guard 



326 Book 10, Story 11, Dhammapada H5 [N.3.974- 

over the rope of the door. The monastery became quiet and] 
noiseless. 

With well-focussed mind the novice developed Spiritual Insightl 
and attained the Three Paths and Fruits. The Elder, recalling that 
the novice had requested him to bring him food of a hundred flavors, 
considered within himself, "In whose house, pray, will it be possible 
to obtain such food.^" Straightway beholding the household of a 
supporter of his who was endowed with the requisite disposition, he 
went thither. When the members of this household saw the Elder, 
they were pleased at heart and said to the Elder, "Reverend Sir, it 
is well that you came here to-day." And they took his bowl and 
provided him with a seat and presented him with broth and hard food. 
They then requested the Elder to preach the Law to them until meal- 
time, and the Elder, responding to their request, preached the Law 
to them informally until he perceived that meal-time had come, where- 
upon he brought his discourse to an end. The members of the house- 
hold then gave him food of a hundred flavors, and the Elder indicated 
that he wished to depart, taking the food with him. But they said 
to him, "Reverend Sir, eat this food yourself, and we will then give 
you a second portion to take with you." Thus they prevailed upon 
him to eat the food which they had given him; and when he had so 
done they filled his bowl again and gave it to him. The Elder took 
the bowl of food, and reflecting, "The novice must be hungry," set 
out post-haste for the monastery. 

On that very day, as the Teacher, who had gone out early in the 
morning, sat in the Perfumed Chamber, he considered within him- 
self, "To-day the novice Sukha gave his preceptor his bowl and robe 
and turned back, saying, 'I will strive earnestly for the attainment of 
Arahatship;' has he yet completed his task.^^" Straightway he 
perceived that the novice had attained the Three Paths and Fruits. 
Considering the matter further, the Teacher became aware of the follow- 
ing, "To-day the novice will succeed in attaining Arahatship. [98] 
But the Elder Sariputta has just set out post-haste with food for 
the hungry novice, and if he arrives with the food before the novice 
has attained Arahatship, it will impede the attainment thereof. It 
is therefore my duty to go thither and stand guard over his cham- 
ber near the gate." With this thought in his mind, the Teacher went 
forth from the Perfumed Chamber, and posting himself at the gate- 
way, stood on guard. 

The Elder brought the food. The Teacher asked the Elder four 



-N .3 .9915] 



Sukha the novice 



327 



questions as on a similar occasion before, and when the Elder had 
answered the last of the questions, the novice attained Arahatship. 
Then the Teacher addressed the Elder, saying, "Go, Sariputta, 
give the novice his food." The Elder went and forced the door, 
whereupon the novice came out and paid his respects to the Elder. 
"Eat the food I have brought you," said the Elder. Thereupon a 
mere seven-year-old boy, who had but a moment before attained 
Arahatship, persuaded of the utter uselessness of the food which the 
Elder had brought him, contemplating the estate of Nibbana, ate the 
food and washed the bowl. 

At that moment the Four Great Kings left their posts, the moon 
and the sun started up their cars, Sakka left his post at the rope 
of the door, and the sun passed beyond the zenith before the eyes of 
all. Said the monks, "Evening is now come on, and the novice has 
just finished his meal. Why was the morning so long to-day, and the 
evening so tardy .^" Just then the Teacher approached and asked the 
monks, "Monks, what is it that you are sitting here talking about 
now.^ " The monks replied, " Reverend Sir, to-day the morning seemed 
very long, and the evening was tardy. [99] The novice has but just 
finished his meal. Moreover the sun has just passed beyond the zenith 
before our very eyes." The Teacher replied, 

"Monks, that is what always happens when they that possess 
merit engage in meditation. For to-day the Four Great Kings kept 
guard on all sides; the moon and the sun stopped their cars and 
stood still; Sakka kept guard at the rope of the door; and I my- 
self stood guard at the gateway. To-day the novice Sukha 
saw ditch-diggers leading the water in a watercourse, arrow-makers 
straightening their arrows, and carpenters fashioning wheels and 
so forth. And having seen these things, he subdued himseK and at- 
tained Arahatship." And so saying, he pronounced the following 
Stanza, 

145. Ditch-diggers lead the water, arrow-makers bend their shafts, 
Carpenters bend the wood, good men control themselves. 



BOOK XI. OLD AGE, JARA VAGGA 

XI. 1. VISAKHA'S COMPANIONS INTOXICATE 
THEMSELVES ^ 

Why laughter? why exultation? This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with refer 
ence to Visakha's companions. [100] 



The story goes that five hundred young men of respectable families 
living at Savatthi intrusted their wives to the care of the eminent 
female lay disciple Visakha, confident that under such auspices they 
would live the life of Heedfulness. From that time forth, whether they 
went to the pleasure garden or to the monastery, they went always 
with Visakha. Now on a certain occasion proclamation was made of 
a drinking festival to last seven days. Accordingly those women 
prepared strong drink for their husbands, and their husbands took 
part in the festival, carousing for a period of seven days. On the eighth 
day the drum went forth to announce the resumption of work, and 
they returned to their work. 

Those women thought to themselves, "We have not been permitted 
to drink strong drink in the presence of our husbands. Yet plenty of 
strong drink remains. Let us therefore drink it, but let us take care 
that our husbands shall know nothing about it." Accordingly they 
went to Visakha and said to her, "Noble lady, we desire to visit the 
pleasure garden." "Very well, dear friends, perform your various 
duties first; then you may go out." They went with Visakha, [101] 
causing strong drink to be removed surreptitiously, drank it in the 
garden, and roamed about in a state of intoxication. Visakha thought 
to herself, "These women have committed a gross impropriety. 
Now the heretics also will find ground of reproach and will say, 
*The female lay disciples of the monk Gotama go about drinking 
strong drink.'" So she said to those women, "Dear friends, you have 
committed a gross impropriety and have brought disgrace upon me 

^ This story is a very free version of the Introduction to Jdtaka 512: v. 11. 
Text: N iii. 100-103. 



n 



-N.3.10212] Visdkhd's companions intoxicate themselves 329 

also. Your husbands also will be enraged at you. Now what will you 
do?" "Noble lady, we shall pretend to be sick." "Very well, you 
will acquire notoriety by your own doings." The women went home 
and pretended to be sick. 

Now their husbands inquired, "Where is So-and-so? Where is 
So-and-so?" "Sick." "They undoubtedly drank the strong drink 
that remained," concluded their husbands. Therefore they beat 
them and brought distress and unhappiness upon them. At a subse- 
quent drinking festival those same women desired to drink' strong 
drink in the same manner as before. So they went to Visakha and 
said to her, "Noble lady, conduct us to the pleasure garden." But 
Visakha refused to do so, saying, "The last time I did so, you brought 
disgrace upon me. Go by yourselves; I will not conduct you thither." 
The women decided, "We will not act so this time." So they went to 
Visakha again and said to her, "Noble lady, we desire to do honor to 
the Buddha; conduct us to the monastery." "What you propose 
to do now is quite proper; go make preparations." 

So taking perfumes and garlands in caskets, carrying in their 
hands jugs filled with strong drink, wearing great cloaks, they ap- 
proached Visakha, and accompanied her to the monastery. Then 
they went off by themselves and drank strong drink out of their jugs. 
And throwing away their jugs, they seated themselves in the Hall 
of Truth in the presence of the Teacher. [102] Said Visakha to the 
Teacher, "Reverend Sir, preach the Law to these women." But 
those same women were so drunk that their bodies swayed back 
and forth, and suddenly they took it into their heads to dance and 
sing. 

Now a certain deity belonging to the host of Mara thought to 
herself, "I will possess the bodies of these women and cause them to 
commit gross improprieties in the presence of the monk Gotama." 
And straightway she took possession of their bodies. Thereupon some 
of them clapped their hands before the Teacher and laughed, while 
others began to dance. The Teacher considered within himself, 
"What does this mean?" Immediately perceiving the cause, he said 
to himself, "I shall not now permit the deities of the host of Mara 
to descend. For during all the time I was fulfilling the Perfections, 
it was certainly not for the purpose of allowing the deities of the host 
of Mara to descend that I fulfilled them." 

Accordingly, that he might frighten those women, the Teacher 
sent forth a dark-blue ray from the hair of his eyebrow. Straightway 



330 Book 11, Story 1. Dhammapada H6 [N.3. 10212- 

there was black darkness. Those women were terrified with the fear] 
of death. So intense was their fear that the strong drink within their 
bellies dried up. Then the Teacher vanished from the couch on 
which he sat, stood on the top of Mount Sineru, and sent forth a ray \ 
of light from the hair between his eyebrows. At that moment it was \ 
as though a thousand moons had risen. Then he addressed those 
women, saying, "When you approach and come into my presence, 
you must not approach in heedlessness. For in consequence of your 
heedlessness a deity of the host of Mara got possession of you, and 
at a time when you should not have laughed or behaved lightly, he 
caused you to laugh and to misbehave. You should henceforth 
[103] make every effort to quench the fire of lust and of the other evil 
passions." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

146. Why laughter? why exultation? For the world is ever aflame. 
Will ye not seek a light, ye that are shrouded in darkness? 

The Teacher, knowing that the women were established in faith 
that cannot be shaken, descended from the summit of Mount Sineru 
and seated himself in the Seat of the Buddha. Thereupon Visakha 
said to him, "Verily strong drink is an evil thing. Women of such 
quality as these women, seating themselves before a Buddha like you, 
were unable to control their movements, but springing to their feet, 
clapped their hands and began to laugh and sing and dance." The 
Teacher replied, "Yes, Visakha, strong drink is indeed an evil thing, 
for because of it numberless living beings have come to distress and 
unhappiness." "But, Reverend Sir, at what time did this episode have 
its beginning .f^ " In response to this question the Teacher, desiring to 
relate in detail the circumstances that led to this episode, told a Story 
of the Past, relating the Kumbha Jataka.^ 



XI. 2. THE TEACHER CURES A MONK OF LOVE ^ 

See this painted image. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Veluvana with reference to 
Sirima. [104] 

1 Jataka 512: v. 12-20. 

2 From this story is derived Vimdna-Vatthu Commentary, i. 16: 74-78. Vv. cm. 
75*-77^ is almost word for word the same as Dh. cm. iii. 104^^-109^. This story 
is referred to at Milindapanha, 350^^. See Cunningham's Stupa of BkarhuU Plate 
xxiii. 1. Text: N iii. 104-109. 



I 



-N.3.1058] The Teacher cures a monk of love 



331 



Sirima, the story goes, was a very beautiful courtezan of Rajagaha 
who had during a certain rainy season offended against the female lay 
disciple Uttara, wife of the treasurer's son Sumana and daughter of 
the treasurer Punnaka. Desiring to be on good terms with her again, 
she went to her house when the Teacher and the Congregation of 
Monks were within, and after the Teacher had finished his meal, asked 
him for pardon. Now on that day He that is Possessed of the Ten 
Forces pronounced within the hearing of Sirima the following words of 
thanksgiving, 

223. One should overcome anger with kindness, one should overcome evil with good. 
One should overcome the niggard with gifts, and the speaker of falsehood with 
truth. 

At the conclusion of the Stanza Sirima obtained the Fruit of 
Conversion. (This is a brief synopsis of the story; as for the com- 
plete story, it will be found related at length in the Commentary on 
the Stanza of Thanksgiving in the Kodha Vagga.) ^ 

Having thus attained the Fruit of Conversion, Sirima invited the 
Possessor of the Ten Forces to be her guest, and on the following day 
presented rich offerings. From that time on she gave regularly the 
Eight Ticket-foods, and from that time on eight monks came regularly 
to her house. "Accept ghee, accept milk," she would say, filling their 
bowls; what she gave to one monk would have sufficed for three or 
four; every day sixteen pieces of money were expended on the alms 
which were presented to the monks who visited her house. 

Now one day a certain monk who had eaten the Eight Ticket- 
foods in her house went a journey of three leagues and stopped at a 
certain monastery. In the evening, as he sat in the monastery, the 
monks asked him, "Brother, where [105] did you obtain food just 
before you came here.^" "I have just eaten Sirima's Eight Ticket- 
foods." "Is the food which she gives pleasing to the taste, brother.^" 
"It is impossible to describe her food; it is the choicest of choice food 
that she gives. But a single portion would suffice even for three or 
four. But good as her food is, she herself is still more pleasing to look 
upon; such and such are the marks of beauty which she possesses." 
Thus did the monk describe her good qualities. 

A certain monk heard the visiting monk describe her good quali- 
ties, and in spite of the fact that he had never seen her, nevertheless 
fell in love with her. Said he to himself, "I ought to go see her." 

* Story xvii. 3. 



332 Book 11, Story 2, Dhammapada H7 [N.s.iosg^ 

So announcing that he was about to enter upon residence, he ask< 
the monk who lived by her ahns some questions. The visiting moi 
repHed, "To-morrow, brother, remain in that house, assume the posi 
of Elder of the Assembly, and you will receive the Eight Ticket- 
foods." The monk immediately took bowl and robe and went ou1 
Early in the morning, as the dawn rose, he entered the Ticket-hall, 
assumed the post of Elder of the Assembly, and received the Eight 
Ticket-foods in the woman's house. 

Now it so happened that on the day before, just as the monk who 
had received food in her house went out, the female lay disciple be- 
came aflflicted with a disease, and therefore removed her jewels and 
lay down. When the monks came to receive the Eight Ticket-foods, 
her female slaves, seeing them, informed their mistress. Since she 
was unable to take their bowls in her own hands, provide them with 
seats, and wait upon them, she gave orders to her slaves, saying, 
"Women, take the bowls and provide the noble monks with seats; 
give them broth to drink and hard food to eat. [106] When it is time 
to present boiled rice, fill their bowls and give them to the monks." 
"Very well, noble lady," replied the slaves. So they invited the monks 
within, gave them broth to drink and hard food to eat; and when it 
was time to present boiled rice, they filled their bowls and gave them 
to the monks. When they had so done, they went and informed their 
mistress. She said, "Take me and carry me with you, that I may pay 
my respects to the noble monks." So they took her and carried her 
with them; and when they brought her into the presence of the monks, 
she paid obeisance to them, her body all of a tremble. 

When that monk looked upon her, he thought to himself, "Even 
in sickness this woman possesses wonderful beauty. What manner of 
beauty must she not possess when she is well and strong and adorned 
with all her adornments.'^" Thereupon human passion, accumulated 
during many millions of years, arose within him. He became indifferent 
to all about him and was unable to take food. He took his bowl and 
went back to the monastery; covering his bowl, he put it away; 
then he lay down, spreading out the skirt of his robe. A certain monk 
who was a companion of his tried to persuade him to eat, but without 
success,, for he refused absolutely to take food. 

On that very day in the evening Sirima died. Thereupon the king 
sent word to the Teacher, "Reverend Sir, Jivaka's youngest sister 
Sirima is dead." When the Teacher received that message, he sent 
back the following message to the king, "Sirima^s body should not 



1 



-N.3.10811] The Teacher cures a monk of love 333 

be burned. Have her body laid in the burning-ground, and set a 
watch, that crows and dogs may not devour it." The king did so. 
Three days passed, one after another. On the fourth day the body 
began to bloat, and from the nine openings of her body, which were 
like to sores, there oozed forth maggots. [107] Her whole body looked 
like a cracked vessel of boiled rice. 

The king caused a drum to go through the city and the following 
proclamation to be made, "Let all approach to behold Su-ima. Except 
watchmen of houses, all who refuse to do so shall be fined eight pieces 
of money." And he sent the following message to the Teacher, "Let 
the Congregation of Monks presided over by the Buddha approach 
to behold Sirima." The Teacher made proclamation to the monks, 
"Let us go forth to behold Sirima." 

Now that young monk had lain for four days without touching 
food, paying no attention to anything anyone said to him; the rice in 
his bowl had rotted, and his bowl was covered with mildew. The rest 
of the monks who were his fellows approached him and said to him, 
"Brother, the Teacher is going forth to behold Sirima." When the 
young monk, lying thus, heard the name Sirima, he leaped quickly to 
his feet. Someone said to him, "The Teacher is going forth to behold 
Sirima; will you also go.?" "Indeed I will go," he replied. And 
tossing the rice out of his bowl, he washed it and put it in his net and 
then set out with the company of monks. 

The Teacher surrounded by the Congregation of Monks stood on 
one side of the corpse; the Congregation of Nuns and the king's 
retinue and the company of lay disciples, both male and female, stood 
on the other side of the corpse, each company in its proper place. [108] 
The Teacher then asked the king, "Great king, who is this woman?" 
"Reverend Sir, it is Jivaka's sister Sirima." "Is this Sirima.?" "Yes, 
Keverend Sir." " Well ! send a drum through the town and make proc- 
lamation, 'Those who will pay a thousand pieces of money for 
Sirima may have her.' " Not a man said "hem " or "hum." The king 
informed the Teacher, "They will not take her, Reverend Sir." 
"Well then, great king, put the price down." So the king had a drum 
beaten and the following proclamation made, "If they will give five 
hundred pieces of money, they may have her." But nobody would 
take her at that price. The king then proclaimed to the beating of a 
drum that anyone might have her who would give two hundred and 
fifty pieces of money, or two hundred, or a hundred, or fifty, or twenty- 
five, or ten, or five. Finally he reduced the price to a penny, then to a 



SS4 Book 11, Story 3. Dhammapada H8 [N.3.10811- 

half-penny, then to a quarter of a penny, then to an eighth of a penny. 
At last he proclaimed to the beating of a drum, "They may have her 
for nothing." Not a man said "hem" or "hum." Then said the 
king to the Teacher, "Reverend Sir, no one will take her, even as a 
gift." The Teacher replied, "Monks, you see the value of a woman 
in the eyes of the multitude. In this very city men used to pay a 
thousand pieces of money for the privilege of spending one night with 
this woman. Now there is no one who will take her as a gift. [109] 
Such was her beauty who now has perished and gone. Behold, monks, 
this body diseased and corrupt." So saying, he pronounced the fol- 
lowing Stanza, 

147. See this painted image, this mass of sores, huddled together, 

Corrupt, once possessed of many thoughts, but now possessing neither strength 
nor stability. 



XL 3. THE AGED NUN ^ 

This body is worn out. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to the 
nunUttara. [110] 

The story goes that this nun continued her alms-pilgrimages until 
she was a hundred and twenty years old. One day as she was returning 
from her alms-pilgrimage with food in her bowl, she met a certain 
monk in the street. She asked permission of him to give him the food 
in her bowl, and he consented to accept it. So she gave him all she 
had, and then she had none. On the second day and again on the third 
day she met the same monk in the same place, gave him all the food 
she had, and then had none left for herself. 

Now on the fourth day, as she was going her round, she met the 
Teacher in a certain place which was much crowded. She stepped 
back, and as she did so, the skirt of her robe slipped down and she 
trod on it. Unable to keep her feet, she tumbled and fell down. The 
Teacher came up to her and said, "Sister, your body is worn out with 
old age; at a time not far distant it will suffer dissolution." So saying, 
he pronounced the following Stanza, 

148. This body is worn out, this nest of disease, this fragile body; 
This mass of corruption dissolves; for life ends in death. 

1 Text: N iii. 110-111. 



-N.3. 11213 



A company of over-confident monks 



335 



XI. 4. A COMPANY OF OVER-CONFIDENT MONKS ^ 

Like yonder gourds. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to a 
company of over-confident monks. [Ill] 

The story goes that five hundred monks received a Subject of 
Meditation from the Teacher, retired to the forest, and after striving 
and struggling, induced a state of trance. Thereupon they thought 
to themselves, "By not practicing the Depravities, we have fulfilled 
our religious duties. Let us inform the Teacher of the virtues we 
have acquired." With this thought in mind, they set out. When 
they arrived outside the gate, the Teacher said to Elder Ananda, 
"Ananda, these monks have no occasion for entering and seeing me. 
[112] Let them first go to the burning-ground and then come back 
and see me." The Elder went and told those monks what the Teacher 
had said. 

Instead of asking, "Why should we have to go to the burning- 
ground.?" they said to each other, "The far-seeing Buddha must 
have seen a reason." Accordingly they went to the burning-ground 
and viewed the corpses there. For the corpses which had lain for 
one or two days, they conceived a repugnance; but the bodies laid 
there immediately after death, fresh and moist, excited their passions. 
At that moment they realized that the Depravities still existed within 
them. Thereupon the Teacher, still remaining seated in the Perfumed 
Chamber, sent forth a luminous image of himself, and as it were spoke 
face to face with those monks, saying, "Monks, is it fitting that upon 
beholding such an assemblage of bones you should take pleasure 
in the evil passions.?" So saying, he pronounced the following 
Stanza, 

149. Like yonder gourds cast away in the autumn 

Are these gray bones; what pleasure can there be in looking at them? 



1 Text: N iii. 111-112. 



336 Book 11, Story 5. Dhammapada 150 [N.3.ii3i~ 



XI. 5, THE NUN AND THE PHANTOM ^ 

It is a city made of bones. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to 
the nun Janapada-Kalyani Rupananda. [113] 

The story goes that one day Janapada-Kalyani thought to herself, 
"My eldest brother has renounced the glory of dominion, has become 
a monk, and has now become the foremost being in the world, even 
the Buddha; his son, Rahula Kumara, has become a monk; my 
husband has become a monk; so also has my mother become a nun. 
Seeing that all these kinsfolk of mine have adopted the religious life, 
why should I continue any longer to live the house-life? I too will 
become a nun." Accordingly she went to the community of nuns 
and became a nun, not at all because of faith, but solely because of 
love for her kinsfolk. Because of her wondrous beauty, she became 
known as Rupa-Nanda (' Beauty -Nanda'). 

One day she heard that the Teacher had said, "Beauty of form 
is impermanent, involved in suffering, unreal; so likewise are sensation, 
perception, the aggregate of mental states, consciousness, impermanent, 
involved in suffering, unreal." Thereupon she said to herseff, "In that 
case he would find fault even with my own form, so beautiful to look 
upon and so fair to see." Therefore she avoided meeting the Teacher 
face to face. 

Now the residents of Savatthi, having given alms early in the 
morning, took upon themselves the obligations of fast-day. In the 
evening, clad in spotless upper garments and bearing garlands and 
flowers in their hands, they assembled at Jetavana to hear the Law. 
And the community of nuns also, desiring to hear the Law, went to 
the monastery and heard the Law. And having heard the Law, they 
entered the city, praising the virtues of the Teacher as they entered. 

(For there are four standards of judgment prevailing among 
persons who dwell together in the world. However, there are very 
few persons in whom the sight of the Tathagata does not arouse a 
feeling of satisfaction. Those who judge by what they see, look upon 

^ Parallels: SUrry of Nandd: Anguttara Commentary y JRAS., 1893, 763-766; 
Theri-Gdthd Comm,entaryy xli: 80-86, xix: 24-25. Story of Khemd: Dhammapada 
Commentary, xxiv. 5: iv. 57-59; Anguttara Commentary, JRAS., 1893, 527-532; 
Theri-Gdthd Commentary, Hi: 126-128. On the literary relations of all these stories, 
see Introduction, § 7 d, pages 48-51. Text: N iii. 113-119. 



-N. 3. 11514] The nun and the phantom 337 

the golden-hued body of the Tathagata, adorned with the Major 
Marks and the Minor Marks, and are satisfied with what they see. 
[114] Those who judge by what they hear, listen to the report of the 
Teacher's virtues through many hundreds of births, and to his voice, 
endowed with the Eight Excellences, in the preaching of the Law, 
and are satisfied with what they hear. Those who judge by austerities 
are satisfied with his austere robes and so forth. Those whose standard 
of judgment is righteousness reflect, "Such is the uprightness of the 
Possessor of the Ten Forces, such is his tranquillity, such is his wis- 
dom; in uprightness and tranquillity and wisdom the Exalted One is 
without an equal, is without a peer." Thus they also are satisfied. 
Indeed those who praise the virtues of the Tathagata lack words 
wherewith to tell their praises.) 

Rtipananda listened to the nuns and the female lay disciples as 
they recited the praises of the Tathagata, and having listened, said 
to herself, "In extravagant terms do they tell the praises of my 
brother. Suppose he were to find fault with my beauty of form 
during one single day. How much could he say in that length of 
tmiQ? Suppose I were to go with the nuns, and without letting myself 
be seen, look upon the Tathagata, hear him preach the Law, and 
then return.^" So she said to the nuns, "To-day I too will go and 
hear the Law." [115] Said the nuns, "It has taken a long time 
to arouse in Rupananda a desire to wait upon the Teacher. To-day, 
by reason of her, the Teacher will preach the Law with details many 
and various." And with delighted hearts, taking her with them, they 
set out. 

From the moment Rupananda started out, she kept thinking to 
herself, "I will not let him see who I am." The Teacher thought 
to himself, "To-day Rupananda will come to pay her respects to me; 
what manner of lesson will do her the most good.^" As he considered 
the matter further, he came to the following conclusion, "This woman 
thinks a great deal of her beauty of form and is deeply attached to her 
own person. It will therefore be of advantage to her if I crush out the 
pride she feels in her beauty of form, by beauty of form itself, even 
as one draws out one thorn with another thorn." Accordingly, when 
it was time for her to enter the monastery, the Teacher put forth his 
supernatural power and created a young woman about sixteen years 
of age. Surpassing beauty did she possess; she wore crimson garments; 
she was adorned with all her ornaments, and stood before the Teacher 
with fan in hand, swinging the fan back and forth. 



338 Booh 11, Story 5. Dhammapada 150 [N.3.ii5i4- 

Now both the Teacher and Rupananda beheld this woman. As 
Rupananda entered the monastery with the nuns, she took her place 
behind the nuns, saluted the Teacher with the Five Rests, and sat 
down among the nuns. Having so done, she surveyed from head to 
foot the person of the Teacher, richly brilliant with the Major Marks, 
resplendent with the Minor Marks, surrounded by a halo a fathom 
in extent. Then she saw the phantom of a woman standing near the 
Teacher and surveyed her face, glorious as the full moon. [116] 
Having surveyed this woman, she surveyed her own person and com- 
pared herself to a crow standing before a royal goose of golden hue. 
For from the moment she looked upon this phantom, created by 
supernatural power, her eyes rolled back and forth. "Oh, how beauti- 
ful is her hair! Oh, how beautiful is her forehead!" she exclaimed. 
She was fascinated by the glorious beauty of every part of her body, 
and she became possessed with intense desire for equal beauty herself. 
The Teacher, observing that she was fascinated by the beauty of the 
woman, proceeded to teach her the Law. 

First he transformed the woman from a maiden about sixteen 
years of age to a woman about twenty years of age. Rupananda 
surveyed her form again, was quickly filled with a feeling of dis- 
appointment, and said to herself , "This form is by no means the same 
as it was before." Gradually the Teacher transformed her, first into 
a woman who had given birth to one child, then into a woman of 
middle life, finally into a decrepit old woman. Rupananda watched 
every stage of the transformation, saying to herself, "Now this has 
disappeared, now that has disappeared." When, however, she saw 
her transformed into a decrepit old woman, and surveyed her standing 
there, teeth broken, hair gray, body bent, crooked as a A-shaped 
rafter, forced to lean on a cane, trembling in every limb, she was filled 
with utter disgust. 

Then the Teacher caused disease to overmaster the woman. 
Casting away her cane and her palm-leaf fan, she screamed aloud, 
fell upon the ground, and rolled over and over, wallowing in her own 
urine and excrement. Rupananda looked upon her and was filled 
with utter disgust. [117] Then the Teacher showed the death of 
that woman. Straightway her body began to bloat. From its nine 
wound-like openings oozed pus in the shape of lamp-wicks, and also 
worms. Crows and dogs fell on her and tore her. Rupananda looked 
and thought, "In this very place this woman has come to old age, has 
come to disease, has come to death. Even so, to this body of mine. 



-N.3.1195] 



The nun and the phantom 



339 



will come old age, disease, and death." Thus did she come to behold 
her own body in its impermanence; and as a result of beholding her 
own body in its impermanence, she likewise saw her body as involved 
in suffering, and the unreality thereof. 

Straightway the Three Modes of Existence, like houses set on 
fire, or like carrion tied to her neck, uprose before her, and her 
mind sprang forth to meditation. The Teacher, perceiving that she 
had beheld her own body in its impermanence, considered within 
himself, "Will she, or will she not, by herself be able to get a firm 
footing.?" Straightway he became aware of the following, "She will 
not be able; she must have support from without." Accordingly, 
out of consideration for her welfare, he taught her the Law by pro- 
nouncing the following Stanzas, 

Behold, Nanda, this assemblage of elements called the body; 

It is diseased, impure, putrid; it oozes and leaks; yet it is desired of simpletons. 

As is this body, so also was that; as is that body, so also wiU this body be. 
Behold the elements in their emptiness; go not back to the world; 
Cast away desire for existence and thou shalt walk in tranquillity. [118] 

Thus, with reference to the nun Nanda, did the Exalted One pro- 
nounce these Stanzas. 

Directing her thoughts in a way conformable to his teaching, 
Nanda attained the Fruit of Conversion. Thereupon the Teacher, 
desiring that she should dwell upon the Three Paths and the Three 
Fruits, and desiring to teach her to meditate upon the Void, said to her, 
"Nanda, think not that there is reality in this body; for there is not 
the least reality in this body. This body is but a city of bones, made 
by building up three hundred bones." So saying, he pronounced the 
following Stanza, 

150. It is a city made of bones, plastered with flesh and blood. 
Where lodge old age and death and pride and deceit. [119] 

At the conclusion of the lesson the nun attained Arahatship; 
the multitude also profited by the lesson. 



340 Booh 11, Story 6. Dhammapada 151 [N.3.1197- 



XI. 6. QUEEN MALLIKA AND HER DOG ^ 

The gayly painted chariots of kings wear out. This religious instruc- 
tion was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana 
with reference to Queen Mallika. 

The story goes that one day Queen Mallika entered the bath- 
house, and having bathed her face, bent over and began to bathe her 
leg. Now her pet dog entered the bath-house with her, and when 
he saw her standing there with body thus bent over, he began to 
misbehave with her and she let him continue. The king looked out of 
a window on the upper floor of the palace and saw her. On her 
return he said to her, "Perish, vile woman; why did you do such a 
thing as that.'*" "Why, your majesty, what have I done.'*" "You 
have behaved most wrongly with a dog." "It is not true, your 
majesty." "I saw you with my own eyes. I will not believe any- 
thing you say. Perish, vile woman." "Great king, it is a re- 
markable fact that whoever enters that bath-house appears double 
to whoever looks out of that window." "You utter falsehood." "If 
you will not believe me, enter the bath-house yourself, and I will look 
out of that window." [120] 

The king was such a simpleton as to believe what she said, and 
entered the bath-house. The queen stood at the window and looked 
out. Suddenly she cried out to him, "You foolish king, what do you 
mean by misbehaving with a she-goat.'*" "Dear wife, I am doing no 
such thing." The queen replied, "I saw you with my own eyes; I 
will not believe you." When the king heard her reply, he said, "It 
must be true that whoever enters this bath-house appears double." 
Therefore he believed the explanation she gave him. 

^ At Vimdna-Vatthu Commentary, 165^^^', Dhammapala refers to the Story of 
Mallika in the Dhammapada-Vannand. He then gives a brief outline of the story, 
which is to the effect that after the death of the Buddha, Mallika the wife of Bandhula 
went in state and did honor to his relics. The Dhamm^pada-Atthakathd contains no 
such story about Mallika the wife of Bandhula, or about Mallika the wife of Pasenadi. 
It will be observed that Dhammapala refers, not to the Dhammapada-Atthakathd, 
but to the Dfiammapada-Vannand. Perhaps the Dhammapada-Vannand to which he 
refers is a different work from the Dhammapada-Attkakathd; but if so, we know nothing 
of the existence of any such work. It seems probable that Dhammapala here gives a 
wrong reference. For references in the Dhammapada-Attkakathd to Mallika the wife 
of Bandhula, see i. 349, 412; to Mallika the wife of Pasenadi, i. 382, ii. 1-19, iii. 119- 
123, iii. 183-189. Cf. Jdtaka, iii. 405, Khuddaka Pdtha Commentary, 1292°, and Milin- 
dapanha, 291"-*^ Text: N iii. 119-123. 



-N.3.12112] 



Queen Mallikd and her dog 



341 



Mallika thought to herself, "I have deceived this king, because 
he is such a simpleton. I have committed a great sin. Moreover I 
have accused him falsely. The Teacher will come to know of this sin 
of mine, and likewise the Two Chief Disciples, and the Eighty Chief 
Elders. Oh, what a grievous sin have I committed!" (According to 
tradition it was Mallika who was associated with the king in the 
presentation to the Teacher of the Gifts beyond Compare.^ On this 
occasion gifts valued at fourteen crores of treasure were bestowed upon 
the Teacher, and the Tathagata was presented with four priceless 
gifts; namely, a white parasol, a couch whereon to rest, a stand, and 
a stool for the feet.) When Mallika died, forgetful at the moment 
of death of those mighty gifts, but with full recollection of the evil 
deed she had committed, she was reborn in the Avici Hell. 

Now Queen Mallika was greatly beloved by the king. Therefore 
when she died, the king was completely overcome with grief. When 
he had duly performed the funeral rites over her body, he said to 
himself, "I will ask the Teacher where she has been reborn." Accord- 
ingly he went to the Teacher. The Teacher so contrived that he should 
not remember the reason why he had come to him. [121] After 
listening to the pleasing discourse of the Teacher he returned to his 
home. As soon, however, as he entered the house, he remembered 
why he had gone to visit the Teacher. Thought he to himself, "As- 
suredly it was my intention, when I set out, to ask the Teacher where 
Mallika had been reborn. But as soon as I entered the Teacher's 
presence, I forgot all about it. To-morrow I shall not fail to ask him." 
On the following day, therefore, he visited the Teacher again. But 
for seven days in succession the Teacher so contrived that he should 
not remember why he had come. As for Mallika, after she had been 
tormented for seven days in hell, she came out thence, and was reborn 
in the World of the Tusita gods. 

(Now why was it that the Teacher caused the king to forget his 
question for seven days in succession.^ Tradition tells us that Mallika 
was greatly beloved by the king, the very joy of his heart. Therefore 
had the king learned that she had been reborn in Hell, he would have 
said to himself, "If a woman endowed with faith so perfect has been 
reborn in Hell after presenting offerings so abundant, what chance is 
there for me.?" He would therefore have adopted false views, would 
have discontinued the constant offerings of food to the five hundred 



^ See story xiii. 10. 



342 Book 11, Story 6, Dhammapada 151 [N.3.12112- 

monks, and would finally have been reborn in Hell himself. For this 
reason the Teacher caused the king to forget his question for seven 
days in succession.) 

On the eighth day the Teacher set out alone on an alms-pilgrimage, 
and went to the door of the king's residence. When the king heard 
that the Teacher was come, he went forth and took his bowl and 
began to mount up to the terrace of the palace. But the Teacher 
made as if he desired to sit down in the chariot-hall. Therefore 
the king provided him with a seat in the chariot-hall and reverently 
served him with food both hard and soft. Having so done, he paid 
obeisance to him and sat down. "Reverend Sir," said he; "when I 
visited you, this thought was in my mind, 'I will ask the Teacher 
where Mallika my queen has been reborn.' Reverend Sir, tell me 
where she was reborn." " In the World of the Tusita gods, great king." 

"Reverend Sir," said the king, "had Queen Mallika not been 
reborn in the World of the Tusita gods, who else could ever have been re- 
born there .^ Reverend Sir, there never lived a woman like her; wherever 
she sat, wherever she stood, [122] these words were ever on her lips, 
* To-morrow I will give this to the Tathagata; to-morrow I will do 
this for the Tathagata.' She cared for naught else but to make pro- 
vision of offerings. Reverend Sir, ever since she went to the other 
world, my own person has been non-existent." Said the Teacher, 
"Great king, do not grieve; this is the immutable law of all living 
beings." 

Then the Teacher asked the king, "Great king, whose chariot is 
this.?" "My grandfather's. Reverend Sir." "Whose is this.?" "My 
father's. Reverend Sir." "But whose chariot is this.?" "My own. 
Reverend Sir." When the king had thus answered his questions, 
the Teacher said, "Great king, just as your father's chariot has out- 
lasted your grandfather's chariot, so also has your own chariot out- 
lasted your father's chariot. Thus does decay draw nigh unto this 
worthless chaff. But even more does decay wear away this body. 
Great king, righteousness alone does not wear away, but of living beings 
there are none that wear not away." So saying, he pronounced the 
following Stanza, 

151. The gayly painted chariots of kings wear out; likewise does the body wear out. 
But the state of the good wears not away; the good proclaim this to the good. 



-N. 3.12410] The monk who always said the wrong thing 



343 



XI. 7. THE MONK WHO ALWAYS SAID THE WRONG 

THING 1 

A man who has learned hut little. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to Elder Laludayi. [123] 

The story goes that Elder Laludayi used to go to a house where 
people were making holiday and recite stanzas appropriate to a funeral, 
such as, "They stand outside the walls." ^ Likewise he would go to a 
house where a funeral was in progress, and instead of saying the ap- 
propriate words, "They stand outside the walls," ^ he would recite 
such holiday stanzas as, "Almsgiving and piety." ^ Or else he would 
recite the Jewel Sutta,^ containing such stanzas as, " Whatever riches 
exist, either in this world or in the next." ^ 

In fact, no matter where he went, even though he set out with 
the intention of saying one thing, he would invariably say something 
entirely different. Nor was he in the least aware that he ever said 
anything different from what he intended to say. Monks who heard 
him talk reported the matter to the Teacher, saying, "Reverend Sir, 
what is the use of Laludayi's going either to places where festivities 
are in progress or to places where funerals are in progress .^^ Where 
the right thing should be said, he always says the wrong thing." [124] 
The Teacher replied, "Monks, this is not the first time he has so 
spoken; in a previous existence also he always said the wrong thing 
instead of the right thing." So saying, he told the following 



7 a. Story of the Past: Aggidatta, Somadatta, and the king 

The story goes that in times long gone by, there was a Brahman 
named Aggidatta who lived in Benares. The Brahman had a son 
named Somadatta Kumara who waited upon the king, and Somadatta 
was the king's darling and delight. Now the Brahman gained his 
livelihood by tilling the soil, and he had two oxen, and only two. 
One day one of his two oxen died. Thereupon the Brahman said to 
his son, "Dear Somadatta, ask the king for a single ox and fetch 
him back to me." Somadatta thought to himself, "If I make such 

1 A free version of JcOaka 211 : ii. 164-167. Cf. story xviii. 4. Text: N iii. 123-127. 

2 Khvddaka Pdtha, vii. » From the Mangala-sutta, Khuddaka Patha, v. 6. 
4 Khuddaka Pdtha, vi. « Stanza 3. 



344 Book 11, Story 7. Dhammapada 152 IN.3.i24io- 

a request of the king, he will think that I am presuming on him." 
So he said to his father, "Dear father, you go yourself and ask the 
king." "Very well, dear son, take me with you." 

Somadatta thought to himself, "This Brahman is of slow wit. He 
knows neither the proper words to use in approaching, nor the proper 
words to use in retiring; when the right thing should be said he says 
the wrong thing; I will give him some instruction before I take him 
with me." So Somadatta led his father to a burning-ground named 
Cuscus-clump. Having so done, he gathered some grass, tied the 
grass in bundles, set the bundles on end, and pointing them out to 
his father one after another, said, "This is the king, this is the viceroy, 
this is the commander-in-chief of the army. When you go to the 
king's palace, you must advance in this manner and you must with- 
draw in this manner. Thus you must address the king and thus you 
must address the viceroy. When you approach the king, you must 
say, *Long live his gracious majesty the king!' And standing thus, 
[125] and reciting this Stanza, you must then ask the king for the ox." 
So saying, he taught his father the following Stanza, 

I had two oxen, mighty king, with which I plowed my field; 

But one of the two is dead; pray give me another. Warrior-prince. 

The Brahman spent a year perfecting himself in this Stanza. When 
he had finally learned it by heart, he told his son. "Very well, father,'* 
replied Somadatta, "take some present or other and follow after me. 
I will go ahead and stand in my accustomed place beside the king.'* 
"Very well, dear son," replied the Brahman. So as soon as Soma- 
datta had taken his accustomed place beside the king, the Brahman 
summoned all his resources, and taking a present with him, went to 
the royal palace. The king was delighted to see him and greeted 
him in a cordial manner, saying, "Dear friend, you have come a long 
way. Seat yourself on this couch and tell me what you have need of.'* 
Thereupon the Brahman pronounced the following Stanza, 

I had two oxen, mighty king, with which I plowed my field; 
But one of the two is dead; pray take my other. Warrior-prince. 

Said the king, "What say you, dear friend? Say it again." So 
the Brahman repeated the Stanza once more exactly as before. The 
king, perceiving that by a slip of the tongue the Brahman had said 
the exact opposite of what he intended to say, smiled and said, "Soma- 
datta, you have a great many oxen at home, I presume." "Your 



-N.3.1285] The monk who always said the wrong thing 345 

majesty," replied Somadatta, "there must be just as many as you 
have given us." The king, pleased with the answer given by the 
Future Buddha, presented the Brahman with sixteen oxen, and in 
addition thereto, jewels and household wares and a village wherein 
to dwell. Thus did the king present the Brahman with gifts appro- 
priate to his station. Having so done, he dismissed the Brahman with 
high honor. 

When the Teacher had completed this story, he identified the births 
as follows: "At that time the king was Ananda, the Brahman was 
Laludayi, and Somadatta was I myself." [126] And he added, 
"Monks, this is not the first time he failed, because of his own stupidity, 
to say the right thing at the right time. Indeed a man who has 
learned but little resembles nothing so much as he does an ox." So 
saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

152. A man who has learned but little, grows old like an ox; 
His flesh increases, but his wisdom, not. 



XI. 8. ELDER ANANDA'S STANZAS ^ 

Through a round of countless existences. This religious instruction 
was breathed forth by the Teacher while he sat at the foot of the 
Bo-tree, by way of Solemn Utterance; and at a later time was recited 
to the Elder Ananda in answer to a question. [127] 

For the Teacher, sitting at the foot of the Bo-tree, before the set 
of sun, overcame the force of Mara; in the first watch, drove away 
the darkness that veils previous states of existence; in the middle 
watch, acquired Supernatural Vision; and in the last watch, out of 
pity for living beings, by focussing his thoughts on Dependent Origi- 
nations and meditating on it both forwards and backwards, at sunrise 
he obtained Complete Enlightenment. Thereupon he breathed forth 
a Solemn Utterance common to countless thousands of Buddhas, 
pronouncing the following Stanzas, 

153. Through a round of countless existences have I run to no purpose. 
Seeking the Builder of the House. Repeated birth is suffering. [128] 

154. I see you. Builder of the House. You shall not build the house again. 
All your rafters are broken, and your ridge-pole is shattered. 

The mind, at rest in Nibbana, has attained extinction of cravings. 

1 Niddnakathd, Stanzas 278-279 {Jatakd, i. p. 76). The "Builder of the House" 
is of course Craving, Tanhd, the cause of rebirth and suffering. Text: N iiL 127-129. 



346 Book 11, Story 9, Dhammapada 155-156 [N .3. 1297- 



XI. 9. GREAT-WEALTH, THE TREASURER'S SON ^ 

They that have not led. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Isipatana with reference to 
Great- Wealth, Mahadhana, the treasurer's son. [129] 

Great- Wealth, it appears, was reborn at Benares in a household 
worth eighty crores. Now his mother and father thought to them- 
selves, "We have a vast store of wealth in our house, and there is no 
necessity that our son should do anything else than enjoy himself 
according to his own good pleasure." Accordingly they had him 
instructed in singing and in the playing of musical instruments, and 
that was all the instruction he received. Likewise in that same city, 
in a household worth eighty crores of treasure, a daughter also was 
reborn. The same thought occurred to her mother and father also, 
and they had her instructed only in dancing and singing. When the 
two reached the proper age, they were married with the customary 
ceremonies. In the course of time both their mothers and fathers died, 
and then there were twice eighty crores of treasure in the same house. 

It was the custom of the treasurer's son to go thrice a day to wait 
upon the king. One day a company of knaves who lived in that city 
thought to themselves, "If this treasurer's son would only get drunk, 
it would be a fine thing for us. Let us show him how to get drunk." 
Accordingly they procured strong drink, put roast meat, [130] salt, 
and sugar in the skirts of their clothing, and taking roots and bulbs, 
seated themselves in a convenient place, watching the path by which 
he would approach from the royal palace. When they saw him 
approaching, they began to drink strong drink, placed particles of 
salt and sugar in their mouths, and took the roots and bulbs in their 
teeth and chewed them. And they said, "Live for a hundred years, 
master, treasurer's son! With your help may we be enabled to 
eat and drink to our heart's content!" Hearing their words, the 
youth asked the little page who followed him, "What are these men 
drinking?" "A certain drink, master." "Does it taste good?" "Mas- 
ter, in this world of the living there is no kind of drink to be had 
comparable to this." "In that case," said the youth, "I must have 
some too." So he caused the page to bring him first a little and then 
a little more, and all this he drank. 

1 Text: N iii. 129-133. 




N. 3.13121] Great-Wealth, the treasurer's son 347 



Now in no long time those knaves discovered that he had taken 
up the habit of drinking. Then they flocked around him. As time 
went on, the crowd that surrounded him increased in numbers. He 
would spend a hundred or two hundred pieces of money at a time on 
strong drink. It became a habit with him after a time, wherever he 
happened to be, to pile up a heap of coins and call out as he drank, 
"Take this coin and fetch me flowers! take this coin and fetch me 
perfumes ! This man is clever at dicing, and this man at dancing, and 
this man at singing, and this man at the playing of musical instruments! 
Give this man a thousand and this man two thousand!" Thus did 
he spend his money. 

In no long time he squandered all the eighty crores of treasure 
that formerly belonged to him. Then those knaves said to him, 
"Master, your wealth is all spent." "Has my wife no money .^" 
"Yes, master, she has." [131] "Well then, fetch that too." And 
he spent his wife's money in precisely the same way. As time went on, 
he sold his fields and his parks and his gardens and his carriages. He 
even disposed of the vessels he used at meals, of his coverlets and his 
cloaks and couches. All that belonged to him, he sold, and the pro- 
ceeds he spent in riotous living. In old age he sold his house, the 
property of his family. And those to whom he sold his house took 
possession of it and straightway put him out. Thereupon, taking his 
wife with him, he found lodging near the house- wall of other people's 
houses. With a broken potsherd in his hand, he would go about begging 
alms. Finally he began to eat the leavings of other people's food. 

One day he stood at the door of a rest-house, receiving leavings 
of food presented to him by novices and probationers. The Teacher 
saw him and smiled. Thereupon Elder Ananda asked him why he 
smiled. The Teacher explained the reason for his smile by saying, 
"Ananda, just look here at Great- Wealth, the treasurer's son! In 
this very city he has squandered twice eighty crores of treasure. Now, 
accompanied by his wife, he is begging alms. For if, in the prime of 
life, this man had not squandered his wealth, but had applied himself 
to business, he would have become the principal treasurer in this 
very city; and if he had retired from the world and become a monk, 
he would have attained Arahatship, and his wife would have been 
estabhshed in the Fruit of the Third Path. If in middle life he had 
not squandered his wealth, but had applied himself to business, he 
would have become the second treasurer; and if he had retired from 
the world and become a monk, he would have attained the Fruit of 



348 Book 11, Story 9. Dhammapada 155-156 [N.3.13121 

the Third Path, and his wife would have been established in the Fruit 
of the Second Path. If in the latter years of his life he had not squan- 
dered his wealth, but had applied himself to business, he would have 
become the third treasurer; and if he had retired from the world and 
become a monk, he would have attained the Fruit of the Second 
Path, [132] and his wife would have been established in the Fruit of 
Conversion. But now he has fallen away from the wealth of a lay- 
man and he has likewise fallen away from the estate of a religious. 
He has become like a heron in a dried-up pond." So saying, he pro- 
nounced the following Stanzas, 

155. They that have not led the holy life, they that have not obtained wealth in time 

of youth. 
Perish like worn-out herons in a pond from which the fish have disappeared. 

156. They that have not led the holy life, they that have not obtained wealth in time 

of youth. 
Lie like worn-out bows, bewailing the times that are past. 



BOOK XII. SELF, ATTA VAGGA 

Xn. 1. PRINCE BODHI AND THE MAGIC BIRD ^ 

If a man value his life. This religious instruction was given by 
the Teacher while he was in residence at Bhesakalavana with reference 
to Prince Bodhi. [134] 

1 a. The prince, the builder, and the magic bird 

The story goes that Prince Bodhi had a palace erected unlike any 
other palace on the face of the earth. It seemed almost to float in 
the air. Its name was Red Lotus, Kokanada. When it was finished, 
the prince asked the builder, "Have you ever built a palace like this 
anywhere else, or is this the first work of the sort you have done?" 
The builder replied, "Your majesty, this is the first work of the sort 
I have ever done." The prince, hearing his reply, thought to him- 
self, "If this man should build a palace like this for anyone else, 
there would no longer be anything wonderful about this palace. I 
had best kill this man, or cut off his hands and feet, or tear out his 
eyes; for if I do this, he will never build a palace like this for anyone 
else." 

Prince Bodhi went to an intimate friend of his, a youth named 
Sanjikaputta, and told him what was in his mind. Sanjikaputta 
straightway thought to himself, "Without a doubt this prince intends 
to kill the builder. But I shall not look on quietly and see an artisan 
who possesses so priceless a gift killed before my very eyes; I will 
give him a hint of what is in store for him." So Sanjikaputta went 
to the builder and asked him, "Have you, or have you not, finished 
your work on the palace?" "My work is finished," replied the builder. 
Then said Sanjikaputta, "The prince is seeking to kill you; look out 
for yourself." [135] The builder replied, "Master, you did me a 

1 In the Introduction to Jdtaka 353: iii. 157-158, the brief statement is made 
that Prince Bodhi put out the builder's eyes for fear that he might build a similar 
palace for another. There is no reference, however, to the story of the magic bird. 
The story of the Buddha's visit to Prince Bodhi is derived either from the Vinaya, 
Culla Vagga, v. 21: ii. 127-129, or from MajjhiTna, 85: ii. 91-97. Text: N iii. 134-139. 



350 



Booh 12y Story 1, Dhammapada 157 [N.3.i35i- 



great kindness in telling me. Now I know exactly what to do to avoid 
trouble." 

The prince asked the builder, "Friend, have you finished your 
work on our palace?" "No, your majesty," replied the builder, 
"my work is not yet finished; a good deal still remains to be done." 
"Just what work still remains to be done.?" asked the prince. "Your 
majesty, I will tell you all about it afterwards. Just now, send me 
some timber." " What kind of timber? " " Seasoned timber, with the 
sap well dried out, your majesty." The prince immediately caused it 
to be procured and delivered to him. Then the builder said to the 
prince, "Your majesty, from this time forward, no one should be 
permitted to come to me, for when I am engaged in a delicate piece 
of work, it distracts my mind to be obliged to converse with anyone 
else. At meal-time my wife alone will bring me my food." "Very 
well," said the prince, consenting to this arrangement. 

Thereupon the builder sat down in a certain room, and out of 
that timber fashioned a wooden Garuda-bird large enough to contain 
himself and his son and his wifco And when meal-time came, he said 
to his wife, "Go sell everything in the house and bring back to me 
the money you receive, the yellow gold." Now the prince, in order 
to make sure that the builder should not leave the house, surrounded 
the house with a strong guard. But the builder, as soon as the bird 
was finished, having previously said to his wife, "To-day bring all the 
children and wait," immediately after breakfast placed his children 
and his wife inside of the bird, whereupon the bird soared out of the 
window and was gone. Thus did the builder escape. When the 
guards saw the bird winging its flight away, they cried out, "Your 
majesty, the builder has escaped!" But even as they cried out, the 
builder made good his escape, and alighting in the Himalaya country, 
created by magical power a city to dwell in. Thereafter he was known 
as King Wooden-horse. [136] 



1 b. The prince entertains the Buddha 

The prince decided to give a festival in honor of the completion 
of the palace and invited the Teacher. First smearing the palace 
with loam mixed with the four kinds of perfumes, he spread mats and 
carpets on the floor, beginning at the threshold. He was childless, it 
appears, and for this reason spread the floor with mats and carpets; 
for he thought to himself, "If I am destined to obtain a son or a 



-N. 3.13711] Prince Bodhi and the magic bird 351 

daughter, the Teacher will tread on them." When the Teacher 
arrived, the prince saluted him with the Five Rests, took his bowl, 
and said to him, "Pray enter. Reverend Sir." The Teacher refused 
to enter. A second and again a third time the prince requested him 
to enter. The Teacher, however, absolutely refused to enter, but 
looked at the Elder Ananda. 

The Elder knew, merely by the look in the Teacher's eye, that he 
was unwilling to tread on the cloths which had been laid on the floor. 
Therefore he bade the prince have the cloths rolled up, saying, "Prince, 
let them roll up the cloths; the Exalted One will not step on those 
cloths; the Tathagatahas in view the generations that will follow." 
The prince rolled up the cloths, escorted the Teacher within, honored 
him with offerings of rice-porridge and hard food, saluted the Teacher, 
and sitting on one side, said to him, "Reverend Sir, I am your devoted 
servitor. Thrice have I sought refuge in you. I sought refuge in 
you the first time (I am told), while I yet remained in my mother's 
womb; the second time, when I was a mere boy; the third time, when 
I reached the age of reason. This being the case, why were you 
unwilling to step on my mats and carpets?" "Prince, with what 
thought in mind did you spread the floor with those cloths.f^" "Rever- 
end Sir, the thought in my mind was this, *If I am destined to obtain 
a son or a daughter, the Teacher will step on these cloths.'" Then 
said the Teacher, "It was for that very reason that I refused to step 
on those cloths." "But, Reverend Sir, [137] is it my destiny never 
to obtain a son or a daughter .f^" "Precisely so, prince." "What is 
the reason for this.?" "Because you were guilty of the sin of heed- 
lessness in a former existence." "At what time. Reverend Sir.f^" 
In response to his request the Teacher explained the matter by 
relating the following 

1 c. Story of the Past: The man who ate bird's eggs 

Once upon a time, the story goes, several hundred men put to sea 
in a large vessel. When they reached mid-ocean, they suffered ship- 
wreck, and all on board lost their lives then and there, with the excep- 
tion of two persons, a husband and wife, who clung to a plank and 
escaped to a neighboring island. Now in this island there was a large 
flock of birds. Husband and wife, overcome with hunger and seeing 
nothing else to eat, cooked the eggs of these birds over a bed of coals 
and ate them. When the eggs proved insufficient to satisfy their 



352 Book 12, Story 2. Dhammapada 158 [N.3.i37ii- 

hunger, they caught the young of these birds and ate them. Thus 
did they eat in youth, in middle life, and in old age; in not a single 
period of their lives were they heedful; nor was either of the two 
heedful. 

When the Teacher had shown the prince this misdeed of his in a 
previous state of existence, he said, "Prince, if in a single one of the 
three periods of your life in that previous state of existence, you and 
your wife had been heedful, you would have obtained a son or a daugh- 
ter in one of the three periods of your present life. Nay more, if either 
one of you had been heedful, as the result thereof you would have ob- 
tained a son or a daughter. Prince, if a man hold his life dear, he should 
guard his life with heedfulness during the three periods of his life. 
Failing that, he should at least guard himself during one of the three 
periods of his life." And when he had thus spoken, he pronounced 
the following Stanza, 

157. If a man value his life, he should ever guard it and guard it well. 
During one of the three watches a wise man should be watchful. 



XII. g. THE GREEDY MONK i 

A man should first direct himself. This religious instruction was ~ 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with refer- 
ence to Upananda, the Sakyan prince. [139] 

The story goes that this Elder, who was skilled to teach the Law, 
after listening to a discourse on the subject of being satisfied with 
but a little, accepted a large number of robes with which several monks 
who had taken upon themselves the Pure Practices honored him, and 
besides that took all the utensils which they had left and carried them 
off with him. As the season of the rains was near at hand, he went off 
into the country. He stopped at a certain monastery to preach the 
Law, and the novices and probationers liked the way he talked so 
well that they said to him, "Spend the rainy season here, Reverend 
Sir." "What allowance is made to a monk who spends the season of 
the rains here?" asked the Elder. "A single cloak," was the reply. 
The Elder left his shoes there and went on to the next monastery. 
[140] When he reached the second monastery, he asked the same ques- 
tion, "What allowance is made here.?" "Two cloaks," was the reply. 

1 This story is a free version of Jdtaka 400: iii. 332-336. Cf. Tibetan Tales, 
xxxiv, pp. 332-334. Text: N iii. 139-142. 



~N.3.i4i6] The greedy monk 353 

There he left his walking-stick. Then he went on to the third monas- 
tery and asked the same question, "What allowance is made here?" 
*' Three cloaks," was the reply. There he left his water-pot. 

Then he went on to the fourth monastery and asked the same ques- 
tion, "What allowance is made here.^^" "Four cloaks," was the reply. 
"Very good," said the Elder, "I will take up my residence here;" 
and there he went into residence. And he preached the Law to the 
laymen and monks who resided there so well that they honored him 
with a great number of garments and robes. When he had completed 
residence, he sent a message to the other monasteries, saying, "I 
left my requisites behind me, and must therefore have whatever is 
required for residence; pray send them to me." When he had gathered 
all of his possessions together, he put them in a cart and continued his 
journey. 

Now at a certain monastery two young monks who had received 
two cloaks and a single blanket found it impossible to make a division 
satisfactory to both of them, and therefore settled themselves beside 
the road and began to quarrel, saying, "You may have the cloaks, 
but the blanket belongs to me." When they saw the Elder approach- 
ing, they said, "Reverend Sir, you make a fair division and give us 
what you think fit." "Will you abide by my decision.?" "Yes in- 
deed; we will abide by your decision." "Very good, then." So the 
Elder divided the two cloaks between the two monks; then he said 
to them, "This blanket should be worn only by us who preach the 
Law;" and when he had thus said, he shouldered the costly blanket 
and went off with it. 

Disgusted and disappointed, the young monks went to the Teacher 
and reported the whole occurrence to him. Said the Teacher, "This 
is not the first time [141] he has taken what belonged to you and left 
you disgusted and disappointed; he did the same thing also in a 
previous state of existence." And he related the following: 

2 a. Story of the Past: The otters and the jackal 

Once upon a time, long long ago, two otters named Anutiracari 
and Gambhiracari, caught a big redfish and fell to quarreling over it, 
saying, "The head belongs to me; you may have the tail." Unable 
to effect a division satisfactory to both of them, and catching sight 
of a certain jackal, they appealed to him for a decision, saying, 
"Uncle, you make such a division of this fish as you think proper and 



354 



Book 12 y Story 2. Dhammapada 158 [N .3. 1417- 



render an award.*' Said the jackal, "I have been appointed judge by 
the king, and am obliged to sit in court for hours at a time; I came 
out here merely to stretch my legs; I have no time now for such busi- 
ness." "Uncle, don't say that; make a division and render an 
award." "Will you abide by my decision.^" "Yes indeed, uncle, 
we will abide by your decision." "Very good, then," said the jackal. 
The jackal cut oflf the head and laid that aside, and then cut off the 
tail and laid that aside. When he had so done, he said to them, 
"Friends, that one of you who runs along the bank (Anutiracari) 
shall have the tail, and that one of you who runs in the deep water 
(Gambhiracari) shall have the head; as for this middle portion, 
however, this shall be mine, inasmuch as I am a justice." And to 
make them see the matter in a better light, he pronounced the following 
Stanza, 

Anutiracari shall have the tail, and Gambhiracari shall have the head; 
But as for this middle portion, it shall belong to the justice. 

Having pronounced this Stanza, the jackal picked up the middle 
portion of the fish and went off with it. As for the otters, they were 
filled with disgust and disappointment, and stood and eyed the jackal 
as he went away. End of Story of the Past. 

When the Teacher had finished this Story of the Past, he said, 
"And thus it was that in times long past this Elder filled you with dis- 
gust and disappointment." Then the Teacher consoled those monks 
and rebuked Upananda, saying, "Monks, a man who admonishes 
others should first direct himself in the way he should go." And 
when he had thus spoken, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

158. A man should first direct himself in the way he should go. 

Only then should he instruct others; a wise man will so do and not grow weary. 



XII. 3. "BE YE DOERS OF THE WORD" * 

If a man vyill make himself. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference 
to Elder Padhanika Tissa. [142] 

This Elder, we are told, obtained a Subject of Meditation from 
the Teacher, and taking five hundred monks with him, entered upon 

^ This story is a very free version of the Introduction to Jdtaka 119: i. 435. 
Text: N iii. 142-144. 



-N .3.1441] ''Be ye doers of the word" 355 

residence in a forest. But first he admonished the monks, saying, 
"Brethren, you have obtained a Subject of Meditation from the Hving 
Buddha; therefore be heedful in meditation." So saying, he lay 
down and went to sleep. Those monks walked up and down during 
the first watch, and in the middle watch entered the monastery. 
When the Elder, who was sleeping, woke up, he went to those monks 
and said to them, "Did you come here thinking to yourselves, 'We 
will lie down and go to sleep '.^^ [143] Leave the monastery immediately, 
and devote yourselves to meditation." So saying, he himself went 
back again, lay down, and went to sleep. 

The other monks walked up and down during the middle watch, 
and in the last watch entered the monastery. The Elder woke up 
again, went to them, drove them out of the monastery, and then 
himseK went back again, lay down, and went to sleep. Since the Elder 
did this repeatedly, those monks were not able to concentrate their 
attention, either on the recitation of the Sacred Word or on their medi- 
tations, and as a result, their minds were distraught. Finally they 
said to themselves, "Our teacher must be exceedingly energetic. Let 
us watch him." When they discovered what he was doing, they said, 
"We are lost, brethren; our teacher declaims empty declamations." 
So tired were the monks from the little sleep they got that not a 
single monk was able to develop Specific Attainment. 

Having completed residence, they went back to the Teacher. 
The Teacher, after exchanging the usual friendly greetings with them, 
asked them, "Monks, did you observe heedfulness.'^ Did you perform 
your meditations faithfully?" Then the monks told him the whole 
story. Said the Teacher, "Monks, this is not the first time this Elder 
has made your efforts miscarry; he did the same thing before." So 
saying, in comphance with their request, he related the Akalaravi- 
kukkuta Jataka: ^ 

Brought up by no mother or father, dwelling in the house of no teacher. 
This cock knows neither the right time nor the wrong time to crow. 

Said the Teacher, "At that time that cock was this very Elder 
Padhanika Tissa, those five hundred monks were these very novices, 
and the world-renowned teacher was I myself." 

Having related this Jataka, the Teacher said, "Monks, if a man 
is to admonish others, he must first subdue himself; for if, under 
these circumstances, he admonish others, [144] being well subdued 

1 Jataka 119: i. 436. 



^56 



Book 12y Story k. Dhammapada 160 [N.3.i44i- 



himself, he can subdue others." So saying, he pronounced the fol- 
lowing Stanza, 

159. If a man will make himself what he instructs others to be. 
Being himself well-subdued, he may subdue others; 
For, as the saying goes, it is a hard thing for a man to subdue himself. 



XII. 4. "AND HATE NOT HIS FATHER AND MOTHER" ^ 

For self is the refuge of self. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference 
to the mother of Elder Kumara Kassapa. 



4 a. Birth of Kumara Kassapa 

The story goes that she was the daughter of a treasurer in the 
city of Rajagaha. From the time she reached the age of reason, she 
sought permission to become a nun, but although she asked her mother 
and father again and again, she failed to obtain from them permis- 
sion to enter the Order. [145] On reaching marriageable age, she 
married, went to live in her husband's household, and amid the cares 
of the household life proved a devoted wife. Now in no long time 
she conceived a child in her womb. But she knew not that she was 
pregnant. Winning the favor of her husband, she asked to enter the 
Order and obtained his permission to do so. So, not knowing that she 
was pregnant, he conducted her with great pomp to the community 
of nuns, and obtained for her admission to the Order at the hands of the 
nuns belonging to the faction of Devadatta. 

After a time the nuns observed that she was pregnant. Said they, 
"What does this mean.^" She replied, "Noble sisters, I know not 
what this may mean, but this I know for certain, that my chastity 
is unimpaired." So the nuns conducted her to Devadatta, and said to 
him, "This nun retired from the world through faith. We know not 
when she conceived this child. What, therefore, shall we do.^^" 
Devadatta thought only, "Let not reproach be cast upon the nuns 
who receive instruction from me." Therefore he said, "Expel her 
from the Order." When the young nun heard those words of Deva- 

^This story follows closely the Introduction to Jataka 12: i. 145-149. The 
Jataka version, however, lacks the account of the meeting between Kumara 
Kassapa and his mother. Compare Anguttara Commentary on Etadagga Vagga, Story 
qf Kumara Kassapa, p. 173. Text: N iii. 144-149. 



-N .3. 14620] ^'And hate not his father and mother" 357 

datta, she said, "Noble sisters, do not ruin me. But I did not retire 
from the world at the instance of Devadatta. Come, conduct me to 
the Teacher at Jetavana." 

Accordingly they took her with them, went to Jetavana, and laid 
the matter before the Teacher. Now, although the Teacher knew 
that she had conceived the child when she was living in the world, 
yet, for the purpose of disproving the false accusation, he summoned 
King Pasenadi Kosala, Maha Anathapindika, Culla Anathapindika, 
Visakha the female lay disciple, and other great personages, giving 
the following orders to the Elder Upali, "Go clear this young woman 
of the charge against her in the midst of the Fourfold Assembly." 

The Elder caused Visakha to be summoned before the king and 
put the case in her hands. Visakha caused a curtain to be drawn about 
the young woman, and within the curtain made an examination of her 
hands, feet, [146] navel, belly, and extremities. Then she computed 
the months and days, and perceiving that the young woman had con- 
ceived the child when she was living in the world, informed the Elder 
of that fact. Thereupon the Elder proclaimed her innocence in the 
midst of the Fourfold Assembly. After a time she brought forth a 
son, strong and mighty, for whom she had prayed at the feet of the 
Buddha Padumuttara. 

Now one day, as the king was passing near the community of 
nuns, he heard the cry of a child. "What is that .^" he asked. "Your 
majesty," they replied, "a certain nun has given birth to a child; that 
is the sound of his voice." So the king took the boy to his own house 
and committed him to the care of his daughters. On the day appointed 
for the naming of the child, they gave him the name Kassapa. But 
because he had been brought up in princely state all the people called 
him Prince Kassapa, Kumara Kassapa. 

One day on the playground he struck some boys. They cried out, 
"We have been struck by that Motherless-Fatherless." Kassapa 
immediately ran to the king and said to him, "Your majesty, they say 
I have neither mother nor father; tell me who my mother is." The 
king pointed to his daughters and said, "There are your mothers." 
But the boy replied, "I have not so many mothers as that; by right 
I should have only one mother; tell me who she is." The king thought 
to himself, "It is impossible to deceive this boy." So he said to him, 
"Dear boy, your mother is a nun, and I brought you here from the 
nuns' convent." 

No more than this was needed to arouse deep emotion in the heart 



358 Booh 12^ Story 4- Dhammapada 160 [N.3.14620- 

of the boy. He immediately said, "Dear friend, obtain for me ad- 
mission to the Order." "Very well, dear boy," replied the king. 
So with great pomp he conducted the boy to the Teacher and had him 
admitted to the Order. After he had made his full profession he 
became known as Elder Kumara Kassapa. Receiving a Subject of 
Meditation from the Teacher, he retired to the forest. But although 
he strove and struggled with might and main, he was unable to de- 
velop Specific Attainment. So, thinking to himself, "I will obtain a 
Subject of Meditation from the Teacher better suited to my needs," 
he returned to the Teacher and took up his residence in Andha 
Grove. 

(Now a monk who, in the time of the Buddha Kassapa, had per- 
formed his meditations alone and had attained the Fruit of the Third 
Path, and had been reborn in the World of Brahma returned from the 
World of Brahma, and asked Kumara Kassapa fifteen questions, but 
sent him away with the words: "None other than the Teacher can 
resolve these questions. Go to the Teacher and get their solution." 
Kumara Kassapa did so, and at the end of the answers to the ques- 
tions attained Arahatship.) ^ [147^] 

4 b. " And hate not his father and mother " 

Now for twelve years following Kassapa' s retirement from the 
world, tears streamed from the eyes of the nun his mother. With 
face wet with the tears she shed because of the suffering caused her 
by separation from her son, she went on her rounds for alms. One 
day she saw her son the Elder in the street. Crying out, "My son! 
my son ! " she ran to meet him, and falling at his feet, rolled on the 
ground. Milk streamed from her breasts, and her robe was wet, as 
she rose from the ground and took the Elder in her arms. 

The Elder thought to himself, "If she receives kindly words from 
me, it will mean her undoing; therefore I will speak harshly to her." 
So he said to her, "What are you about .^ Can you not away with 
human affection.^" Thought the mother, "How like a brigand he 
talks!" And she said to him, "Dear son, what say you.^" But he 
only repeated again the same harsh words. Thereupon she thought, 
*'Ah, because of him I have not been able to restrain my tears for 
twelve years! But he has hardened his heart towards me; why should 
I have anything to do with him any more.'^" And then and there,^ 

1 See Majjhima 23: i. 142-145. 



-N.3.14910] *'And hate not his father and mother*' 359 

uprooting affection for her son, on that very day she attained 
Arahatship. 

Some time afterwards the monks began a discussion in the Hall 
of Truth: "Devadatta all but destroyed Kumara Kassapa, endowed 
with the faculties requisite for Conversion, and the nun his mother; 
but the Teacher became their refuge. Oh, how great is the compassion 
of the Buddhas for the world!" [148] At that moment the Teacher 
approached and asked them, "Monks, what subject are you discussing 
now, as you sit here all gathered together?" When they told him, he 
said, "Monks, this is not the first time I have been their refuge and 
defense. I was their refuge in a previous state of existence also." 
So saying, he related the Nigrodha Jataka ^ in detail: 

Follow only the Banyan deer; abide not with the Branch. 
Better death with the Banyan deer than life with the Branch. 

Then said the Teacher, identifying the characters in the Jataka, 
"At that time the Branch deer was Devadatta, and the herd of the 
Branch deer was the retinue of Devadatta; the doe that reached her 
turn was the nun; her fawn was Kumara Kassapa; and the Banyan 
deer, the king of the deer, who offered his life for the doe with young, 
was I myself." 

And praising the nun for uprooting affection for her son and for 
establishing herself as a refuge for herself, he said, "Monks, inasmuch 
as the goal of heaven or the goal of the Paths which one man has 
earned for himself cannot become the property of another, therefore 
self is the refuge of self. How can one man be the refuge of another.'^ " 
So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

160. For self is the refuge of self. 

Indeed, how can one man be the refuge of another? 

For by his own well-tamed self 

A man gains for himself a refuge which is hard to gain. 



Xn. 5. KILLING OF MAHA KALA ^ 

The evil done by self. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to a 
certain lay disciple named Maha Kala, who had attained the Fruit 
of Conversion. [149] 

1 Jataka 12: i. 149-153. 

2 Cf. story xii. 9, and Thera-Gdthd Commentary, cxxi and ccxliv. Text: N iii. 
149-152. 



360 



Book 12, Story 5. Dhammapada 161 [N.3.i49ii- 



The story goes that on the eighth day of the month Maha Kala 
took upon himself the obligations of Fast-day, and spent the entire 
night at the monastery listening to the Law, Now during the night 
some thieves broke into a certain house and began to gather up spoils. 
The owners, awakened by the rattling of iron vessels, set out in pur- 
suit of the thieves. Finding that they were pursued, the thieves 
began to throw away what they had stolen, but the owners pursued 
them all the same. When the pursuers came in sight, the thieves 
scattered in all directions, one of them taking the road leading to 
the monastery. 

Now early in the morning, Maha Kala, who had listened all night 
long to the preaching of the Law, was bathing his face on the bank 
of the monastery pool. As the thief came along, he threw his spoils 
down before Maha Kala and then continued his flight. When the 
men who were pursuing the thieves came up and saw the stolen goods 
lying before Maha Kala, they said to him, "So you are the man who 
broke into our house and stole our property ! Yet here you are acting 
as though you had been listening to the Law!" [150] And seizing him, 
they beat him to death, and having thrown his dead body aside, 
departed. 

Early in the morning when the young monks and novices set out 
from the monastery with water-pots in hand, they discovered the 
dead body of Maha Kala. And straightway they reported the matter 
to the Teacher, saying, "This lay disciple spent the night at the 
monastery listening to the Law and met death contrary to his deserts." 
The Teacher replied, "It is quite true, monks, that Kala's death was 
quite undeserved, if one considers only the present state of existence. 
But what he received was in exact conformity with an evil deed he 
committed in a previous state of existence." Then, in compliance 
with a request of the monks, the Teacher related the following 



5 a. Story of the Past : The soldier and the man with a 
beautiful wife 

Long, long ago, the story goes, there was a certain frontier village 
in the country of the king of Benares, and a forest hard by, and at 
the entrance to the forest a band of thieves used to lie in wait for 
travelers. The king accordingly posted one of his soldiers at the 
entrance to the forest, and for a certain consideration this soldier 
would escort travelers into the forest and back again. 



-N .3.15111] Killing of Mahd Kola 361 

One day a certain man, accompanied by a beautiful wife, ap- 
proached the entrance to the forest in a small carriage. When the 
king's soldier saw this woman, he fell in love with her. Therefore, 
when the man said to him, "Sir, escort us through the forest," the 
soldier replied, "It is too late now; early in the morning I will 
escort you through the forest." But the traveler said, "We are 
in good season, sir; pray escort us through the forest immediately." 
"Sir, you must turn back; you will find food and lodging in our 
house." The traveler did not wish to turn back, but the soldier 
gave a sign to his men, and they turned the carriage around. And 
in spite of the traveler's protests, the soldier lodged the man and 
his wife in the gate-house and caused food to be prepared for 
them. 

Now the soldier had a precious stone in his house, and this he 
caused to be placed in the traveler's carriage. When it was daybreak, 
he caused a sound to be made as though thieves were entering his 
house. Immediately afterwards his men came and reported to him, 
"Master, your precious stone has been carried off by thieves." There- 
upon the soldier posted guards at the gates of the village and gave 
orders to them as follows, "Search everybody who comes out of the 
village." 

Early in the morning the traveler harnessed his carriage [151] and 
set out. The soldier's hirelings stopped the carriage, searched it, and 
finding concealed therein the very stone which they themselves had 
placed there, reviled the traveler, saying, "It was you who stole 
the jewel, and having stolen it, are now running away." And having 
beaten the traveler soundly, they brought him before the headman 
of the village and said to him, "Master, we have caught the thief." 
Said the village headman, "After my good friend had lodged him in 
his house and given him food to eat, he stole his jewel and tried to 
run away. Take away this wicked fellow." And he had him beaten 
to death and his dead body cast away. 

This was his deed in a previous state of existence. When he passed 
out of that state of existence, he was reborn in the Avici Hell, and 
after suffering torment in hell for a long period of time, because the 
fruit of his evil deed was not yet exhausted, he was beaten to death 
in this manner in a hundred existences. End of Story of the Past. 

When the Teacher had thus related the evil deed committed by 
Maha Kala in a previous state of existence, he said, "Monks, it is 
only the evil which living beings here in the world commit that 



362 Booh 12, Story 6, Dhammapada 162 [N.3.15112- 

crushes them in the four states of suffering." So saying, he pro- 
nounced the following Stanza, 

161. The evil done by self, begotten by self, originating in self. 
Grinds a fool even as a diamond grinds a hard jewel. 



XII. 6. DEVADATTA SEEKS TO SLAY THE 
TATHAGATA ^ 

He whose wickedness has passed all hounds. This religious instruc- 
tion was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Veluvana 
with reference to Devadatta. [152] 

For on a certain day the monks began a discussion in the Hall 
of Truth: "Brethren, Devadatta, whose habit is wickedness, whose 
nature is evil, as evil desire waxed strong in him, solely because of his 
wicked nature, wormed himself into the favor of Ajatasattu, bestowed 
rich gain and high honor upon him, incited him to the murder of his 
father, and afterwards, conspiring with him, went about seeking by 
some means or other to slay the Tathagata." 

At that momeijt the Teacher drew near and asked them, "Monks, 
what are you discussing now as you sit here all gathered together.^^" 
When they told him, he said, "Monks, this is not the first time Deva- 
datta has gone about seeking by some means or other to slay me; he 
did the same thing in a previous state of existence also." So saying, 
he related the Kurunga Miga and other Jatakas. Then he said, 
"Monks, when a man allows his wickedness to pass beyond all bounds, 
the evil desire which springs up because of his wickedness, like a 
creeper which wraps itself about a Sal-tree and finally crushes it, 
flings him forth to Hell or to one of the other states of suffering." So 
saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, [153] 

162. He whose wickedness has passed all bounds, even as a creeper overspreads a 
Sal-tree, 
Makes himself that which his enemy would wish him to be. 

1 Cf. story i. 12 6. Text: N iii. 152-153. 



-N. 3. 1558] Devadatta seeks to slay the Tathdgata 363 

XII. 7. DEVADATTA SEEKS TO CAUSE A SCHISM IN 

THE ORDER! 

Easy to do. This religious instruction was given by the Teacher 
-while he was in residence at Veluvana with reference to Devadatta's 
going about for the purpose of causing a schism in the Order. [154] 

For on a certain day Devadatta went about to cause a schism in 
the Order, and seeing Venerable Ananda going his round for alms, 
informed him of his intention. When the Elder heard what Deva- 
datta said, he went to the Teacher and said this to the Exalted One: 
"Reverend Sir, this very morning I put on my undergarment, and 
taking bowl and robe, entered Rajagaha for alms. And, Reverend 
Sir, as I was going about Rajagaha for alms, Devadatta saw me. And 
seeing me, he drew near to where I was, and having drawn near to 
where I was, said this to me, *From this day forth, brother Ananda, I 
shall keep Fast-day and carry on the business of the Order apart 
from the Exalted One, apart from the Order of Monks.' To-day, 
Exalted One, Devadatta will rend the Order asunder, and will by 
himself keep Fast-day and carry on the business of the Order." There- 
upon the Teacher breathed forth the following Solemn Utterance, 

Easy to do for the good is the good; the good is hard for the evil to do; 
Evil is easy for the evil to do; evil is hard for the noble to do. 

Then said the Teacher, "Ananda, what is not good for one, is 
€asy to do; what is good for one, is hard to do." So saying, he pro- 
nounced the following Stanza, 

163. Easy to do are those things which are not good, and those things which are 
hurtful to oneself; 
But that which is salutary and good is exceedingly hard to do. 



XII. 8. THE JEALOUS MONK 2 

He that reviles the Religion of the Holy, This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to Elder Kala. [155] 

^ This story is derived from the Vinaya, Culla Vagga, vii. 3. 17: ii. 198""^^. Cf. 
also Uddna, v. 8: 60-61. Text: N iii. 154-155. 
2 Text: N iii. 155-156. 



364 



Book 12, Story 8. Dhammapada 16^ [N.3.1559- 



In Savatthi, the story goes, a certain woman used to minister to 
this Elder with the tenderness of a mother for a son. Now the family 
who lived in the house next door went one day to hear the Teacher 
preach the Law, and when they returned, they uttered words of praise, 
saying, "Oh, how wonderful are the virtues of the Buddhas! Oh, 
how pleasing is the preaching of the Law!" After listening to their 
words of praise, this woman said to the Elder, "Reverend Sir, I too 
wish to hear the Teacher preach the Law." But he dissuaded her from 
going, saying, "Do not go there." Likewise on the second day and 
on the third day he dissuaded her from going, but in spite of his 
efforts to dissuade her, she still desired to hear the Teacher preach 
the Law. 

Now why was it that he dissuaded her from going .^ This, we are 
told, was the thought in his mind, "If she hears the Teacher preach 
the Law, she will have no more use for me." One day early in the 
morning, after she had eaten her breakfast, she took upon herself 
the obligations of Fast-day and went to the monastery, enjoining 
the following command upon her daughter, "Dear daughter, minister 
faithfully to the noble Elder." When the Elder came to the house, 
the daughter served him with food. "Where has the eminent female 
lay disciple gone?" asked the Elder. "She has gone to the monastery 
to hear the Law," replied the daughter. [156] 

When the Elder heard that, the fire of hatred flamed up in his 
belly and consumed him. "Now she has broken with me," exclaimed 
the Elder, and went quickly to the monastery. When he saw the 
woman listen to the Teacher preaching the Law, he said to the Teacher, 
"Reverend Sir, this stupid woman does not understand your subtle 
discourse on the Law. One ought rather to preach to her on the duty 
of almsgiving and on the moral precepts." But the Teacher, perceiving 
his motive, said, "Vain man, because of your own false views, you 
revile the Religion of the Buddhas. But in so doing you strive only 
to your own hurt." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

164. He that reviles the Rehgion of the Holy, the Noble, the Righteous, 
Such a simpleton, by reason of his false views. 
Brings forth fruit to his own destruction, like the fruit of the katthaka reed. 



-N. 3. 1572s] The jealous monk 365 



XII. 9. COURTEZANS SAVE A LAYMAN'S LIFE ^ 

By self alone is evil done. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference 
to the lay disciple Culla Kala. [157] 

For on a certain day, just as in the story of Maha Kala, tunnel 
thieves were pursued by the owners of the stolen property. Now 
early in the morning the lay disciple Culla Kala, who had spent the 
night at the monastery listening to the Law, came out of the monastery 
and set out on the road to Savatthi. The thieves threw down the 
stolen property in front of that lay disciple and continued their flight. 
When the men pursuing the thieves saw the lay disciple, they cried 
out, "There is the man who played thief last night, acting as though 
he had been listening to the Law. Catch him!" So saying, they 
seized the lay disciple and beat him. 

Now some courtezans, on their way to the bathing-place on the 
river, saw the lay disciple and said to his captors, "Sirs, go your way; 
this man did nothing of the sort." So saying, they obtained his 
release. Thereupon the lay disciple went to the monastery and told 
the monks what had happened, saying, "Reverend Sirs, I should 
have been killed by some men, had not some courtezans saved my 
life." The monks repeated the story to the Tathagata. The Teacher 
listened to the story and said, "Monks, the lay disciple Culla Kala's 
life was indeed saved, both through the intercession of courtezans 
and because he was himself guiltless. For living beings here in the 
world, by reason of the evil deeds which they themselves commit, of 
themselves suffer in hell and in the other states of suffering. But 
they that do good works of themselves obtain Salvation and go to 
heaven and to Nibbana." So saying, he pronounced the following 
Stanza, 

165. By self alone is evil done, by self alone does one suffer. 

By self alone is evil left undone, by self alone does one obtain Salvation. 
Salvation and Perdition depend upon self; no man can save another. 

1 Cf. story xii. 5, and Thera-Gdthd Commentary, cxxi and ccxliv. Text: N iii. 157-158. 



366 Book 12, Story 10. Dhammapada 166 [N .3.15812- 



XII. 10. BY RIGHTEOUSNESS MEN HONOR THE 

BUDDHA 1 

Let a man not neglect his own good for that of another. This religious 
instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at 
Jetavana with reference to Elder Attadattha. [158] 

For when the Teacher was about to pass into Nibbana, he said 
to his disciples, "Monks, four months hence I shall pass into Nibbana." 
Thereupon seven hundred monks who had not yet attained the Fruit 
of Conversion were deeply moved, and never leaving the Teacher's 
side, whispered to each other, "Brethren, what are we to do?" But 
Elder Attadattha thought to himself, "The Teacher says that four 
months hence he is to pass into Nibbana. Now I have not yet freed 
myself from the power of the evil passions. Therefore so long as the 
Teacher yet remains alive, I will strive with all my might for the 
attainment of Arahatship." Accordingly Elder Attadattha went 
no more with the monks. 

Now the monks said to him, "Brother, why is it that you thus 
avoid our company and no more talk with us.^^" And conducting 
Elder Attadattha to the Teacher, they laid the matter before him, 
saying, "Reverend Sir, this Elder does thus and so." The Teacher 
asked Elder Attadattha, "Why do you act thus.?" The Elder replied, 
"Reverend Sir, you have said that [159] four months hence you are 
to pass into Nibbana; and I have determined that so long as you yet 
remain alive, I will strive with all my might for the attainment of 
Arahatship." 

The Teacher applauded him for his wise decision and said to the 
monks, "Monks, whosoever sincerely loves me should be like Elder 
Attadattha. For truly they honor me not who honor me with perfumes 
and garlands. They only honor me who fulfill the higher and the lower 
Law; therefore others also should follow the example of Elder Atta- 
dattha." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

166. Let a man not neglect his own good for the good of another, however important. 
A man should learn what is good for himself and apply himself thereto with 
diligence. 

1 Cf. stories xv. 7 and xxv. 4, and Digha 16: ii. 138. Text: N iii. 158-160. 



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